Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Parental Leave: The authorized absence from work of either parent prior to and after the birth of their child. It includes also absence because of the illness of a child or at the time of the adoption of a child. It does not include leave for care of siblings, parents, or other family members: for this FAMILY LEAVE is available.Work Capacity Evaluation: Assessment of physiological capacities in relation to job requirements. It is usually done by measuring certain physiological (e.g., circulatory and respiratory) variables during a gradually increasing workload until specific limitations occur with respect to those variables.Family Leave: The authorized absence from work of a family member to attend the illness or participate in the care of a parent, a sibling, or other family member. For the care of a parent for a child or for pre- or postnatal leave of a parent, PARENTAL LEAVE is available.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Pensions: Fixed sums paid regularly to individuals.Return to Work: Resumption of normal work routine following a hiatus or period of absence due to injury, disability, or other reasons.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Insurance, Disability: Insurance designed to compensate persons who lose wages because of illness or injury; insurance providing periodic payments that partially replace lost wages, salary, or other income when the insured is unable to work because of illness, injury, or disease. Individual and group disability insurance are two types of such coverage. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p207)SwedenEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Sick Building Syndrome: A group of symptoms that are two- to three-fold more common in those who work in large, energy-efficient buildings, associated with an increased frequency of headaches, lethargy, and dry skin. Clinical manifestations include hypersensitivity pneumonitis (ALVEOLITIS, EXTRINSIC ALLERGIC); allergic rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL); ASTHMA; infections, skin eruptions, and mucous membrane irritation syndromes. Current usage tends to be less restrictive with regard to the type of building and delineation of complaints. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Work: Productive or purposeful activities.Workload: The total amount of work to be performed by an individual, a department, or other group of workers in a period of time.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.NorwayBurnout, Professional: An excessive stress reaction to one's occupational or professional environment. It is manifested by feelings of emotional and physical exhaustion coupled with a sense of frustration and failure.Personnel Downsizing: Reducing staff to cut costs or to achieve greater efficiency.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Job Satisfaction: Personal satisfaction relative to the work situation.Euthyroid Sick Syndromes: Conditions of abnormal THYROID HORMONES release in patients with apparently normal THYROID GLAND during severe systemic illness, physical TRAUMA, and psychiatric disturbances. It can be caused by the loss of endogenous hypothalamic input or by exogenous drug effects. The most common abnormality results in low T3 THYROID HORMONE with progressive decrease in THYROXINE; (T4) and TSH. Elevated T4 with normal T3 may be seen in diseases in which THYROXINE-BINDING GLOBULIN synthesis and release are increased.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Social Security: Government sponsored social insurance programs.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.Certification: Compliance with a set of standards defined by non-governmental organizations. Certification is applied for by individuals on a voluntary basis and represents a professional status when achieved, e.g., certification for a medical specialty.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Arm Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the arm.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Social Work, Psychiatric: Use of all social work processes in the treatment of patients in a psychiatric or mental health setting.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Work Schedule Tolerance: Physiological or psychological effects of periods of work which may be fixed or flexible such as flexitime, work shifts, and rotating shifts.Guilt: Subjective feeling of having committed an error, offense or sin; unpleasant feeling of self-criticism. These result from acts, impulses, or thoughts contrary to one's personal conscience.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.DenmarkSomatoform Disorders: Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)FinlandPhysical Therapists: Persons trained in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY to make use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Occupational Therapy: Skilled treatment that helps individuals achieve independence in all facets of their lives. It assists in the development of skills needed for independent living.Joint DiseasesRegression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Workers' Compensation: Insurance coverage providing compensation and medical benefits to individuals because of work-connected injuries or disease.Personnel Turnover: A change or shift in personnel due to reorganization, resignation, or discharge.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Quarantine: Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Slovenia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular: A thyroid neoplasm of mixed papillary and follicular arrangement. Its biological behavior and prognosis is the same as that of a papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1271)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Retirement: The state of being retired from one's position or occupation.