Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Religion and SexContraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Courtship: Activities designed to attract the attention or favors of another.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Compulsive Behavior: The behavior of performing an act persistently and repetitively without it leading to reward or pleasure. The act is usually a small, circumscribed behavior, almost ritualistic, yet not pathologically disturbing. Examples of compulsive behavior include twirling of hair, checking something constantly, not wanting pennies in change, straightening tilted pictures, etc.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Paraphilias: Disorders that include recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering of oneself or partners, or children or other nonconsenting partners. (from DSM-IV, 1994)Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Erotica: Literary or artistic items having an erotic theme. It refers especially to books treating sexual love in a sensuous or voluptuous manner. (Webster, 3d ed)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Orgasm: The climax of sexual excitement in either humans or animals.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Coturnix: A genus of BIRDS in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES, containing the common European and other Old World QUAIL.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Homosexuality, Female: Sexual attraction or relationship between females.United StatesAcquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Social Values: Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Nesting Behavior: Animal behavior associated with the nest; includes construction, effects of size and material; behavior of the adult during the nesting period and the effect of the nest on the behavior of the young.Amyl Nitrite: A vasodilator that is administered by inhalation. It is also used recreationally due to its supposed ability to induce euphoria and act as an aphrodisiac.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Ventromedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Drinking Behavior: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of water and other liquids; includes rhythmic patterns of drinking (time intervals - onset and duration), frequency and satiety.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Social Conformity: Behavioral or attitudinal compliance with recognized social patterns or standards.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Incest: Sexual intercourse between persons so closely related that they are forbidden by law to marry.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.GeorgiaSex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.FloridaLibido: The psychic drive or energy associated with sexual instinct in the broad sense (pleasure and love-object seeking). It may also connote the psychic energy associated with instincts in general that motivate behavior.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.San FranciscoPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.New York CityMasturbation: Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Social Behavior Disorders: Behaviors which are at variance with the expected social norm and which affect other individuals.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.PrisonersTransgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological: Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.Permissiveness: The attitude that grants freedom of expression and activity to another individual, but not necessarily with sanction or approval.Juvenile Delinquency: The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Illness Behavior: Coordinate set of non-specific behavioral responses to non-psychiatric illness. These may include loss of APPETITE or LIBIDO; disinterest in ACTIVITIES OF DAILY LIVING; or withdrawal from social interaction.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Reproductive Behavior: Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Student Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological: Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Penile Erection: The state of the PENIS when the erectile tissue becomes filled or swollen (tumid) with BLOOD and causes the penis to become rigid and elevated. It is a complex process involving CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS; HORMONES; SMOOTH MUSCLES; and vascular functions.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Aromatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the desaturation (aromatization) of the ring A of C19 androgens and converts them to C18 estrogens. In this process, the 19-methyl is removed. This enzyme is membrane-bound, located in the endoplasmic reticulum of estrogen-producing cells of ovaries, placenta, testes, adipose, and brain tissues. Aromatase is encoded by the CYP19 gene, and functions in complex with NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE in the cytochrome P-450 system.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Social Control, Informal: Those forms of control which are exerted in less concrete and tangible ways, as through folkways, mores, conventions, and public sentiment.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.ChicagoReward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Pleasure: Sensation of enjoyment or gratification.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Homeless Youth: Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.

