Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Coitus: The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Genital Diseases, Male: Pathological processes involving the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Gonorrhea: Acute infectious disease characterized by primary invasion of the urogenital tract. The etiologic agent, NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE, was isolated by Neisser in 1879.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Contraception Behavior: Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Bacterial: Bacterial diseases transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Penile Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PENIS or its component tissues.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.San FranciscoUganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Uterine Cervical Diseases: Pathological processes of the UTERINE CERVIX.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Domestic Violence: Deliberate, often repetitive physical, verbal, and/or other types of abuse by one or more members against others of a household.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Contraception: Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.United StatesAIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Extramarital Relations: Voluntary SEXUAL INTERCOURSE between a married person and someone other than the SPOUSE.New York CitySex Offenses: Any violation of established legal or moral codes in respect to sexual behavior.Homosexuality, Female: Sexual attraction or relationship between females.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Child Abuse, Sexual: Sexual maltreatment of the child or minor.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Urethritis: Inflammation involving the URETHRA. Similar to CYSTITIS, clinical symptoms range from vague discomfort to painful urination (DYSURIA), urethral discharge, or both.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Los AngelesMycoplasma genitalium: A species of gram-negative bacteria originally isolated from urethral specimens of patients with non-gonoccocal URETHRITIS. In primates it exists in parasitic association with ciliated EPITHELIAL CELLS in the genital and respiratory tracts.HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).Rape: Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.Spouses: Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.Condylomata Acuminata: Sexually transmitted form of anogenital warty growth caused by the human papillomaviruses.Single Person: The unmarried man or woman.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Homeless Youth: Runaway and homeless children and adolescents living on the streets of cities and having no fixed place of residence.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.RussiaHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Jamaica: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Gender Identity: A person's concept of self as being male and masculine or female and feminine, or ambivalent, based in part on physical characteristics, parental responses, and psychological and social pressures. It is the internal experience of gender role.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Sexual Dysfunctions, Psychological: Disturbances in sexual desire and the psychophysiologic changes that characterize the sexual response cycle and cause marked distress and interpersonal difficulty. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Costa RicaHispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Pelvic Inflammatory Disease: A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Uterine Cervicitis: Inflammation of the UTERINE CERVIX.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Crime Victims: Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Trichomonas Infections: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Gammapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE, which cause cutaneous lesions in humans. They are histologically distinguishable by intracytoplasmic INCLUSION BODIES which are species specific.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Alphapapillomavirus: A genus of DNA viruses in the family PAPILLOMAVIRIDAE. They preferentially infect the anogenital and ORAL MUCOSA in humans and primates, causing both malignant and benign neoplasms. Cutaneous lesions are also seen.BrazilSeroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.PrisonersStudent Health Services: Health services for college and university students usually provided by the educational institution.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Human papillomavirus 11: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS causing recurrent respiratory PAPILLOMATOSIS; GENITAL WARTS; and other neoplasms.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Papanicolaou Test: Cytological preparation of cells collected from a mucosal surface and stained with Papanicolaou stain.Multilevel Analysis: The statistical manipulation of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. It includes clustered data, such as a sample of subjects within a group of schools. Prevalent in the social, behavioral sciences, and biomedical sciences, both linear and nonlinear regression models are applied.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Religion: A set of beliefs concerning the nature, cause, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency. It usually involves devotional and ritual observances and often a moral code for the conduct of human affairs. (Random House Collegiate Dictionary, rev. ed.)Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).WashingtonEducational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.LondonGeorgiaInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Human papillomavirus 6: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS usually associated with GENITAL WARTS; and LARYNGEAL NEOPLASMS.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Anus DiseasesCaliforniaHIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Sampling Studies: Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.Sexual Dysfunction, Physiological: Physiological disturbances in normal sexual performance in either the male or the female.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Uterine Cervical Dysplasia: Abnormal development of immature squamous EPITHELIAL CELLS of the UTERINE CERVIX, a term used to describe premalignant cytological changes in the cervical EPITHELIUM. These atypical cells do not penetrate the epithelial BASEMENT MEMBRANE.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).

