Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sex: The totality of characteristics of reproductive structure, functions, PHENOTYPE, and GENOTYPE, differentiating the MALE from the FEMALE organism.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin: A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.Sex Counseling: Advice and support given to individuals to help them understand and resolve their sexual adjustment problems. It excludes treatment for PSYCHOSEXUAL DISORDERS or PSYCHOSEXUAL DYSFUNCTION.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.

*  Data from: Local selection underlies the geographic distribution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila neotestacea - Dryad

This file contains data from the paper "Local selection underlies the geographic distribution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila ... Dyer KA (2011) Data from: Local selection underlies the geographic distribution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila neotestacea. ... Data from: Local selection underlies the geographic distribution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila neotestacea. Dryad Repository ... Dyer KA (2011) Local selection underlies the geographic distribution of sex-ratio drive in Drosophila neotestacea. Evolution 66 ...

*  Differences in sex distribution, anatomic location and MR imaging appearance of pediatric compared to adult chordomas | BMC...

Differences in sex distribution, anatomic location and MR imaging appearance of pediatric compared to adult chordomas. ... Chordomas in pediatric subjects are more likely to occur in females, the ethnic/racial distribution and anatomic distribution ... and it is unclear whether this would influence sex and anatomic distribution. The race/ethnicity was not known for a large ... The ethnic/racial distribution of chordoma subjects in the pediatric cohort was significantly different from that in the adult ...

*  Namibia Law Banning Male-to-Male Sex Is Hindering Condom Distribution, HIV Prevention in Prisons, Advocates Say -

A 30-year-old law in Namibia banning male-to-male sex is preventing condom distribution in the country's prisons and hindering ... A 30-year-old law in Namibia banning male-to-male sex is preventing condom distribution in the country's prisons and hindering ... Namibia Law Banning Male-to-Male Sex Is Hindering Condom Distribution, HIV Prevention in Prisons, Advocates Say. ... According to government officials, condom distribution would promote sex between men, which is outlawed under the 1977 Criminal ...

*  Distribution and Characterization of Sex Hormones in Sediment and Removal Estimate by Sewage Treatment Plant in South Brazil

Distribution and Characterization of Sex Hormones in Sediment and Removal Estimate by Sewage Treatment Plant in South Brazil ... Distribution and Characterization of Sex Hormones in Sediment and Removal Estimate by Sewage Treatment Plant in South Brazil. ... Citation: Machado KS, Azevedo JCR, Braga MCB, Ferreira PAL, Figueira R (2017) Distribution and Characterization of Sex Hormones ... Sex hormones are a group of endocrine disruptors excreted by humans and animals. These compounds have been detected in surface ...

*  Eropartner Distribution - Adult sex toy wholesale / distributor

Eropartner, Europe's premier supplier of adult toys. One stop shopping. All famous erotic brands.

*  Age, Sex and Ancestry Distribution | Forensic Anthropology Center

... of WM Bass Donated Skeletal Collection Sex Distribution of WM Bass Donated Skeletal Collection Ancestry Distribution of WM Bass ... Age, Sex and Ancestry Distribution. Age Distribution of WM Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. ...

*  Love and Sex Sale 35 Percent Off Select Titles : Small Press Distribution

Love and Sex Sale 35 Percent Off Select Titles We're not sure St. Valentine would approve.... ... ... The Unbearables Big Book of Sex edited by Ron Kolm, Carol Wierzbicki, Jim Feast, Yuko Otomo, Steve Dalachinsky, and Shalom ... Sex and Violence: A Love Story by George Stade (Turtle Point Press) ... 237 More Reasons to Have Sex by Denise Duhamel and Sandy McIntosh (Otoliths) ... and Sex Sale 35 Percent Off Select Titles.aspx

*  Published Research | Smithsonian's National Zoo

Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds. Mettke-Hofmann, Claudia, ... Competition and habitat quality influence age and sex distribution in wintering rusty blackbirds, PloS One, 10 (5) . 2015. doi: ... The distribution and conservation of birds of coastal salt marshes. Greenberg, Russell S., Cardoni, Augusto, Ens, Bruno J., Gan ... "The distribution and conservation of birds of coastal salt marshes". In: Maslo, Brooke and Lockwood, Julie L., Coastal ...

*  "National study of US emergency department visits for attempted suicide and self-inflicted injury, 1997-2001" by Arpi...