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Intervention Studies: Epidemiologic investigations designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relation by modifying the supposed causal factor(s) in the study population.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.GermanyHuman Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.BelgiumClinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Sick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.Swedish Social Insurance Agency: The Swedish Social Insurance Agency () is a government agency in Sweden that administers social insurance in Sweden.Natural experiment: A natural experiment is an empirical study in which individuals (or clusters of individuals) exposed to the experimental and control conditions are determined by nature or by other factors outside the control of the investigators, yet the process governing the exposures arguably resembles random assignment. Thus, natural experiments are observational studies and are not controlled in the traditional sense of a randomized experiment.Sick sinus syndromeFlorida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation: Florida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation is a federal-state program in the U.S.Pensioner: A pensioner is a person who collects a pension, most commonly because of a retirement from the workforce. This is a term typically used in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Australia where someone of pensionable age may also be referred to as an 'old age pensioner', or OAP.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Meredith EatonClimate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Andrea Arntzen: Carla Andrea Arntzen (29 August 1875 – 13 April 1958) was a Norwegian nursing teacher, and co-founder of the Norwegian Nurses' Union.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaBasic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.Indoor bioaerosol: Indoor bioaerosol is bioaerosol in an indoor environment. Bioaerosols are natural or artificial particles of biological (microbial, plant, or animal) origin suspended in the air.Low back painHospital of Southern Norway: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]Appeal to accomplishment: Appeal to accomplishment is a genetic fallacy wherein Person A challenges a thesis put forward by Person B because Person B has not accomplished similar feats or accomplished as many feats as Person C or Person A.International Disability and Development Consortium: The International Disability and Development Consortium (IDDC) is a global consortium of disability and development related organisations. The aim of IDDC is to promote inclusive development internationally, with a special focus on promoting human rights for all disabled people living in economically poor communities in lower and middle-income countries.Avijit Lahiri: Avijit Lahiri is a researcher in cardiology[http://www.journals.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Job satisfaction: Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in many different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of jobs, such as nature of work or supervision.Euthyroid sick syndromeSupplemental Security Income: Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a United States government program that provides stipends to low-income people who are either aged (65 or older), blind, or disabled.(SSA "Supplemental Security Income (SSI)" p.Rehetobel: Rehetobel is a municipality in the canton of Appenzell Ausserrhoden in Switzerland.Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation: The Oncology Nursing Certification Corporation (ONCC) was established for the development, administration, and evaluation of a program for certification in oncology nursing. Incorporated in 1984 and governed by a board of directors, ONCC is the certifying body for oncology nursing and meets standards established by the Accreditation Board for Specialty Nursing Certification and the National Commission for Certifying Agencies.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingMultiple disabilitiesJournal of Musculoskeletal Pain: The Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain is a quarterly Peer review-peer-reviewed medical journal covering research on chronic muscle and bone pain, including fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, and other types of musculoskeletal pain. It is published by Informa Healthcare.Occupational Medicine (journal): Occupational Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering occupational medicine, including occupational health psychology and organizational psychology that is published eight times per year by Oxford University Press. It covers "work-related injury and illness, accident and illness prevention, health promotion, occupational disease, health education, the establishment and implementation of health and safety standards, monitoring of the work environment, and the management of recognized hazards".Sandra Sully (songwriter): Sandra Sully is a songwriter who co-wrote Bobby Womack's "If You Think You're Lonely Now". BMI Website, Songwriter Sandra Sully In 2006 she was credited as a co-writer of Mariah Carey's Grammy Award–winning song "We Belong Together" which incorporated part of "If You're Think You're Lonely Now".Hands of a Working Man: "Hands of a Working Man" is a song written by D. Vincent Williams and Jim Collins, and recorded by American country music artist Ty Herndon.Mental disorderSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Shift work: Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of, or provide service across, all 24 hours of the clock each day of the week (abbreviated as 24/7). The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which different groups of workers perform their duties.Vincible ignorance: Vincible ignorance is, in Catholic ethics, a moral or doctrinal matter that could have been removed by diligence reasonable to the circumstances. It contrasts with invincible ignorance, which can not be removed at all, or only by supererogatory efforts (i.Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University): The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Car tuningCross-training (business)Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Occupational therapy in SeychellesRegression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Office of Workers' Compensation Programs: The Office of Workers' Compensation Programs administers four major disability compensation programs which provide wage replacement benefits, medical treatment, vocational rehabilitation and other benefits to certain workers or their dependents who experience work-related injury or occupational disease.http://www.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.QuarantineOrganic semiconductor: An organic semiconductor is an organic material with semiconductor properties, that is, with an electrical conductivity between that of insulators and that of metals. Single molecules, oligomers, and organic polymers can be semiconductive.List of birds of Slovenia: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Slovenia. The avifauna of Slovenia include a total of 376 species, of which four have been introduced by humans and five are rare or accidental.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney: Anglican Retirement Villages, Diocese of Sydney (ARV) is a not-for-profit public benevolent institution formed in 1959. This inception date places ARV as one of the founding entities of the social service now referred to as retirement or seniors living.Exhaust systemIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:DenplanBaden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Human factors and ergonomics: Human factors and ergonomics (HF&E), also known as comfort design, functional design, and user-friendly systems,Ergonomics in Thesaurus.com is the practice of designing products, systems or processes to take proper account of the interaction between them and the people who use them.Chronic painPain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Meridian of Antwerp: The meridan of Antwerp is one of several prime meridians that have been used for geographic referencing. It is running through the city of Antwerp, in Flanders, Belgium, and forming the 0° longitude upon which some Belgian maps were based.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.
(1/934) A chiropractic service arrangement for musculoskeletal complaints in industry: a pilot study.
Chiropractic services are commonly used by workers with musculoskeletal problems, especially low back and neck complaints. Research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach is, however, difficult to design without prior pilot studies. This study followed 32 workers with these complaints attending one such service and used five measures of outcome over a 6-month period. These measured pain (VAS), disability (FLP), quality of life (SF-36), perceived benefit and satisfaction with care. Additionally, sickness costs to the companies were recorded over two years encompassing the study period. Treatment utilization was also monitored. Over half the population were chronic sufferers. The effect sizes were large for pain and for seven out of eight dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire at 6-month follow-up, although not for disability (FLP). High levels of satisfaction and perceived improvement were reported and sickness costs to the companies fell. However, the sample size in this pilot study was small and did not include controls. We would, therefore, recommend a full cost-effectiveness study incorporating a randomized trial in this area. (+info)
(2/934) The impact of welfare reform on parents' ability to care for their children's health.
OBJECTIVES: Most of the national policy debate regarding welfare assumed that if middle-income mothers could balance work while caring for their children's health and development, mothers leaving welfare for work should be able to do so as well. Yet, previous research has not examined the conditions faced by mothers leaving welfare for work. METHODS: Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this study examined the availability of benefits that working parents commonly use to meet the health and developmental needs of their children; paid sick leave, vacation leave, and flexible hours. RESULTS: In comparison with mothers who had never received welfare, mothers who had been on Aid to Families with Dependent Children were more likely to be caring for at least 1 child with a chronic condition (37% vs 21%, respectively). Yet, they were more likely to lack sick leave for the entire time they worked (36% vs 20%) and less likely to receive other paid leave or flexibility. CONCLUSIONS: If current welfare recipients face similar conditions when they return to work, many will face working conditions that make it difficult or impossible to succeed in the labor force at the same time as meeting their children's health and developmental needs. (+info)
(3/934) Prognosis of accidental low back pain at work.