*  How long did you and your first sexual partner stay together or have you been together? (Those under 25 only, please!) |...

My first sexual partner was an ex boyfriend. The first time I had sex with him and lost my virginity was about about 2 or 3 ... What we mean by this is whoever you identify your first sexual partner to be, and we are talking about consensual sex of some ... I've been with my first sexual partner for a little over six months, but I'm feeling like I should end it. I'm starting to feel ... How long did you and your first sexual partner stay together or have you been together? (Those under 25 only, please!). Primary ...
scarleteen.com/node/3593?theme=scarleteen_textonly

*  Many travelers from Britain find new sexual partners abroad | Health Life

By Kathryn Doyle One in 10 men and one in 20 women who travel internationally from Great Britain find new sexual partners ... Many travelers from Britain find new sexual partners abroad. June 17, 2016 Sexual Health ... By Kathryn Doyle One in 10 men and one in 20 women who travel internationally from Great Britain find new sexual partners ... may feel less constrained by social taboos controlling sexual expression," said Dr. Clare Tanton of the Research Department of ...
health.pharmacy-bg.com/many-travelers-from-britain-find-new-sexual-partners-abroad/

*  Sexual Partners - General - FCP Poker Forum - Page 3

Sexual Partners - posted in General: I think the bolded might not be true, lol.We both remember coming back to her place and ... Poll: # Of Lifetime Sexual Partners (181 member(s) have cast votes). How many have you had. * Zero (13 votes [7.07%]) ... Sexual Partners. Started by El Guapo, Jan 15 2009 09:27 PM ...
fullcontactpoker.com/poker-forum/index.php?showtopic=132601&st=40

*  Gone to its head: slugs stab sexual partners

A new species of sea slug has been found to inject its sexual partners with secretions that alter their behaviour. The sea… ... A new species of sea slug has been found to inject its sexual partners with secretions that alter their behaviour. ... The sea slug, found in the Great Barrier Reef, is equipped with a specialised probe - which it uses to stab its partners in the ...
theconversation.com/gone-to-its-head-slugs-stab-sexual-partners-20653

*  True Story: I've Had 70+ Sexual Partners

Is there such a thing as TOO many sexual partners? Autumn shares the hows and whys of the notches in her proverbial bedpost. ... How does one go about finding 70+ sexual partners? To what do you attribute your success with the opposite sex?. When I was ... How did you come to have so many sexual partners?. I think it mostly pertains to being single for long periods. I have been ... What are the benefits to having had 70+ sexual partners? The drawbacks?. The stories! I have some hilarious stories. Strange, ...
https://yesandyes.org/2012/02/true-story-ive-had-70-sexual-partners.html

*  Multiple sexual partners as a risk factor for cervical cancer | OncoLink

Multiple sexual partners as a risk factor for cervical cancer. Christina S. Chu, MD ... In the past, having many different sexual partners was identified as a risk factor for developing cervical cancer, along with ... While no one can say for certain what the link is between sexual activity and cervical cancer, one can assume that sexual ... I've read that "many different partners" may be a contributing factor of cervical cancer. Why this is so? ...
https://oncolink.org/frequently-asked-questions/cancers/gynecologic/cervical-cancer/multiple-sexual-partners-as-a-risk-factor-for-cervical-cancer

*  Climateer Investing: "Altruistic People Have More Sexual Partners"

But does this capture what people actually want in a mating partner? Do nice guys truly finish last?. One area of research ... may indeed be linked to increased sexual behavior, particularly with respect to short-term mating. ... which seems to contrast this notion is the study of altruism as a sexual signal. Altruism involves behaving in ways that ...
climateerinvest.blogspot.com/2016/11/altruistic-people-have-more-sexual.html

*  Do you judge other females by the amount of sexual partners ..(edit at bottom) - CafeMom