*  A sweeping survey of Americans' sexual behavior
Among the findings of a sweeping federal government survey of American sexual behavior is one that may surprise those bewailing ... Among the findings of a sweeping federal government survey of American sexual behavior is one that may surprise those bewailing ... Many, many young people have been very receptive to the message of delaying sexual activity,' Albert said. 'There's no doubt ... Single women and then men were later included, as were more detailed questions about sexual practices. ...
  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2011/03/03/AR2011030302877.html?hpid=topnews
*  Subsidized Contraception, Fertility, and Sexual Behavior
... Melissa S. Kearney, Phillip B. Levine. NBER Working Paper No. 13045. ... "Subsidized Contraception, Fertility, and Sexual Behavior," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(1), pages ... to examine the impact of these policies on sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Evidence from this analysis suggests that the ...
  http://www.nber.org/papers/w13045
*  Behavior OnLine - Re:Human sexual behavior
Re:Human sexual behavior, by added note by curious, 05/16/02 *. Re:Human sexual behavior, by Roper, 05/16/02 *. Re:Human sexual ... Re:Human sexual behavior Roper · 05/16/02 at 12:18 ET I been following this discussion and Curious you sure want to sound like ... Behavior OnLine Home Page , Disclaimer ,. Copyright © 1996-2004 Behavior OnLine, Inc. All rights reserved. ... Re:Human sexual behavior, by curious, 05/16/02 *. ...
  http://www.behavior.net/forums/bolgeneral/1999/msg3858.html
*  dreddyclinic.com - Compulsive sexual behavior
Such behavior may be an indicator of compulsive sexual behavior. ... Sexual expression is natural, but an intense preoccupation with ... If your sexual behavior is compulsive, you may display it in a number of ways, including:. * Having multiple sexual partners or ... Sexual addiction is an overwhelming desire to have sex.. Sexual behavior becomes a problem and is considered an addiction when ... People with compulsive sexual behavior often use sex as an escape from other problems, such as loneliness, depression, anxiety ...
  http://www.dreddyclinic.com/findinformation/ss/compulsivesexualbehavior.php
*  HIV and Sexual Behavior Change: Why Not Africa?
A simple model of sexual behavior choice among forward-looking individuals implies that behavioral response should be larger ... The response of sexual behavior to HIV in Africa is an important input to predicting the path of the epidemic and to focusing ... "HIV and Sexual Behavior Change: Why Not Africa?," NBER Working Papers 13049, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. ... "HIV and sexual behavior change: Why not Africa?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 35-49. ...
  https://ideas.repec.org/p/nbr/nberwo/13049.html
*  Sexual behavior in the human male (Boek, 1948) [WorldCat.org]
Sexual behavior in the human male. [Alfred C Kinsey; Wardell B Pomeroy; Clyde E Martin] -- Based on surveys made by members of ... behavior> # Sexual Behavior. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Sexual Behavior"@en ;. .. ... Age and sexual outlet --. Marital status and sexual outlet --. Age of adolescence and sexual outlet --. Social level and sexual ... Sexual behavior surveys--United States. a schema:Intangible ;. schema:name "Sexual behavior surveys--United States"@en ;. .. ...
  http://www.worldcat.org/title/sexual-behavior-in-the-human-male/oclc/259219?lang=nl
*  Neonatal Hormone Treatment and Adult Sexual Behavior in Rodents - Google Books
Physiol postnatal TP Preoptic Psychol rats treated reserpine scores sex behavior sexual behavior sexual differentiation sexual ... Neonatal Hormone Treatment and Adult Sexual Behavior in Rodents. Biology of Sex Series. ... intromission Levine lordosis behavior lordosis response lordotic male and female masculine behavior mice mounting behavior ... administered adult adulthood androgenic stimulation androstenedione animals Barraclough behavior tests blob brain cage control ...
  https://books.google.com/books?id=hO1qAAAAMAAJ&q=TP+on+Day&dq=related:ISBN0387976302&source=gbs_word_cloud_r&hl=en
*  Sexual Behavior is inclined towards monogamy, reveals survey
A world-wide survey which has sought to understand sexual behaviors has revealed, the abiding worries about the rise in pre- ... Sexual Behavior is inclined towards monogamy, reveals survey. by Medindia Content Team on November 1, 2006 at 4:16 PM Sexual ... A world-wide survey which has sought to understand sexual behaviors has revealed, the abiding worries about the rise in pre- ... Sexual activity among young single people tends to be sporadic, but is greater in industrialized countries." Kaye Wellings, of ...
  http://www.medindia.net/news/view_news_main.asp?x=15536
*  The Psychopharmacology of Sexual Behavior / Figure 2
The effects of b-endorphin or naloxone on measures of masculine sexual behavior. A: Infusions of b-endorphin into the preoptic ...
  http://www.acnp.org/g4/GN401000071/071_f2.htm
*  Tennessee Governor Passes Controversial 'Gateway Sexual Behavior' Law in Schools - ABC News
... exclusively and emphatically promote sexual risk avoidance through abstinence, regardless of a student's current of prior ... Bill Haslam has signed into law the controversial bill that would ban teachers from discussing any so-called gateway sexual ... are kissing and handholding the gateway to sexual activity? That's currently up for debate now that Tennessee Governor ... sexual behavior. Outside instructors or organizations who do discuss gateway sexual behavior in a sex ed class can be fined $ ...
  http://abcnews.go.com/US/tennessee-governor-passes-controversial-gateway-sexual-behavior-law/story?id=16335600
*  7-Year-Old Displays Inappropriate Sexual Behavior | Ask the Therapist
Hartwell-Walker, D. (2012). 7-Year-Old Displays Inappropriate Sexual Behavior. Psych Central. Retrieved on January 17, 2018, ... Home » Ask the Therapist » Relationships » Sexuality » 7-Year-Old Displays Inappropriate Sexual Behavior ... 7-Year-Old Displays Inappropriate Sexual Behavior. By Dr. Marie Hartwell-Walker ... psychcentral.com/ask-the-therapist/2012/06/26/7-year-old-displays-inappropriate-sexual-behavior/ ...
  https://psychcentral.com/ask-the-therapist/2012/06/26/7-year-old-displays-inappropriate-sexual-behavior/
*  Subsidized Contraception, Fertility, and Sexual Behavior by Melissa Kearney, Phillip Levine :: SSRN
Kearney, Melissa S. and Levine, Phillip B., Subsidized Contraception, Fertility, and Sexual Behavior (April 2007). NBER Working ... to examine the impact of these policies on sexual behavior and contraceptive use. Evidence from this analysis suggests that the ...
  https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=986895
*  Single gene is genetic switch for fly sexual behavior | EurekAlert! Science News
... discovered that females engineered to carry the male-specific splice form of fruitless engage in the complex courtship behavior ... The finding suggests that the "essential difference in sexual behavior between males and females lies in the functioning of ... versus the more holistic view that behavior is so complex that we can never learn anything meaningful about a behavior by ... A male fly's sexual courtship of a female fly is a complicated business of tapping, singing, wing vibration, and licking, but a ...
  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2005-06/cp-sgi052705.php
*  Sleep-Related Disorders Associated with Abnormal Sexual Behaviors | EmaxHealth