Accidental low back pain at the workplace was classified into two groups; 177 cases of the organic type and 176 cases of the non-specific type. Concerning the recuperation period, the length of leave, and the amount of compensation for recuperation, medical cost and leave of absence, a comparison was made between two groups. Regarding age, sex, and the type of work, no difference was found between the organic and the non-specific groups. However, the non-specific group showed lower values than the organic one for the duration of recuperation and leave and the amount of compensation for medical cost and leave of absence. Multiple regression analysis showed that the difference in the type of low back pain had more influence on the duration and cost than that in sex and age. The prognosis of non-specific low back pain is better than that of organic one in terms of cost and duration. (+info)
(4/934) Back pain prevalence in US industry and estimates of lost workdays.
OBJECTIVES: Back pain is the most common reason for filing workers' compensation claims and often causes lost workdays. Data from the 1988 National Health Interview Survey were analyzed to identify high-risk industries and to estimate the prevalence of work-related back pain and number of workdays lost. METHODS: Analyses included 30074 respondents who worked during the 12 months before the interview. A case patient was defined as a respondent who had back pain every day for a week or more during that period. RESULTS: The prevalence of lost-workday back pain was 4.6%, and individuals with work-related cases lost 101.8 million workdays owing to back pain. Male and female case patients lost about the same number of workdays. Industries in high-risk categories were also identified for future research and intervention, including those seldom studied. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides statistically reliable national estimates of the prevalence of back pain among workers and the enormous effect of this condition on American industry in terms of lost workdays. (+info)
(5/934) Are risk factors for atherothrombotic disease associated with back pain sickness absence? The Whitehall II Study.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To explore the previously stated hypothesis that risk factors for atherothrombotic disease are associated with back pain. DESIGN: Prospective (mean of four years of follow up) and retrospective analyses using two main outcome measures: (a) short (< or = 7 days) and long (> 7 days) spells of sickness absence because of back pain reported separately in men and women; (b) consistency of effect across the resulting four duration of spell and sex cells. SETTING: 14 civil service departments in London. PARTICIPANTS: 3506 male and 1380 female white office-based civil servants, aged 35-55 years at baseline. MAIN RESULTS: In age adjusted models, low apo AI was associated with back pain across all four duration-sex cells and smoking was associated across three cells. Six factors were associated with back pain in two cells: low exercise and high BMI, waist-hip ratio, triglycerides, insulin and Lp(a). On full adjustment (for age, BMI, employment grade and back pain at baseline), each of these factors retained a statistically significant effect in at least one duration-sex cell. Triglycerides were associated with short and long spells of sickness absence because of back pain in men in fully adjusted models with rate ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 1.53 (1.1, 2.1) and 1.75 (1.0, 3.2) respectively. There was little or no evidence of association in age adjusted models with: fibrinogen, glucose tolerance, total cholesterol, apoB, hypertension, factor VII, von Willebrand factor, electrocardiographic evidence of coronary heart disease and reported angina. CONCLUSIONS: In this population of office workers, only modest support was found for an atherothrombotic component to back pain sickness absence. However, the young age of participants at baseline and the lack of distinction between different types of back pain are likely to bias the findings toward null. Further research is required to ascertain whether a population sub-group of atherothrombotic back pain can be identified. (+info)
(6/934) Longitudinal, population-based study of self reported alcohol habits, high levels of sickness absence, and disability pensions.