Do you judge other females by the amount of sexual partners they have had? Do you 'slut shame' others? Use terms li ... Do you judge other females by the amount of sexual partners ..(edit at bottom) Posted by Anonymous + Show Post ... Do you judge other females by the amount of sexual partners they have had? Do you "slut shame" others? Use terms like whore etc ... Now a days there are so many sexual messages aimed at these girls and fathers are needed more then ever. ...
cafemom.com/group/115189/forums/read/17465054/Do_you_judge_other_females_by_the_amount_of_sexual_partners_edit_at_bottom?next=241

*  New Zealand women are the most promiscuous: 20.4 sexual partners, thrice the global average! - InvestmentWatch

New Zealand women are the most promiscuous: 20.4 sexual partners, thrice the global average!. by IWB · January 10, 2016. ... Kiwi women had an average of 20.4 sexual partners, thrice the global average of 7.3, and double compared to British or ... New Zealand women have in fact more sex partners than New Zealand men! This is unique amongst the countries of the world: women ... But a TVNZ Sunday investigation into the sexual behavior of Kiwi women revealed that young New Zealand women are regularly ...
investmentwatchblog.com/new-zealand-women-are-the-most-promiscuous-20-4-sexual-partners-thrice-the-global-average/

*  Allen Iverson's wife wants a list of his sexual partners since they were married | Larry Brown Sports

Allen Iverson's wife wants a list of his sexual partners since they were married. March 20, 2012 ... earth would someone prove whether or not a person is telling the truth when they put together a list of their sexual partners? ... "give the name and telephone number of every person other than your spouse whom you have had sexual relations and/or intimate ...
larrybrownsports.com/basketball/allen-iversons-ex-wants-list-of-his-sexual-partners/124432

*  Do i have too many sexual partners? Boyfriend thinks so...HELP! - Lovehoney Forum - Page 3

Do i have too many sexual partners? Boyfriend thinks so...HELP!. 1508690532 ,, , Previous Page 1 2 3 Next , ,, ... 1. He sounded like a complete immature jerk who treats number of sexual partners like some notch in his bedpost. ... horrifys me to think that I would judge my OH on how many partners she's had, plane and simple I'm very sheltered when it came ... 2. His lack of confidence in the bedroom is not about number of partners but his ability to be open minded, responsive to a ...
https://lovehoney.co.uk/community/forums/sex-tips-and-talk/1392629-do-i-have-too-many-sexual-partners/page-3/

*  She's my first sexual partner: I love her, but should I only ever be with her? | Scarleteen

... your first partner, will not be your only partner or your last partner. Very few people in the world have but one partner for ... She's my first sexual partner: I love her, but should I only ever be with her?. Share , ... as can sexual exploration and experimentation with more than one partner. So, what can your current partner offer you, if both ... Just like sexual experience with other partners is an opportunity, so is this, and it can be a bit tougher to find. ...
scarleteen.com/article/advice/shes_my_first_sexual_partner_i_love_her_but_should_i_only_ever_be_with_her?page=421

*  Joe Jonas Explains Why He Revealed Ashley Greene as First Sexual Partner | Ashley Greene, Joe Jonas : Just Jared

Joe Jonas Explains Why He Revealed Ashley Greene as First Sexual Partner Joe Jonas is speaking out about why he told the world ... Joe Jonas Explains Why He Revealed Ashley Greene as First Sexual Partner. ... In a Reddit AMA last week, Joe told his first sexual experience story. ...
justjared.com/2016/10/17/joe-jonas-explains-why-he-revealed-ashley-greene-as-first-sexual-partner/

*  Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence : Louise McOrmond-Plummer : 9781138910454

Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence by Louise McOrmond-Plummer, 9781138910454, available at Book Depository with ... Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Perpetrators and Entitlement - Debra Parkinson * Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual ... The Social Context of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence * The Role of Male Peer Support in Intimate Partner Sexual Violence ... Who Are the Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence? * The Mindset of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Perpetrators: ...
https://bookdepository.com/Perpetrators-Intimate-Partner-Sexual-Violence-Louise-McOrmond-Plummer/9781138910454

*  Gender Differences in the Risk of HIV Infection among Persons Reporting Abstinence, Monogamy, and Multiple Sexual Partners in...