sexual vocalizations, libidinal hyperarousal, genital arousal, ictal orgasm, sexual automatisms, aggressive sexual behaviors) ... I. Parsomnias with abnormal sleep-related sexual behaviors (sexual vocalizations, masturbation, fondling another person, sexual ... 1. Genital-sensory sexual arousal without increased libidinal arousal; sexual behaviors C. Sleep-related painful erections and ... These abnormal sexual behaviors, which emerge during sleep, are referred to as "sleepsex" or "sexsomnia." ...
  https://www.emaxhealth.com/46/12611.html
*  PPT - Sexual Behavior PowerPoint Presentation - ID:92190
Abilitation of reproductive behavior. Dependent on a wide range of factors : neural mechanism hormones, pheromones and the ... Sexual Behavior. Introduction to reproductive activities. Requires : Processes of maturation Stimulation. ... sex refers to sexual anatomy and sexual behavior. gender refers to the state of being male or female. sexual behavior produces ... Human Sexuality -. sexual behaviors & commercial sex. what are atypical sexual behaviors?. paraphilia uncommon sexual ...
  https://www.slideserve.com/Sharon_Dale/sexual-behavior
*  Antiretroviral Therapy and Sexual Behavior in Uganda: A Cohort Study - TheBody.com
The current study examined evidence for sexual behavior change in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among participants ... Though risky sexual behavior among HIV-infected people rose on several indicators following ART initiation, it was not seen at ... Three-month data from 2002 to 2009 were used to examine associations between ART initiation timing and sexual behavior among ... "Policy makers are urged to intensify messages associating sexual behavior and HIV and to target both HIV-infected and ...
  http://www.thebody.com/content/art60859.html?nxtprv
*  Situational sexual behavior - Wikipedia
... they may engage in different sexual behaviors. One example of situational sexual behavior includes when people might not have ... or compels the behavior in question. This can also include situations where a person's usual sexual behavior may not be ... Situational sexual behavior differs from that which the person normally exhibits, due to a social environment that in some way ... The harem effect is one example of situational sexual behavior in which women confined to a harem or harem-like situation may ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_sexual_behavior
*  Risky sexual behavior - Wikipedia
Drug use is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Risky sexual behavior can be: sex without condom use mouth-to-genital ... Risky sexual behavior is the description of the activity that will increase the probability that a person engaging in sexual ... It can mean two similar things: the behavior itself, the description of the partner's behavior. The behavior could be ... and risky sexual behavior. Most Canadian and American adolescents aged 15 to 19 years describe having had sexual intercourse at ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Risky_sexual_behavior
*  NBC News fires Matt Lauer for 'inappropriate sexual behavior'
... inappropriate sexual behavior'- NEW YORK (AP) - The Latest on NBC News' firing of longtime ... NBC News fires Matt Lauer for 'inappropriate sexual behavior'. NBC News fires Matt Lauer for 'inappropriate sexual behavior' ... NEW YORK (AP) - The Latest on NBC News' firing of longtime "Today" show host Matt Lauer for "inappropriate sexual behavior" ( ... On Twitter Wednesday, Trump says "Wow, Matt Lauer was just fired from NBC for 'inappropriate sexual behavior in the workplace ...
  http://www.thewesterlysun.com/News/national/Matt-Lauer-is-the-latest-to-face-sexual-assault-allegations.html
*  Frontiers | Lacrimal gland removal impairs sexual behavior in mice | Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
... failed to modulate this sexual behavior. Nonetheless, ICR males did become competent to enhance lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 ... failed to modulate this sexual behavior. Nonetheless, ICR males did become competent to enhance lordosis behavior in C57BL/6 ... Reportedly, BALB/c males, that produce high level of ESP1 in the tear fluid, were shown to enhance the lordosis behavior in ... Reportedly, BALB/c males, that produce high level of ESP1 in the tear fluid, were shown to enhance the lordosis behavior in ...
  https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnana.2014.00101/full
*  Health Care POV - disturbing sexual behavior of female nurses
that should not be tolerated such behavior of nurses.imagine a nurse showing a sexual behavior to a patient that is really very ... disturbing sexual behavior of female nurses. Last post 01-12-2018, 2:57 AM by Bob h. 59 replies. ... it is ethically to right for nurse to show any sexual desires to the patients or any other person in the hospital. ... that boards of nursing are under great pressure to prosecute and revoke licenses of nurses who engage in this kind of behavior ...
  http://community.advanceweb.com/forums/4/102881/ShowThread.aspx
*  Archives of Sexual Behavior - Wikipedia
"Editorial Board", Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2008, retrieved 2013-06-03 "Home page", Archives of Sexual Behavior, 2008, ... The Archives of Sexual Behavior is a peer-reviewed academic journal in sexology. It is the official publication of the ... "Archives of Sexual Behavior". 2013 Journal Citation Reports. Web of Science (Science ed.). Thomson Reuters. 2014. Sexuality ... theoretical reviews and essays clinical case reports letters to the editor book reviews Archives of Sexual Behavior is ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archives_of_Sexual_Behavior
*  Patterns of Sexual Behavior - Wikipedia
Ford and Beach limited their definition of sexual behavior to "behavior involving stimulation and excitation of the sexual ... Ford and Beach conclude that there is a "basic mammalian capacity" for same-sex behavior. Patterns of Sexual Behavior has been ... Patterns of Sexual Behavior is a 1951 book by Clellan S. Ford and Frank A. Beach. In this work of scientific literature, the ... Patterns of Sexual Behavior was originally published by Harper & Brothers, New York in 1951. The following year, the work was ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patterns_of_Sexual_Behavior
*  Sensory organ, not brain, differentiates sexual behavior in some mammals
... have searched in vain for slivers of the brain that might drive the dramatic differences between male and female behavior. Now ... Sensory organ, not brain, differentiates sexual behavior in some mammals. August 5, 2007 in / For years, scientists have ... Eventually, the female mutants would replicate male sexual behavior by mounting the hapless males and thrusting. ... phys.org/news/2007-08-sensory-brain-differentiates-sexual-behavior.html ...
  https://phys.org/print105547052.html
*  High-Risk Sexual Behaviors of Young Adults: AIDS Prevention - Digital Library
Recent preventive behaviors were predicted in a LISREL Structural Equation Modeling analysis. ... heterosexual college students and predict their AIDS preventive behaviors from a larger sample of 662 college students. The ... Bloodgood, Martha Madden. High-Risk Sexual Behaviors of Young Adults: AIDS Prevention, dissertation, August 1994; Denton, Texas ... Recent preventive behaviors were predicted in a LISREL Structural Equation Modeling analysis. ...
  https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc277878/

Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Abstinence: Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to sexual abstinence, or abstinence from alcohol or food.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Retrograde ejaculationClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Median preoptic nucleus: The median preoptic nucleus is located dorsal to the other three nuclei of the preoptic area of the anterior hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is located just beneath the thalamus, the main sensory relay station of the nervous system, and is considered part of the limbic system, which also includes structures such as the hippocampus and the amygdala.Substance-related disorderCuriosity: Curiosity (from Latin curiosus "careful, diligent, curious," akin to cura "care") is a quality related to inquisitive thinking such as exploration, investigation, and learning, evident by observation in human and animal species. Curiosity is heavily associated with all aspects of human development, in which derives the process of learning and desire to acquire knowledge and skill.Dutch profanity: Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity by speakers of Dutch are based around various names for diseases.Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.Controlling Vice: Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883: Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998. It is the story of the strategies that the Minnesota police officers enforced in attempts to regulate prostitution in the late nineteenth century.Aphrodisiac: An aphrodisiac is a substance that, when consumed, increases sexual desire.Definition at thefreedictionary.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Dog aggression: Dog aggression is a term used by dog owners and breeders to describe canine-to-canine antipathy. Aggression itself is usually defined by canine behaviorists as "the intent to do harm".Metynnis argenteus: Metynnis argenteus is a species of serrasalmid endemic to the Tapajós River Basin in Brazil. It is one of the species known in the aquarium trade as the "silver dollar".QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Choice Collectables 1974–1997: Tales from the Dark Side Greatest Hits and Classic Collectables 1974-1997 is a compilation album by rock music group, Dragon, released in 1998. Disc one has the same track listing as Snake Eyes on the Paradise Greatest Hits 1976–1989, which was issued in the same year.Stigmatic-eligibilic paraphilia: Stigmatic-eligibilic paraphilias are desires whose objects "become eligible" to be desired because of, rather than despite, a stigma which they bear. The manifold manifestations of these paraphilias cover the broadest range of physical, intimate and social circumstance.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Prenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Erotica UK: Erotica was an adult, consumer exhibition held each November at Olympia, London, UK. A mainstream ‘lifestyle show’ aimed primarily at women and couples, visitors were encouraged to celebrate or re-kindle their relationships with goods and services aimed to enhance their love lives.Orgasm control: Orgasm control, also referred to as edging, peaking, or surfing,Extended Massive Orgasm, Steve and Vera Bodansky, (2000), pp. 91, 92, 94–98, ISBN 0-89793-289-7 is a sexual technique which may be practiced either alone or with a partner and involves the maintenance of a high level of sexual arousal for an extended period of time without reaching orgasm.Antenor Orrego Private UniversityOld World quail: Old World quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds in the pheasant family Phasianidae.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Sexual maturation disorderMakerere University School of MedicineSwadeshi Jagaran Manch: The Swadeshi Jagaran Manch or SJM is an economic wing of Sangh Parivar that again took the tool of Swadeshi advocated in India before its independence to destabilize the British Empire. SJM took to the promotion of Swadeshi (indigenous) industries and culture as a dote against LPG.Nest (protein structural motif): The Nest is a type of protein structural motif. Peptide nests are small anion-binding molecular features of proteins and peptides.AmylAwukudae Festival: Awukudae Festival (meaning: "Wednesday ceremony", or "sacred Wednesday") is a traditional Ashanti festival in Ashanti. Like the Akwasidae Festival, celebrated on a Sunday, Awukudae is part of the celebrations within the Adae Festival cycle.Barratt Waugh