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relation between self reported hazardous drinking on the one hand and high sickness absence and/or disability pensions in both sexes on the other hand. DESIGN: The study is based on data from a health survey, Stockholm Health of the Population Study, conducted in 1984. The mailed questionnaire covered alcohol consumption. Three different measures of alcohol habits were used: usual alcohol consumption, consumption during the previous week, and answers to the four CAGE questions on problem drinking. Information from the health survey and data from a subsequent health examination were related to information from the National Swedish Social Insurance Board for the year 1984 and the years 1986 to 1991 concerning sick leave and disability pensioning. SETTING: Four primary health care districts in Stockholm County. PARTICIPANTS: The study group included persons who were aged 20 to 52 years in 1984, who answered the questionnaire (by mail or by telephone), and who participated in the health examination. The study group comprised 985 women and 870 men fulfilling the criteria for inclusion out of 6217 subjects aged 18 years and over randomly drawn. MAIN RESULTS: In both sexes, a consistent pattern of increased sickness absence was seen for high consumers and for those with indications of problem drinking. In most comparisons, a clearly increased relative risk, although not always statistically significant, for an average of at least 60 sick days per year or for a disability pension during follow up was found. In multivariate analysis, controlling for age, socioeconomic group, smoking habits, and self reported health, a small reduction in the relative risks was found, suggesting that these factors could explain only a small part of the relative risks. The risks for abstainers were higher than for low and moderate consumers. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of alcohol on subsequent high levels of sickness absence five to seven years after baseline as well as on the occurrence of disability pensions suggested that there is an effect on working incapacity independent of baseline health status, smoking, and socioeconomic group. (+info)
(7/934) Relation between indicators for quality of occupational rehabilitation of employees with low back pain.
OBJECTIVES: To assess if the implementation of guidelines for occupational rehabilitation of patients with low back pain by means of process variables--a set of objective criteria for technical performance and continuity of care--led to a better outcome in clinical and return to work variables. METHODS: The study group consisted of 59 patients with at least 10 days of sick leave because of low back pain. Univariate analyses as well as multiple logistic regression and Cox's regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quality of care and outcome. RESULTS: Process indicators for technical competence, continuity of care, and total performance were all significantly related to satisfaction of employees. Continuity of care and total performance were significantly related to working status at 3 months, and time to return to work. None of the process indicators was related to pain or disability after 3 months follow up. Satisfaction was not related to any of the other outcome variables. This indicates that if guidelines for occupational rehabilitation are met, outcome is better. CONCLUSION: Quality of the process of care was related to outcome. Interventions of occupational physicians need improvement in the areas of continuity of care and communication with treating physicians. The effectiveness of an improved intervention should be studied in a subsequent randomised clinical trial. (+info)
(8/934) Follow up investigation of workers in synthetic fibre plants with humidifier disease and work related asthma.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and sociomedical outcome in patients with various clinical manifestations of humidifier disease and work related asthma after removal from further exposure. METHODS: Follow up investigation (range 1-13 years) of respiratory symptoms, spirometry, airway responsiveness, sickness absence, and working situation in patients with (I) humidifier fever (n = 12), (II) obstructive type of humidifier lung (n = 8), (III) restrictive type of humidifier lung (n = 4), and (IV) work related asthma (n = 22). All patients were working at departments in synthetic fibre plants with microbiological exposure from contaminated humidification systems or exposure to small particles (< 1 micron) of oil mist. RESULTS: At follow up patients with work related asthma were less often symptom free (37%, 7/19) than patients with humidifier disease (I, II, III) (67%, 16/24). Mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of patients with obstructive impairment had been increased significantly at follow up but still remained below the predicted value. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) of patients with initially restrictive impairment had returned to normal values at follow up. Airway hyperresponsiveness at diagnosis persisted in patients with obstructive impairment (II + IV 14/17, but disappeared in patients with humidifier fever (3/3) and restrictive type of humidifier lung (2/2). In patients with obstructive impairment (II + IV), FVC and FEV1 at diagnosis were negatively associated with the duration between onset of symptoms and diagnosis and the number of years of exposure. Those with positive pre-employment history of respiratory disease had a lower FEV1 at diagnosis. Sickness absence due to respiratory symptoms decreased in all groups of patients after removal from further exposure, but this was most impressive in patients with the humidifier lung (II, III) and patients with work related asthma (IV). At follow up 83% of the patients were still at work at the same production site, whereas 11% received a disability pension because of respiratory disease. CONCLUSION: In patients with work related respiratory disease caused by exposure from contaminated humidification systems or oil mist, removal from further exposure resulted in clinical improvement, although, especially in those with obstructive impairment, signs persisted. Because of the possibility of transferring patients to exposure-free departments most patients could be kept at work. (+info)