We examined the association between the number of sexual partners and the risk of HIV seropositivity among men and women ... Men and women were categorized by number of lifetime sexual partners, and rates of seropositivity were reported by category. ... and reporting a partner with other partners (p = 0.015). Only age was a significant risk factor for monogamous men (p = 0.0004 ... Partner reduction should be coupled with efforts to place tools in the hands of sexually active women to reduce their risk of ...
journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0003075

*  Carolyn Hax: Partner's sexual past needs to be forgiven - News - Rockford Register Star - Rockford, IL

... including the disclosure of my sexual history. I have now learned this was a mistake. This man is all ... I can't speak for you, but "all I've ever wanted in a partner" is someone who accepts me as-is. You don't have that - he's ... This man is all I've ever wanted in a partner. We live together, we've talked about getting engaged, and I've never had a ... The top three consequences: being alone; being with people who don't have the strength to stand up to partners who judge them; ...
rrstar.com/article/20140419/NEWS/140419522/10445/NEWS

*  Findings from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Implications for Prevention

This survey became the subject of hundreds of news stories about the prevalence of sexual violence, ... the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released the initial findings from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual ... Sexual Violence Survey, NISVS. Findings from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey: Implications for ... National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, 2010: New Knowledge and Unanswered Questions « In The News… ...
preventconnect.org/2012/01/web-conference-findings-nisvs/

*  Sexual health badges help potential partners share their STD status | Springwise

Luhu is a new service that gives members a digital badge that indicates if they have a clean bill of sexual health - or if they ... Sexual health badges help potential partners share their STD status. Luhu is a new service that gives members a digital badge ... Sexual health is a sensitive issue, and many people are embarrassed by it. However, not revealing your status to a bedroom ... Luhu is a new service that gives members a digital badge that indicates if they have a clean bill of sexual health - or if they ...
https://springwise.com/sexual-health-badges-potential-partners-share-std-status/

*  Healing from a Spouse or Partners Sexual Betrayal - Journey to Abundant Life Coaching

Healing from a Spouse or Partners Sexual Betrayal. Under construction. Healing from a Spouse or Partners Sexual Betrayal. Name ...
journeytoabundantlife.weebly.com/healing-from-a-spouse-or-partners-sexual-betrayal.html

*  I want to change up my sexual routine with my partner. Where do I start? | Scarleteen

I want to change up my sexual routine with my partner. Where do I start? Share , ... Sexual Negotiation for the Long Haul. Be a Blabbermouth! The Whys, Whats and Hows of Talking About Sex With a Partner. Sorting ... Talk It Out: You might want to check in with your partner to see how he feels about how long your sexual activities last. He ... Expanding sexual activities: Doing sexual activities that involve something besides penis-in-vagina intercourse, or penis-in- ...
scarleteen.com/article/advice/i_want_to_change_up_my_sexual_routine_with_my_partner_where_do_i_start?page=1&theme=scarleteen

*  Federal Register :: Grants for Violence-Related Injury Prevention Research: Youth Violence, Suicidal Behavior,...

... that reduce risk for the perpetration of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child maltreatment, youth violence or ... and policies to prevent perpetration of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, child maltreatment (includes physical, ... sexual, emotional abuse and neglect), youth violence or suicidal behavior. There is particular interest in assessing the impact ... programs and policies to prevent intimate partner violence, child maltreatment and youth violence. This research is intended to ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/2004/11/04/04-24618/grants-for-violence-related-injury-prevention-research-youth-violence-suicidal-behavior-child

*  Voting Differently Than Your Partner? Keep the Peace, While Increasing Sexual Tension

... ... Knowing where your partner came from will help you understand why they believe the things they do,' explains Dr. Bonnie. Each ... Bonnie says, 'each person should provide space for their partner to honestly express their views.' When it starts to get heated ... Bonnie says it's helpful for couples to know their partner's history, and when it comes to politics, it's no exception. ' ...
prweb.com/releases/2012/11/prweb10100272.htm