Sex Distribution; Suicide, Attempted; United States; Wounds, Gunshot ... Adolescent; Adult; Age Distribution; Aged; Alcoholism; Asphyxia; Body Piercing; Child; Child, Preschool; Comorbidity; Emergency ...

*  "Depressive symptoms, unemployment, and loss of income: The CARDIA Study" by Mary A....

Sex Distribution; Unemployment; United States ... Adolescent; Adult; Age Distribution; Cohort Studies; Confidence ...

*  "Ten-year incidence of elevated blood pressure and its predictors: the CARDIA study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young...

In univariate analyses, each of these variables was significantly related to incidence in at least one of the four sex-race ... in the four sex-race subgroups. Predictors included body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, alcohol intake, ... Sex Distribution ... in the four sex-race subgroups. Predictors included body mass ... In univariate analyses, each of these variables was significantly related to incidence in at least one of the four sex-race ...

*  Acute rheumatic fever in Jordanian children.

Sex Distribution. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Anti-Bacterial Agents From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... Age Distribution. Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child Welfare. Chorea / etiology. Developing Countries. ...

*  History, diagnosis, surgery and epidemiology of pulmonary stenosis in Malta.

Sex Distribution. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Age Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Echocardiography. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Malta / ...

*  The role of bathtub seats and rings in infant drowning deaths.

Sex Distribution. United States / epidemiology. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: R29AA07700/AA/NIAAA NIH HHS ... Age Distribution. Baths*. Consumer Product Safety. Drowning / epidemiology, etiology*. Female. Focus Groups. Health Education. ... 25252884 - Is the mothers' country of birth associated with the sex of their offspring in england .... 12237934 - ...

*  Tobacco use prevalence and correlates among adolescents in a clinician initiated tobacco prevention trial in California, USA.

Sex Distribution. Smoking / epidemiology*, ethnology. Socioeconomic Factors. Comments/Corrections. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... Age Distribution. California / epidemiology. Child. Female. Health Behavior. Humans. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Prevalence. ...

*  Management of pulmonary embolism in the home.

Sex Distribution. Survival Analysis. Comments/Corrections. Comment In: Med J Aust. 2006 Feb 6;184(3):142-3; author reply 143-4 ... Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ambulatory Care / statistics & numerical data. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Home ...

*  Chemical leucoderma: a clinico-aetiological study of 864 cases in the perspective of a developing country.

Sex Distribution. Vitiligo / chemically induced, epidemiology, pathology. Young Adult. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Adrenal ...

*  Evolution of nutritional status of infants infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

Sex Distribution. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...

*  Testing consumer perception of nutrient content claims using conjoint analysis.

Sex Distribution. United States. United States Food and Drug Administration. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ...

*  Exact sample size needed to detect dependence in 2 x 2 x 2 tables.

Sex Distribution. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: 1P01-AG17553/AG/NIA NIH HHS; 5P01 AG017553-03/AG/NIA NIH HHS; P01 AG017553- ... Age Distribution. Aging / genetics*. Computer Simulation. Data Interpretation, Statistical*. Georgia / epidemiology. Humans. ...

*  Clinical and laboratory study of rosacea in northern Greece.

Sex Distribution. Ultraviolet Rays. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Antibodies, Bacterial From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ... Age Distribution. Aged. Animals. Antibodies, Bacterial / blood. Biopsy. Female. Greece / epidemiology. Helicobacter Infections ...

*  Nonthyroidal illness syndrome and prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients admitted to the ICU.

Sex Distribution. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Analysis. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyrotropin / blood. Time Factors. ... Age Distribution. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Cohort Studies. Critical Care / methods. Critical Illness / mortality, therapy. ...

*  Study of Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) - Full Text View -

Sex Distribution: Male and female. Age range: All ages acceptable. B. Eligibility Criteria for Natural History Study:. *To be ...

*  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Sex Differences in the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet on LDL Particle Size Distribution and...

Sex differences were found in response to the MedDiet for the proportion of medium LDL (255-260 Å) (p for sex-by-time ... A sex difference was also noted for estimated cholesterol concentrations among sdLDL (p for sex-by-time interaction = 0.03), ... The objective of this study was to investigate whether sex differences also exist with regard to LDL particle size distribution ... The MedDiet marginally reduced oxidized LDL (oxLDL) concentrations (p = 0.07), with no sex difference. Results suggest that ...