(1/5263) Correlates of sexually transmitted bacterial infections among U.S. women in 1995.

CONTEXT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of bacterial origin such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Identifying behaviors and characteristics associated with infection may assist in preventing these often asymptomatic diseases and their sequelae. METHODS: Data from 9,882 sexually active women who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth describe the characteristics of women who report a history of infection with a bacterial STD or of treatment for PID. Multivariate analysis is used to determine which demographic characteristics and sexual and health-related behaviors affect the likelihood of infection or the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Overall, 6% of sexually active women reported a history of a bacterial STD, and 8% reported a history of PID. Women who first had sexual intercourse before age 15 were nearly four times as likely to report a bacterial STD, and more than twice as likely to report PID, as were women who first had sex after age 18. Having more than five lifetime sexual partners also was associated with both having an STD and having PID. PID was more common among women reporting a history of a bacterial STD (23%) than among women who reported no such history (7%). In multivariate analyses, age, race, age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners had a significant effect on the risk of a bacterial STD. Education, age, a history of IUD use, douching and a history of a bacterial STD had a significant impact on the risk of PID, but early onset of intercourse did not, and lifetime number of partners had only a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of characteristics and behaviors that place women at risk of infection with bacterial STDs is not uniform among groups of women. Further, the level of self-reported PID would suggest higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection than reported.  (+info)

(2/5263) Women's interest in vaginal microbicides.

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

(3/5263) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

(4/5263) Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women.

Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk.  (+info)

(5/5263) Sexual behaviour and papillomavirus exposure in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a population-based case-control study.

Sexual history is an established risk determinant for cervical neoplasia. It is not clear if human papillomavirus (HPV) exposure entirely explains the sexual behaviour-related risk or if other sexually transmitted agents may act as cofactors for HPV in carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether HPV exposure or HPV persistence explains the sexual history-related risk of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) using a population-based case-control study of most of the 254 women referred to colposcopy in the Vasterbotten county in Sweden because of an abnormal cervical smear during October 1993 to December 1995 and 320 age-matched women from the general population. The women were interviewed for sexual history and tested for presence of serum antibodies to HPV-16, -18 and -33 as well as for presence of HPV DNA in cervical brush samples. HPV-16, -18 and -33 seropositivity was specific for the corresponding type of HPV DNA, dependent on the lifetime sexual history and associated with a two- to threefold increased risk of CIN 3. There was no sexual history-related risk of CIN among HPV-seropositive women and adjustment for HPV DNA presence explained the sexual history-related risk of CIN. In conclusion, HPV exposure appeared to explain the sexual history-related risk of high-grade CIN.  (+info)

(6/5263) Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions.

Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively active period of people's lives and, second, the extent to which market value influences individual's willingness to make strong demands of prospective mates. We show that female market value is determined principally by women's fecundity (and, to a lesser extent, reproductive value), while male market value is determined by men's earning potential and the risk of future pairbond termination (the conjoint probability that the male will either die or divorce his partner during the next 20 years). We then show that these selection preferences strongly influence the levels of demands that men and women make of prospective partners (although older males tend to overestimate their market value).  (+info)

(7/5263) Safer sex strategies for women: the hierarchical model in methadone treatment clinics.