*  Genital Herpes | Medical City Dallas

Treatment for Sexual Partners. It is important that your sexual partner be tested for genital herpes and receive counseling. If ... It is important to learn about genital herpes and how to avoid spreading it to sex partners. Your doctor will provide you with ... Direct contact with an infected person-such as having contact with the vagina, penis, anus, or mouth (can include sexual or non ... The strongest risk factor for genital herpes is having unprotected sex with an infected partner. Other risk factors include:. * ...
medicalcityhospital.com/hl/?/11837/sp&com.dotmarketing.htmlpage.language=1

*  The Awareness Center, Inc. (International Jewish Coaltion Against Sexual Assault): The Cruelest Crime - Sexual Abuse Of...

Steering these teenagers toward partners their age is one of Echo Glen's goals. But like all programs, it offers no ironclad ... Labels: Catholic Church, child sexual abuse, clergy sexual abuse, Historic article, History of the anti-rape movement, Priest, ... Survivors of sexual violence (as adults and/or as a child) are just as deserving of a yellow ribbon as the men and women of our ... Sexual preference is not something an individual decides but discovers, usually at puberty. Sexual behavior, however, is ...
theawarenesscenter.blogspot.com/1984/12/the-cruelest-crime-sexual-abuse-of.html

*  Dr. James Frogge, MD - Joplin, MO - Urology | Healthgrades.com

For Partners*Healthgrades for Hospitals. *Hospital Client Log In. *Advertise With Us ... Sexual Dysfunction. *Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). *Sleep Disorders. *Spermatocele. *Syphilis Infections. *Testicular ...
https://healthgrades.com/physician/dr-james-frogge-ydcp9

Disinhibition: In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment. Disinhibition affects motor, instinctual, emotional, cognitive, and perceptual aspects with signs and symptoms similar to the diagnostic criteria for mania.LifeStyles Condoms: LifeStyles Condoms is a brand of condom made by the Australian company Ansell Limited, previously known as Pacific Dunlop Limited.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Prescott Townsend: Prescott Townsend (June 24, 1894 – May 23, 1973) was an American gay rights activist.HIV-positive people: HIV-positive people are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, the agent of the currently incurable disease AIDS.Controlling Vice: Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883: Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998. It is the story of the strategies that the Minnesota police officers enforced in attempts to regulate prostitution in the late nineteenth century.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Contact tracing: In epidemiology, contact tracing is the identification and diagnosis of persons who may have come into contact with an infected person. For sexually transmitted diseases, this is generally limited to sexual partners and can fall under the heading of partner services.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Chlamydia antibodies: Chlamydia antibodies are antibodies targeting bacteria of the Chlamydia genus, but it generally refers specifically to antibodies targeting Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of Chlamydia infection in humans.Male genital diseaseInterpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Substance-related disorderHistory of syphilis: The history of syphilis has been well studied, but the exact origin of syphilis is unknown. There are two primary hypotheses: one proposes that syphilis was carried to Europe from the Americas by the crew of Christopher Columbus, the other proposes that syphilis previously existed in Europe but went unrecognized.Gonorrhea: Clap}}Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Female genital diseaseTunica albuginea (penis): The tunica albuginea is the fibrous envelope of the corpora cavernosa penis. It consists of approximately 5% elastin, an extensible tissue that is primarily made up of the amino acids glycine, valine, alanine, and proline.Cervical screening: Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer. If the abnormal tissue or cells can be removed, then the disease can be prevented from developing.Chlamydia trachomatisMedian raphe cyst: Median raphe cysts are a cutaneous condition of the penis due to developmental defects near the glans.African-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Jack London's San Francisco Stories: Jack London's San Francisco Stories is an anthology of Jack London short stories set in the San Francisco Bay Area. The book was edited by Matthew Asprey.Makerere University School of MedicineOutline of domestic violence: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to domestic violence:Federal institutions of Tanzania: This is a list of the federal institutions of Tanzania.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Vaginal floraAbstinence: Abstinence is a self-enforced restraint from indulging in bodily activities that are widely experienced as giving pleasure. Most frequently, the term refers to sexual abstinence, or abstinence from alcohol or food.Intact America: Intact America is a registered non-governmental Intactivist (pro-intact or anti-infant circumcision) organization created in 2008 to advance the view that the circumcision of non-consenting minors is unethical and medically unnecessary, and therefore should be abandoned. They also claim that circumcision reduces sexual sensation in males and that it is a violation of modern bio-ethical standards to forcibly remove erogenous tissue from children.National Birth Control League: The National Birth Control League was a United States organization founded in the early 20th century to promoted the education and use of birth control.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,List of bus routes in Brooklyn: The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) operates a number of bus routes in Brooklyn, New York, United States; one minor route is privately operated under a city franchise. Many of them are the direct descendants of streetcar lines (see list of streetcar lines in Brooklyn); the ones that started out as bus routes were almost all operated by the Brooklyn Bus Corporation, a subsidiary of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation, until the New York City Board of Transportation took over on June 5, 1940.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Survivors Healing Center: The Survivors Healing Center is a not-for-profit located in Santa Cruz County, California. Founded in 1987, its mission is to provide services for survivors of childhood sexual abuse and educate the public and service agencies about the issue.Non-gonococcal urethritisFemale education: Female education is a catch-all term for a complex set of issues and debates surrounding education (primary education, secondary education, tertiary education, and health education in particular) for girls and women. It includes areas of gender equality and access to education, and its connection to the alleviation of poverty.Pap testLos Angeles County Department of Public HealthSexual Assault Nurse Examiner: A Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) is a qualification for forensic nurses who have received special training to conduct sexual assault evidentiary exams for rape victims. Not all, but many SANE programs are coordinated by rape crisis centers rather than hospitals.Laureen Harper: borderKenya Pipeline CompanyYouth Action Network: The Youth Action Network (formerly the National Federation of Youth Action Agencies) was a UK-wide youth organisation that promotes volunteering by young people in their communities.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Pulse St. Petersburg: Pulse St. Petersburg is a monthly entertainment magazine published in English and Russian.