*  Sex differences in the distribution of estrogen receptors in the septal area and hypothalamus of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa)

No sex differences were noted in the overall distribution of estrogen receptor cells in the areas studied.The lack of nuclear ... There was a clear sex difference in the estrogen receptor-immunoreactive cell number in a possible homologue of the sexually ... In addition to the area of the vasopressin- and oxytocin-containing nucleus, the present study documented the distribution of ... a similar sex difference was found. In addition estrogen receptor immunoreactivity was generally more intense in females. ...

Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSuresh Jayakar: Suresh Dinakar Jayakar (21 September 1937, Bombay-21 January 1988) was an Indian biologist who pioneered in the use of quantitative approaches in genetics and biology.List of diseases (M): This is a list of diseases starting with the letter "M".Controlling Vice: Regulating Brothel Prostitution in St. Paul, 1865-1883: Controlling Vice is a book by Minnesotan author Joel Best, published in 1998. It is the story of the strategies that the Minnesota police officers enforced in attempts to regulate prostitution in the late nineteenth century.

(1/9064) Water traffic accidents, drowning and alcohol in Finland, 1969-1995.

OBJECTIVE: To examine age- and sex-specific mortality rates and trends in water traffic accidents (WTA), and their association with alcohol, in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: National mortality and population data from Finland, 1969-1995, are used to analyse rates and trends. The mortality rates are calculated on the basis of population, per 100000 inhabitants in each age group (<1, 1-4, 5-14, 15-24, 25-44, 45-64, > or = 65), and analysed by sex and age. The Poisson regression model and chi2 test for trend (EGRET and StatXact softwares) are used to analyse time trends. RESULTS: From 1969 through 1995 there were 3473 (2.7/100000/year; M:F= 20.4:1) WTA-related deaths among Finns of all ages. In 94.7% of the cases the cause of death was drowning. Alcohol intoxication was a contributing cause of death in 63.0% of the fatalities. During the study period the overall WTA mortality rates declined significantly (-4% per year; P < 0.001). This decline was observed in all age groups except > or = 65 year olds. The overall mortality rates in WTA associated with alcohol intoxication (1987-1995) also declined significantly (-6%; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In Finland, mortality rates in WTA are exceptionally high. Despite a marked decline in most age groups, the high mortality in WTA nevertheless remains a preventable cause of death. Preventive countermeasures targeted specifically to adult males, to the reduction of alcohol consumption in aquatic settings and to the use of personal safety devices should receive priority.  (+info)

(2/9064) Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

(3/9064) Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon.

OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for injuries and other health problems occurring during or immediately after participation in a marathon. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of participants in the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon. Demographic data, information on running experience, training and injuries, and information on other lifestyle factors were obtained from participants before the race using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information on injuries and other health problems sustained during or immediately after the marathon were obtained by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant risk factors for health problems. RESULTS: This study, one of only a few controlled epidemiological studies that have been undertaken of running injuries, has identified a number of risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Men were at increased risk of hamstring and calf problems, whereas women were at increased risk of hip problems. Participation in a marathon for the first time, participation in other sports, illness in the two weeks before the marathon, current use of medication, and drinking alcohol once a month or more, were associated with increased self reported risks of problems. While increased training seemed to increase the risk of front thigh and hamstring problems, it may decrease the risk of knee problems. There are significant but complex relations between age and risk of injury or health problem. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified certain high risk subjects and risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. In particular, subjects who have recently been unwell or are taking medication should weigh up carefully the pros and cons of participating.  (+info)

(4/9064) Prediction of life expectancy in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. A retrospective nationwide survey from 1980-1990.

Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a progressive disease of unknown etiology usually followed by death within 5 years after diagnosis. Although heart-lung or lung transplantation is now offered to patients with advanced PPH, adequate criteria assessing an accurate prediction of life expectancy in PPH has been difficult to establish. The aims of this study were to identify the characteristic features associated with a poor prognosis in patients with PPH, and to attempt to establish an individual prognostic index that predicts with great accuracy survival or death of PPH after one year, thereby helping to define criteria for patient selection for transplantation. In 1991, a retrospective nation-wide survey on PPH was conducted in Japan, and the clinical and cardiorespiratory variables of 223 PPH cases (female; 144, male; 79) in the period from 1980-1990 were obtained. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) was 57.5+/-17.2 mm Hg (mean+/-SD), and the overall median survival time was 32.5 months since the first diagnostic catheterization. The characteristic features of 61 patients who died within one year of catheterization (Nonsurvivors group) were compared to 141 patients who survived one year or more from the time of catheterization (Survivors group). Among several clinical and cardiorespiratory variables, heart rate, PPA, right atrial pressure (PRA), stroke volume index (SI), pulmonary vascular resistance, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) were significantly different between the two groups. As the independent factors, PPA, PRA, SI, and PaCO2 were selected for the multiple logistic analysis. Using a 0.7 probability cut-point to separate Nonsurvivors from Survivors, 84.6% of Nonsurvivors and Survivors could be correctly predicted from this logistic regression equation. Predictive equations like the present preliminary one can be used in the future to better assess life expectancy in patients with PPH in whom transplantation will be considered.  (+info)