Women clients of a methadone maintenance treatment clinic were targeted for an intervention aimed to reduce unsafe sex. The hierarchical model was the basis of the single intervention session, tested among 63 volunteers. This model requires the educator to discuss and demonstrate a full range of barriers that women might use for protection, ranking these in the order of their known efficacy. The model stresses that no one should go without protection. Two objections, both untested, have been voiced against the model. One is that, because of its complexity, women will have difficulty comprehending the message. The second is that, by demonstrating alternative strategies to the male condom, the educator is offering women a way out from persisting with the male condom, so that instead they will use an easier, but less effective, method of protection. The present research aimed at testing both objections in a high-risk and disadvantaged group of women. By comparing before and after performance on a knowledge test, it was established that, at least among these women, the complex message was well understood. By comparing baseline and follow-up reports of barriers used by sexually active women before and after intervention, a reduction in reports of unsafe sexual encounters was demonstrated. The reduction could be attributed directly to adoption of the female condom. Although some women who had used male condoms previously adopted the female condom, most of those who did so had not used the male condom previously. Since neither theoretical objection to the hierarchical model is sustained in this population, fresh weight is given to emphasizing choice of barriers, especially to women who are at high risk and relatively disempowered. As experience with the female condom grows and its unfamiliarity decreases, it would seem appropriate to encourage women who do not succeed with the male condom to try to use the female condom, over which they have more control.  (+info)

(8/5263) Lifetime prevalence, characteristics, and associated problems of non-consensual sex in men: cross sectional survey.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the lifetime prevalence of non-consensual sexual experiences in men, the relationship between such experiences as a child and as an adult, associated psychological and behavioural problems, and help received. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: England. SUBJECTS: 2474 men (mean age 46 years) attending one of 18 general practices. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Experiences of non-consensual and consensual sex before and after the age of 16 years-that is, as a child and adult respectively-psychological problems experienced for more than 2 weeks at any one time, use of alcohol (CAGE questionnaire), self harm, and help received. RESULTS: 2474 of 3142 men (79%) agreed to participate; 71/2468 (standardised rate 2.89%, 95% confidence interval 2.21% to 3.56%) reported non-consensual sexual experiences as adults, 128/2423 (5.35%, 4.39% to 6.31%) reported non-consensual sexual experiences as children, and 185/2406 (7.66%, 6.54% to 8.77%) reported consensual sexual experiences as children that are illegal under English law. Independent predictors of non-consensual sex as adults were reporting male sexual partners (odds ratio 6.0, 2.6 to 13.5), non-consensual sex in childhood (4.2, 2.1 to 8.6), age (0.98, 0.96 to 0.99), and sex of interviewer (2.0, 1.2 to 3.5). Non-consensual sexual experiences were associated with a greater prevalence of psychological problems, alcohol misuse, and self harm. These sexual experiences were also significant predictors of help received from mental health professionals. CONCLUSION: Almost 3% of men in England report non-consensual sexual experiences as adults. Medical professionals need to be aware of the range of psychological difficulties in men who have had such experiences. They also need to be aware of the relationship between sexual experiences in childhood and adulthood in men.  (+info)