(1/2258) Correlates of sexually transmitted bacterial infections among U.S. women in 1995.

CONTEXT: Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) of bacterial origin such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and infertility. Identifying behaviors and characteristics associated with infection may assist in preventing these often asymptomatic diseases and their sequelae. METHODS: Data from 9,882 sexually active women who participated in the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth describe the characteristics of women who report a history of infection with a bacterial STD or of treatment for PID. Multivariate analysis is used to determine which demographic characteristics and sexual and health-related behaviors affect the likelihood of infection or the occurrence of complications. RESULTS: Overall, 6% of sexually active women reported a history of a bacterial STD, and 8% reported a history of PID. Women who first had sexual intercourse before age 15 were nearly four times as likely to report a bacterial STD, and more than twice as likely to report PID, as were women who first had sex after age 18. Having more than five lifetime sexual partners also was associated with both having an STD and having PID. PID was more common among women reporting a history of a bacterial STD (23%) than among women who reported no such history (7%). In multivariate analyses, age, race, age at first intercourse and lifetime number of sexual partners had a significant effect on the risk of a bacterial STD. Education, age, a history of IUD use, douching and a history of a bacterial STD had a significant impact on the risk of PID, but early onset of intercourse did not, and lifetime number of partners had only a marginal effect. CONCLUSIONS: The pattern of characteristics and behaviors that place women at risk of infection with bacterial STDs is not uniform among groups of women. Further, the level of self-reported PID would suggest higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydial infection than reported.  (+info)

(2/2258) Condom use and HIV risk behaviors among U.S. adults: data from a national survey.