(5/9064) Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

(6/9064) Exposure to indoor background radiation and urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, a marker of oxidative DNA damage.

We investigated whether exposure to indoor [gamma]-radiation and radon might be associated with enough free radical formation to increase urinary concentrations of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a sensitive marker of DNA damage, due to a hydroxyl radical attack at the C8 of guanine. Indoor radon and [gamma]-radiation levels were measured in 32 dwellings for 6 months by solid-state nuclear track detectors and thermoluminescent dosimeters, respectively. Urine samples for 8-OHdG determinations were obtained from 63 healthy adult subjects living in the measured dwellings. An overall tendency toward increasing levels of 8-OHdG with increasing levels of radon and [gamma]-radiation was seen in the females, presumably due to their estimated longer occupancy in the dwellings measured. Different models were considered for females, with the steepest slopes obtained for [gamma]-radiation with a coefficient of 0.500 (log nmol/l of 8-OHdG for each unit increase of [gamma]-radiation on a log scale) (p<0.01), and increasing to 0.632 (p = 0.035), but with larger variance, when radon was included in the model. In conclusion, there seems to be an effect of indoor radioactivity on the urinary excretion of 8-OHdG for females, who are estimated to have a higher occupancy in the dwellings measured than for males, for whom occupational and other agents may also influence 8-OHdG excretion. ree radicals; [gamma]-radiation; radon.  (+info)

(7/9064) Gout and hyperuricemia.

Gout is a condition characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints or soft tissue. The four phases of gout include asymptomatic hyperuricemia, acute gouty arthritis, intercritical gout and chronic tophaceous gout. The peak incidence occurs in patients 30 to 50 years old, and the condition is much more common in men than in women. Patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia do not require treatment, but efforts should be made to lower their urate levels by encouraging them to make changes in diet or lifestyle. Acute gout most commonly affects the first metatarsal joint of the foot, but other joints are also commonly involved. Definitive diagnosis requires joint aspiration with demonstration of birefringent crystals in the synovial fluid under a polarized light microscope. Treatment includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine, corticosteroids and analgesics. In patients without complications, NSAID therapy is preferred.  (+info)

(8/9064) Are sex and educational level independent predictors of dementia and Alzheimer's disease? Incidence data from the PAQUID project.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the age specific risk of Alzheimer's disease according to sex, and to explore the role of education in a cohort of elderly community residents aged 65 years and older. METHODS: A community based cohort of elderly people was studied longitudinally for 5 years for the development of dementia. Dementia diagnoses were made according to the DSM III R criteria and Alzheimer's disease was assessed using the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Among the 3675 non-demented subjects initially included in the cohort, 2881 participated in the follow up. Hazard ratios of dementia were estimated using a Cox model with delayed entry in which the time scale is the age of the subjects. RESULTS: During the 5 year follow up, 190 incident cases of dementia, including 140 cases of Alzheimer's disease were identified. The incidence rates of Alzheimer's disease were 0.8/100 person-years in men and 1.4/100 person-years in women. However, the incidence was higher in men than in women before the age of 80 and higher in women than in men after this age. A significant interaction between sex and age was found. The hazard ratio of Alzheimer's disease in women compared with men was estimated to be 0.8 at 75 years and 1.7 at 85 years. The risks of dementia and Alzheimer's disease were associated with a lower educational attainment (hazard ratio=1.8, p<0.001). The increased risk of Alzheimer's disease in women was not changed after adjustment for education. CONCLUSION: Women have a higher risk of developing dementia after the age of 80 than men. Low educational attainment is associated with a higher risk of Alzheimer's disease. However, the increased risk in women is not explained by a lower educational level.  (+info)