  • courtship
  • A male fly's sexual courtship of a female fly is a complicated business of tapping, singing, wing vibration, and licking, but a single gene is all that is needed to produce this complex behavior, according to new research published in this week's issue of the journal Cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • So you need to put gene X in a normal animal of the same species that doesn't normally do Y. This is really only possible with sex-specific behaviors" like courtship, he says. (eurekalert.org)
  • While lactating mice will ordinarily attack male intruders and reject their courtship behaviors, the mutant females were docile toward males and appeared highly receptive to their overtures. (phys.org)
  • homosexual
  • Another example is when individuals or members of a community might engage in homosexual behaviors but identify as heterosexual otherwise, such as some people in prison, the military, single sex boarding schools, or other sex-segregated communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pseudo-homosexuality refers to homosexual anxieties, fantasies, or behavior exhibited by a person who self-identifies as heterosexual or who is generally attracted or sexually oriented to members of the opposite sex. (wikipedia.org)
  • They cover homosexuality in both humans and other animals, citing evidence of accepted homosexual behavior in 49 of the 76 cultures for which the relevant data were available. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study is credited with "making homosexual behavior more visible and more acceptable within the culture of its time. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have also been observations of animals engaging in homosexual behaviors, as well as sex with dead animals and sex involving juveniles. (wikipedia.org)
  • behavioral
  • A simple model of sexual behavior choice among forward-looking individuals implies that behavioral response should be larger for those with lower non-HIV mortality risks and those who are richer. (repec.org)
  • Dickson and Demir refer to fruitless as a behavioral "switch gene" that is both necessary and sufficient to produce a particular behavior. (eurekalert.org)
  • Sexual health risk reduction can include motivational exercises, assertiveness skills, educational and behavioral interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ford and Beach employ a "cross-cultural correlational method" in exploring sexual behavior, a statistical approach suitable for distinguishing behavioral trends and making generalizations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-reported assessments of sexual behavior are prone to a number of measurement concerns which may affect the reliability and validity of a measure, ranging from a participant's literacy level and comprehension of behavioral terminology to recall biases and self-presentation (or confidentiality concerns resulting from stigmatization of the behavior in question). (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-report measures are both inexpensive and more feasible than behavioral observation given the private nature of most sexual risk behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sensory
  • Rather, they say, the epicenter of sex-specific behavior in many species may be a small sensory organ found in the noses of all terrestrial vertebrates except higher primates. (phys.org)
  • pelvic
  • Their work, appearing this week in the journal Nature , indicates that defects in this organ, known as the vomeronasal organ, lead female mice to adopt male behaviors such as mounting and pelvic thrusting while abandoning female behaviors such as nesting and nursing. (phys.org)
  • vomeronasal
  • The results do not apply directly to humans, which lack a vomeronasal organ, but may open new avenues of investigation for research into sex-specific human behavior. (phys.org)
  • Either the vomeronasal organ may be needed to grow a female-specific neural circuit during development, or the mature female mouse brain may require vomeronasal activity to repress male behavior. (phys.org)
  • Remarkably, our work suggests that neuronal circuits underlying male-specific behaviors develop and persist in the female mouse brain, but are repressed by the normal activity of the vomeronasal organ. (phys.org)
  • In this model, only the vomeronasal pathway itself -- which serves as a switch that represses male behavior while promoting female behavior -- is dimorphic. (phys.org)
  • genital
  • That's currently up for debate, now that Tennessee Gov. Bill Haslam has signed into law the controversial bill that would ban teachers from discussing any so-called gateway sexual activity like genital touching in sex education courses, as reported on Friday by the Nashville Tennessean . (go.com)
  • What's more, educators are prohibited from discussing non-coital sexual activity such as genital touching as an alternative to sex, which legislators have designated as the offending "gateway" sexual behavior. (go.com)
  • Family Action Council President David Fowler , who drafted helped draft the bill, told the website PolitiFact.com that the definition of "gateway sexual activity" is akin to the definition of "sexual contact" according to the state's criminal law, which refers to the "intentional touching" of "the primary genital area, groin, inner thigh, buttock or breast of a human being. (go.com)
  • suggests
  • Some evidence suggests that the availability of ART may impact risky behavior among HIV-uninfected people, although this was inconsistent across different reported behavior variables," according to the results. (thebody.com)
  • hormones
  • It had previously been thought that entirely different neural circuits, modulated by these hormones, controlled sex-specific behavior," Dulac says. (phys.org)
  • Estrogen is one of the two major sex hormones in women (the other being progesterone), and is responsible for the development and maintenance of feminine secondary sexual characteristics, such as breasts, wide hips, and a feminine pattern of fat distribution. (wikipedia.org)
  • masculine
  • The effects of b -endorphin or naloxone on measures of masculine sexual behavior. (acnp.org)
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) of the male-to-female (MTF) type is hormone replacement therapy and sex reassignment therapy used to change the secondary sexual characteristics of transgender and transsexual people from masculine (or androgynous) to feminine. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • These early traumatic experiences may lead you to feel shameful and unworthy, emotions that can inhibit normal sexual expression and intimacy and can result in extremes in sexual activity. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • Sexual activity among young single people tends to be sporadic, but is greater in industrialized countries. (medindia.net)
  • The latest estimates suggest 12.5 per cent of boys and 6.9 per cent of girls have had sex before the age of 15, but these figures may be skewed by the tendency of boys to exaggerate sexual activity. (medindia.net)
  • If marijuana is the gateway drug, are kissing and handholding the gateway to sexual activity? (go.com)
  • Everybody in this room knows what gateway sexual activity is," said state Rep. John DeBerry, D-Memphis , in his testimony to the Tennessee House of Representatives. (go.com)
  • Several species in the animal kingdom turn to sexual activity as a way to solve a disagreement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual activity in bonobos is very high, yet the rate of reproduction is the same as a chimpanzee. (wikipedia.org)
  • When hungry, the female bonobo will approach a male bonobo and engage in sexual activity to avoid aggression. (wikipedia.org)