CONTEXT: How much condom use among U.S. adults varies by type of partner or by risk behavior is unclear. Knowledge of such differentials would aid in evaluating the progress being made toward goals for levels of condom use as part of the Healthy People 2000 initiative. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the 1996 National Household Survey of Drug Abuse, an annual household-based probability sample of the noninstitutionalized population aged 12 and older that measures the use of illicit drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The personal behaviors module included 25 questions covering sexual activity in the past year, frequency of condom use in the past year, circumstances of the last sexual encounter and HIV testing. RESULTS: Sixty-two percent of adults reported using a condom at last intercourse outside of an ongoing relationship, while only 19% reported using condoms when the most recent intercourse occurred within a steady relationship. Within ongoing relationships, condom use was highest among respondents who were younger, black, of lower income and from large metropolitan areas. Forty percent of unmarried adults used a condom at last sex, compared with the health objective of 50% for the year 2000. Forty percent of injecting drug users used condoms at last intercourse, compared with the 60% condom use objective for high-risk individuals. Significantly, persons at increased risk for HIV because of their sexual behavior or drug use were not more likely to use condoms than were persons not at increased risk; only 22% used condoms during last intercourse within an ongoing relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial progress has been made toward national goals for increasing condom use. The rates of condom use by individuals at high risk of HIV need to be increased, however, particularly condom use with a steady partner.  (+info)

(3/2258) Risk of testicular cancer in subfertile men: case-control study.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between subfertility in men and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer. DESIGN: Population based case-control study. SETTING: The Danish population. PARTICIPANTS: Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry; controls were randomly selected from the Danish population with the computerised Danish Central Population Register. Men were interviewed by telephone; 514 men with cancer and 720 controls participated. OUTCOME MEASURE: Occurrence of testicular cancer. RESULTS: A reduced risk of testicular cancer was associated with paternity (relative risk 0.63; 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.85). In men who before the diagnosis of testicular cancer had a lower number of children than expected on the basis of their age, the relative risk was 1.98 (1.43 to 2.75). There was no corresponding protective effect associated with a higher number of children than expected. The associations were similar for seminoma and non-seminoma and were not influenced by adjustment for potential confounding factors. CONCLUSION: These data are consistent with the hypothesis that male subfertility and testicular cancer share important aetiological factors.  (+info)

(4/2258) Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions.

Mate choice strategies are a process of negotiation in which individuals make bids that are constrained by their status in the market place. Humans provide an unusual perspective on this because we can measure their explicitly expressed preferences before they are forced to make any choices. We use advertisements placed in newspaper personal columns to examine, first, the extent to which evolutionary considerations affect the level of competition (or market value) during the reproductively active period of people's lives and, second, the extent to which market value influences individual's willingness to make strong demands of prospective mates. We show that female market value is determined principally by women's fecundity (and, to a lesser extent, reproductive value), while male market value is determined by men's earning potential and the risk of future pairbond termination (the conjoint probability that the male will either die or divorce his partner during the next 20 years). We then show that these selection preferences strongly influence the levels of demands that men and women make of prospective partners (although older males tend to overestimate their market value).  (+info)

(5/2258) Factors related to choosing oral contraception at age 15.

This report aims to identify factors which are related to use of oral contraceptives at an early age. A self-administered questionnaire was completed at schools in 1988 and 1992 in southern and western Finland (N = 1339). Sexually experienced girls (mean age 15.8 years) who had answered the question concerning their oral contraceptive use were included (N = 389). Logistic regression analysis was used to compare oral contraceptive users (N = 121) with the group of non-users. Total number of coital experiences was associated with oral contraceptive use: the odds ratio for those having at least 10 coital experiences was 6.30 compared with those with only one intercourse. The proportion was 73% among oral contraceptive users and 30% among non-users. Girls using oral contraceptives perceived more often (67%) that parents accept their sexual relationship (30% among non-users). Oral contraceptive users were less afraid of getting pregnant (9% compared with 31% among non-users) and felt more often that sex was very important in their life (31 and 13%, respectively). Other factors that entered the model were age at menarche, having a steady partner and frequency of disco visits. When a young girl asks for oral contraceptives, she is probably at true risk of pregnancy, and regular contraception should be considered both in view of effective prevention of pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.  (+info)

(6/2258) Confidentiality and HIV status in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa: implications, resistances and challenges.