  • Species with undifferentiated sex chromosomes emerge as key organisms to understand the astonishing diversity of sex-determination systems. (
  • However, the fits for individual loci appear highly variable, suggesting that a dense genetic coverage will be needed for inferring fine-scale patterns of differentiation along sex-chromosomes. (
  • The applications of these F -statistics, which implies little sampling requirement, significantly facilitate population analyses of sex-chromosomes. (
  • A key variable to such analyses is the amount of differentiation between sex chromosomes. (
  • This feature, central to the evolutionary history of sex chromosomes, is highly informative regarding their contribution to sex-determination, how they differentiate and which genomic regions are affected. (
  • Measuring sex-chromosome differentiation in species with "undifferentiated" sex chromosomes is by definition challenging. (
  • Unlike in mammals and birds, these sex chromosomes are largely homologous. (
  • However, in contrast to birds and mammals (which display the predicted pattern), most cold-blooded vertebrates have homomorphic sex chromosomes. (
  • Lethal recessive mutations will also accumulate (being protected from purging by permanent heterozygosity), as already observed on young sex chromosomes in fish (e.g. (
  • Sex-specific differences in selection may result in stable polymorphisms or for sex chromosomes, faster evolutionary change. (

heterogametic sex

  • Here we demonstrate that two simple F -statistics calculated from sex-linked genotypes, namely the genetic distance ( F st ) between sexes and the inbreeding coefficient ( F is ) in the heterogametic sex, can be used as reliable proxies to compare sex-chromosome differentiation between populations. (


  • Species with homomorphic gametologs are providing instrumental insights into the mechanisms paving these unconventional pathways, like the rates of sex-chromosome transitions (e.g. (


  • Two main hypotheses have been proposed to account for this, namely high turnover rates of sex-determining systems and occasional XY recombination. (
  • Under our settings, this occurs via "demasculinization" of the Y, allowing recombination in XY (sex-reversed) females. (
  • When there is recombination in only one sex, it is always the homogametic sex. (
  • There are a number of hypotheses to explain the sex differences in recombination. (
  • The mean of the mutation, recombination, and gene flow rates over the two sexes can be used in a population genetics context unless there are sex-specific differences in selection or genetic drift. (


  • In sharp contrast with the classical sex-determining systems of mammals and birds, the study of sex-chromosome evolution in other vertebrate lineages has revealed a myriad of alternative evolutionary trajectories ( Beukeboom & Perrin, 2014 ). (
  • Our results support the "fountain of youth" as a plausible mechanism to account for the maintenance of sex-chromosome homomorphy. (
  • Rice 1996 ), the initial step in the life of a sex chromosome is set by an autosomal mutation (or gene duplication) that interacts with the sex-determining cascade, such that heterozygotes develop into one sex (e.g. (
  • This nonrecombining sex-determining region (SDR) might later expand along the chromosome, as additional sexually antagonistic mutations appear ( Rice 1996 ). (


  • Sex-specific differences in these evolutionary factors appear to be unrelated to each other. (
  • The evolutionary explanations for sex-specific differences for each factor are multifaceted and, in addition, explanations may include chance, nonadaptive differences, or mechanistic, nonevolutionary factors. (


  • METHODS: 1996 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey data on ever-married women aged 15-49 who did not desire any more children were used to investigate levels of gender bias and sex preference. (


  • In addition, sex-dependent selection may result in antagonistic pleiotropy or sexually antagonistic genes. (


  • as well as the interplay between genetic and non-genetic sex-determination (e.g. (
  • The overall effective population size (genetic drift) is dominated by the lower sex-specific effective population size. (


  • RESULTS: Commonly used indicators of gender bias, such as sex ratio at birth and sex-specific immunization rates, do not suggest a high level of gender discrimination in Nepal. (


  • hence, sex-selective abortion is rare. (
  • The resulting rare events of XY sex reversal are enough to purge the Y from its load of deleterious mutations. (


  • For example, in Punjab, a region in Northwest India known to have high levels of gender bias, 3 the sex ratio at last birth is 184. (


  • 1 Failure to report the birth of girls, sex-selective abortion, neglect of daughters and female infanticide may all play a role. (


  • However, gender bias and sex preference in Nepal have received little attention. (
  • Sex preference in Nepal has received little attention, possibly because the overall sex ratio at birth (105) is similar to the expected value. (