  • After their quick sexual activity, the female will take a portion of the male's food. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a low level of sexual activity among the approximately 800 teenagers surveyed was found with incidence increasing with age. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Putting gene X into another species and expecting to see a behavior is unrealistic--a 'flight' gene from Drosophila, if it existed, is not going to make a mouse fly," Dickson explains, noting that only members of the same species might be expected to share the same set of "normal" behaviors. (eurekalert.org)
  • In this work of scientific literature, the authors integrate information about human sexual behavior from 191 different cultures, and include detailed comparisons across animal species, with particular emphasis on primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Non-reproductive sexual behavior is sexual activities animals participate in that do not lead to the reproduction of the species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonobos are one species notoriously known for using sexual behavior to relieve their aggression with each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • symptoms
  • The self-reported STI-like symptoms and unsafe sexual behavior taken together as a predictor of confirmed STIs improve the sensitivity to a significantly greater degree (χ 2 = 2.83, p (wikipedia.org)
  • These results provide preliminary support for the importance of population-based surveys, which collect all the three types of data such as reported behavior, symptoms and laboratory confirmed STIs for a full understanding of sexual risk and STIs and for identification of sub-groups within communities that vary in their ability to identify STI symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • permissive
  • Among the findings of a sweeping federal government survey of American sexual behavior is one that may surprise those bewailing a permissive and eros-soaked popular culture: More than one-quarter of people interviewed in their late teens and early 20s had never had sex. (washingtonpost.com)
  • laboratory
  • The behavior of laboratory animals demonstrates a mental experience wherein the animal's instincts tell it if it carries out a certain action, it will then receive what it needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • participants
  • The current study examined evidence for sexual behavior change in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among participants of a clinical cohort in Uganda. (thebody.com)
  • Three-month data from 2002 to 2009 were used to examine associations between ART initiation timing and sexual behavior among HIV-infected participants, and timing of ART availability and sexual behavior among uninfected participants. (thebody.com)
  • receptivity
  • Undaunted, Hatfield went on to write or co-write many books and papers based on her research, among them A New Look at Love, which won the American Psychological Foundation's National Media Award, and the often-cited Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality article "Gender Differences in Receptivity to Sexual Offers" (1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • engagement
  • Dichotomous (yes/no) evaluation of engagement in risk behaviors (risk screening), assessing the level of risk via frequency of engagement in risk behaviors (risk assessments) and detailed event-level data related to the co-occurrence of other factors (e.g., alcohol use or primary versus secondary partners) that may facilitate engaging in risk behaviors (risk-event data) are unequivocal, serving very distinct functions in evaluating self-reported risk behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • orientation
  • Where actual sex is sought as a result, pseudo-homosexuality is commonly distinguished from homosexuality in that it may not reflect a desire based on sexual orientation or honest curiosity. (wikipedia.org)
  • LGBT youth are more likely to be homeless because they run away or are evicted due to family conflict surrounding their sexual orientation or behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • disorder
  • Despite their awareness of the condition, many sufferers often delay seeking help, either because they don't know that it's a medical disorder or for fear that others will instead judge it as willful behavior. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A major cause of the compulsive behaviors is said to be obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). (wikipedia.org)
  • versus
  • Dickson also says there is "something of a debate going on between the view that single genes can have profound effects on behavior, versus the more holistic view that behavior is so complex that we can never learn anything meaningful about a behavior by studying the action of a single gene. (eurekalert.org)
  • differences
  • For years, scientists have searched in vain for slivers of the brain that might drive the dramatic differences between male and female behavior. (phys.org)
  • Evidence
  • Learned behaviors that have been demonstrated in laboratories have provided good evidence that animals have instinct and a reward system. (wikipedia.org)
  • female
  • Dulac and colleagues are now studying the behavior of male mice mutant for TRPC2 to determine whether they display female-like traits. (phys.org)
  • Female bonobos have been observed to engage in sexual activities to create bonds with dominant bonobos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual interaction has also been witnessed in female bonobos to avoid aggression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual dimorphism (two forms) refers to the general phenomenon in which male and female forms of an organism display distinct morphological characteristics or features. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers
  • Switch genes that trigger the development of a particular anatomical feature like wing structure have been studied extensively, but there are very few studies of switch genes that control a complex behavior, the researchers note. (eurekalert.org)
  • work
  • Bell and Weinberg, writing with sociologist Sue Kiefer Hammersmith, noted that their work Sexual Preference (1981) was the culmination of a series of publications that began with Homosexuality: An Annotated Bibliography and included Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • I don't see any good reason why innate behaviors, which are a consequence of how the nervous system is built, should be any different. (eurekalert.org)
  • lack
  • Lack says it was the first complaint about Lauer's behavior during more than 20 years at NBC News, but there is reason to believe the reported incident may not be the only one. (thewesterlysun.com)
  • measures
  • Despite their frequency of use, the utility of self-report measures to provide an accurate account of actual behavior are questioned, and methods of enhancing their accuracy should be a critical focus when administering such measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • To this end, the validity of self-reported sexual risk measures can be strengthened by the level of concordant answers obtained from sexual partners or through more objective measures of risk (such as the incidence of pregnancy, HIV or other STDs. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to consider the way in which measures of self-reported sexual risk behaviors will be collected during the research development phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • among
  • If risky behavior among this population increases due to the feeling of safety that ART provides, this will affect the impact of ART on the HIV epidemic," the investigators concluded. (thebody.com)
  • Together with Homosexualities: A Study of Diversity Among Men and Women (1978), Homosexuality: An Annotated Bibliography is part of a series of books that culminated in the publication of Sexual Preference in 1981. (wikipedia.org)
  • akin
  • In addition, one study published in the Journal of the International AIDS Society used the term cisnormativity, akin to sexual diversity studies' heteronormativity. (wikipedia.org)