This article provides a contextualized comparison and analysis of the former Kwazulu and the new Kwazulu-Natal policy documents on HIV confidentiality, the differing practices within the region, and their implications for support and gender. It is based on interviews with key players in the regional NACOSA (National AIDS Convention of South Africa), and participation in meetings between August and November 1995. The main division is between those influenced by other rural African models, especially the Zambian concept of "shared confidentiality' as a way of ensuring support, and who have gone on to develop more community-based practices to destigmatize the disease, in contrast with the stronger emphasis in the new document on individual rights, assuming a more urban constituency, and where "shared confidentiality' is much more circumscribed. One of the difficulties of the new policy in which "confidentiality' is interpreted as "secrecy', is that it would seem to foreclose and neutralize lay and community support, as distinct from the earlier and unacknowledged policy of former Kwazulu. It also seeks to provide an enhanced role for professional counsellors. This psychologizing of the infection and the distancing from "community', and from women's groups, is surprising in a country in whose townships "community' remains a powerful motivating symbol, and where NGOs and peer groups have been identified everywhere as central to effective HIV/AIDS related prevention, care and support for behavior change.  (+info)

(7/2258) Patient referral outcome in gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of patient referral at the STD clinic of the University Hospital Rotterdam. To study characteristics of heterosexual index patients and partnerships related to referral outcome. METHODS: In 1994, patients with gonorrhoea and chlamydia were referred to public health nurses for interview and patient referral. Referral outcome was classified as "verified" if partners attended the STD clinic and as "believed" if partners were said to have attended elsewhere. RESULTS: Of 454 patients, 250 (55%) participated in the study. The outcome of patient referral for the 502 eligible partners was 103 (20.5%) verified referrals, 102 (20%) believed referrals, and 297 (59%) with unknown follow up. Of the 103 partners examined, 43 had an STD of which 63% reported no symptoms. The contact finding ratio was higher for chlamydia patients and heterosexual men. Also, referral was more effective for index patients with recent sexual contact, with follow up visits to the public health nurse, for men who were not commercial sex worker (CSW) clients, and, to a lesser degree, for Dutch patients and patients who sometimes used condoms. For steady partners, referral was improved if the last sexual contact was more recent. Casual partners visited the clinic more often if sexual contact occurred more than once, if the last contact was more recent, if they were older, and if they were Dutch. CONCLUSIONS: Patient referral was more effective for certain groups, such as chlamydia patients and steady partners, but was inadequate for others, including CSW and their clients, other "one night stands", young partners, and ethnic minorities.  (+info)

(8/2258) Effectiveness of patient delivered partner medication for preventing recurrent Chlamydia trachomatis.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if providing Chlamydia trachomatis infected women with medication to deliver to their sex partner(s) could reduce recurrent chlamydia infections compared with the standard partner referral method. STUDY DESIGN: A observational cohort study of 178 women, 14-39 years old attending a family planning clinic, diagnosed and treated for C trachomatis between October 1993 and December 1994 was conducted (43 received patient delivered partner medication (PDPM) and 135 received partner referral cards). Women were retested before or at their annual visit. RESULTS: The mean time of follow up was 17.7 months (SD 7.7). The PDPM group (n = 43) was similar to partner referral group (n = 135) for age, race, contraceptive method, history of an STD, and follow up time. The annual recurrent infection rate was lower among the PDPM group compared with the partner referral group (11.5% v 25.5%, p < 0.05). After adjusting for age in logistic regression, women in the PDPM group were less likely than women in the partner referral group to have an incident C trachomatis infection (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.97, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that patient delivered partner medication can protect women from recurrent C trachomatis infection compared with the standard partner referral approach. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are under way.  (+info)



behavior


  • In its new policy on lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and questioning, aka curious, (LGBTQ) youths, the AAP recommends that pediatricians create offices that are "teen-friendly and welcoming to all adolescents, regardless of sexual orientation and behavior. (sandrarose.com)
  • Most reasonable people realize that sexual orientation is no more a chosen behavior than is left-handedness. (freerepublic.com)