Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Lateral Line System: Aquatic vertebrate sensory system in fish and amphibians. It is composed of sense organs (canal organs and pit organs) containing neuromasts (MECHANORECEPTORS) that detect water displacement caused by moving objects.Peripheral Nervous System: The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Nerve Tissue ProteinsBody Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Sense of Coherence: A view of the world and the individual's environment as comprehensible, manageable, and meaningful, claiming that the way people view their life has a positive influence on their health.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of an embryo.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tissue and Organ Procurement: The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Organ Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.

*  Foetal sense organ, SEM - Stock Image F002/7305 - Science Photo Library

... sense organ known as the vomeronasal organ (VNO), or Jacobson's organ. The vomeronasal organ is found in the nasal septum and ... Foetal sense organ. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a section through a foetal olfactory (smelling) ... sense organ known as the vomeronasal organ (VNO), or Jacobson's organ. The vomeronasal organ is found in the nasal septum and ... sense, sense organ, sensory, smell, swelling, vesicle, vno, vomeronasal organ ...

*  Various Diagrans of the Organs of the Senses Giclee Print by J.s. Cuthbert at

Various Diagrans of the Organs of the Senses Giclee Print by J.s. Cuthbert - at Choose from over 500,000 ... ... ... Related Categories: J.s. Cuthbert, Senses, Ears, Mary Evans, Fine Art (Giclee Prints), Art, Nervous System, The Human Body, ...

*  Planned Parenthood Guts Babies And Sells Their Organs, But Who Really Cares? | Uncommon Sense

Planned Parenthood Guts Babies And Sells Their Organs, But Who Really Cares? September 15, 2015 by Matt Walsh Not to spoil the ... Planned Parenthood Guts Babies And Sells Their Organs, But Who Really Cares?. original article: Planned Parenthood Guts Babies ... And Sells Their Organs, But Who Really Cares?. September 15, 2015 by Matt Walsh ...

*  Recent Articles | Neurodegenerative Diseases And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 10

What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs. By Sandeep Ravindran , September 1, 2016 ... Proprioception: The Sense Within. By Uwe Proske and Simon Gandevia , September 1, 2016 ... Knowing where our bodies are in space is critical for the control of our movements and for our sense of self. ...,4/tags/neurodegenerative-diseases,cell--amp--molecular-biology/pageNo/10/

*  Recent Articles | E. Coli, Developmental Biology And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 7

What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs. By Sandeep Ravindran , September 1, 2016 ... In mice, immune cells from the body cavity surrounding organs arrive at the site of damage to chew up the nuclei of dead cells. ...,5,12/tags/E--coli,developmental-biology,immunology/pageNo/7/

*  Recent Articles | Immune System And Microbiology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 8

What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs. By Sandeep Ravindran , September 1, 2016 ...,10/tags/immune-system,microbiology/pageNo/8/

*  Recent Articles | Proteomics And Cell & Molecular Biology | The Scientist Magazine®| Page 9

What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs. By Sandeep Ravindran , September 1, 2016 ...,4/tags/proteomics,cell--amp--molecular-biology/pageNo/9/

*  Biology & Biomedicine

Sense organ - [Article] Sensory function of the narwhal tusk - [Briefing] Sinus - [Article] Skeletal system - [Article] Skin ... Copulatory organ - [Article] Dentistry - [Article] Dentition - [Article] Digestive system - [Article] Dwarfism and gigantism ...

*  Martindale's Veterinary Center: Clincal Medicine, Non-Livestock: Birds, Cats, Crocodiles, Dogs, Lions, Primates, etc.

Crocodilian Biology Lessons include "...Sense Organs; Locomotion; etc..." Crocodilian Captive Care Crocodilian Captive Care ... Frog Project "...This game tests your knowledge of the 3D spatial relationships between the organs in the frog. The game starts ...

*  Thou Art That Test | Mid-Book Test - Easy

b) Sense organs. (c) Histories. (d) Children.. 10. What was the intermediate institution for Christians? (a) A ritual. (b) A ...

*  Table of Contents - July 06, 2010, 3 (129) | Science Signaling

Online Cover This week features a Research Article describing a mathematical model that explains how errors are minimized in the specification of cells that form sensory bristles on flies. The analysis revealed that accurate selection of bristle-forming sensory organ precursor cells in fruit flies requires cell-autonomous Notch-ligand interactions to prevent inappropriate fate specification in neighboring cells. The cover image shows a fly with extra bristles due to an error in the fate specification of the sensory organ precursor cells. [Image: Omer Barad, Department of Molecular Genetics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel] ...

*  sense organ

The aim of the site is to disseminate information on all aspects of advaita. Inclusion of essays by other writers and/or links to their sites does not, in itself, indicate agreement with their ideas ...

Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Head and lateral line erosion: 251px|right|thumb|A [[oscar fish|red oscar that has died while showing HLLE]]BESS domain: In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined the domain: BEAF (Boundary element associated factor 32), Suvar(3)7 and Stonewall ). The BESS domain is 40 amino acid residues long and is predicted to be composed of three alpha helices, as such it might be related to the myb/SANT HTH domain.Shape theory of olfaction: The Shape theory of smell proposes that a molecule's smell character is due to its molecular shape, molecular size and functional groups. It has also been described by a 'lock and key' mechanism by which a scent molecule fits into olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium.Mechanosensation: Mechanosensation is a response mechanism to mechanical stimuli. The physiological foundation for the senses of touch, hearing and balance, and pain is the conversion of mechanical stimuli into neuronal signals: mechanosensation.Notch signaling pathway: The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.Multiple patterning: Multiple patterning (or multi-patterning) is a class of technologies for manufacturing integrated circuits (ICs), developed for photolithography to enhance the feature density. The simplest case of multiple patterning is double patterning, where a conventional lithography process is enhanced to produce double the expected number of features.Indy (gene): Indy, short for I'm not dead yet, is a gene of the model organism, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Mutant versions of this gene have doubled the average life span of fruit flies in at least one set of experiments, but this result has been subject to controversy.Iroquois homeobox factor: Iroquois homeobox factors are a family of homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in many developmental processes.Lineage markers: The lineage markers are characteristic molecules for cell lineages, e.g.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Organ procurement organization: In the United States, an organ procurement organization (OPO) is a non-profit organization that is responsible for the evaluation and procurement of deceased-donor organs for organ transplantation. There are 58 such organizations in the United States, each responsible for organ procurement in a specific region, and each a member of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, a federally mandated network created by and overseen by the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS).Milan criteria: In transplantation medicine, the Milan criteria are applied as a basis for selecting patients with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.Renal stem cell: Renal stem cells are self-renewing, multipotent stem cells which are able to give rise to all the cell types of the kidney. It is involved in the homeostasis and repair of the kidney, and holds therapeutic potential for treatment of kidney failure.Membrane protein: Membrane proteins are proteins that interact with biological membranes. They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins.DNA-binding protein

(1/535) Wingless signaling leads to an asymmetric response to decapentaplegic-dependent signaling during sense organ patterning on the notum of Drosophila melanogaster.

Wnt and Decapentaplegic cell signaling pathways act synergistically in their contribution to macrochaete (sense organ) patterning on the notum of Drosophila melanogaster. The Wingless-signaling pathway was ectopically activated by removing Shaggy activity (the homologue of vertebrate glycogen synthase kinase 3) in mosaics. Proneural activity is asymmetric within the Shaggy-deficient clone of cells and shows a fixed "polarity" with respect to body axis, independent of the precise location of the clone. This asymmetric response indicates the existence in the epithelium of a second signal, which we suggest is Decapentaplegic. Ectopic expression of Decapentaplegic induces extra macrochaetes only in cells which also receive the Wingless signal. Activation of Hedgehog signaling generates a long-range signal which can promote macrochaete formation in the Wingless activity domain. This signal depends upon decapentaplegic function. Autonomous activation of the Wingless signal response in cells causes them to attenuate or sequester this signal. Our results suggest a novel patterning mechanism which determines sense organ positioning in Drosophila.  (+info)

(2/535) Central processing of pulsed pheromone signals by antennal lobe neurons in the male moth Agrotis segetum.

Male moths use female-produced pheromones as orientation cues during the mate-finding process. In addition to the needs of evaluating the quality and quantity of the pheromone signal, the male moth also needs to resolve the filamentous structure of the pheromone plume to proceed toward the releasing point successfully. To understand how a discontinuous olfactory signal is processed at the central level, we used intracellular recording methods to characterize the response patterns of antennal lobe (AL) neurons to pulsatile stimulation with the full female-produced pheromone blend and its single components in male turnip moths, Agrotis segetum. Air puffs delivered at frequencies of 1, 3, 5, 7, or 10 Hz were used to carry the stimulus. Two types of AL neurons were characterized according to their capabilities to resolve stimulus pulses. The most common type could resolve at least 1-Hz pulses, thus termed fast neurons; another type could not resolve any pulses, thus termed slow neurons. When fast neurons were excited by stimuli, they always displayed biphasic response patterns, a depolarization phase followed by a hyperpolarization phase. This pattern could be evoked by stimulation with both the single pheromone components and the blend. The pulse-resolving capability of the fast neurons correlated significantly with the size of the hyperpolarization phase. When the amplitude was higher and the fall time of the hyperpolarization faster, the neuron could follow more pulses per second. Moreover, interactions between different pheromone components eliciting different response patterns did not improve the pulse-resolving capability of fast neurons.  (+info)

(3/535) Active signaling of leg loading and unloading in the cockroach.

The ability to detect changes in load is important for effective use of a leg in posture and locomotion. While a number of limb receptors have been shown to encode increases in load, few afferents have been demonstrated to signal leg unloading, which occurs cyclically during walking and is indicative of slipping or perturbations. We applied mechanical forces to the cockroach leg at controlled rates and recorded activities of the tibial group of campaniform sensilla, mechanoreceptors that encode forces through the strains they produce in the exoskeleton. Discrete responses were elicited from the group to decreasing as well as increasing levels of leg loading. Discharges of individual afferents depended on the direction of force application, and unit responses were correlated morphologically with the orientation of the receptor's cuticular cap. No units responded bidirectionally. Although discharges to decreasing levels of load were phasic, we found that these bursts could effectively encode the rate of force decreases. These discharges may be important in indicating leg unloading in the step cycle during walking and could rapidly signal force decreases during perturbations or loss of ground support.  (+info)

(4/535) A spatial map of olfactory receptor expression in the Drosophila antenna.

Insects provide an attractive system for the study of olfactory sensory perception. We have identified a novel family of seven transmembrane domain proteins, encoded by 100 to 200 genes, that is likely to represent the family of Drosophila odorant receptors. Members of this gene family are expressed in topographically defined subpopulations of olfactory sensory neurons in either the antenna or the maxillary palp. Sensory neurons express different complements of receptor genes, such that individual neurons are functionally distinct. The isolation of candidate odorant receptor genes along with a genetic analysis of olfactory-driven behavior in insects may ultimately afford a system to understand the mechanistic link between odor recognition and behavior.  (+info)

(5/535) Preferential expression of biotransformation enzymes in the olfactory organs of Drosophila melanogaster, the antennae.

Biotransformation enzymes have been found in the olfactory epithelium of vertebrates. We now show that in Drosophila melanogaster, a UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT), as well as a short chain dehydrogenase/reductase and a cytochrome P450 are expressed specifically or preferentially in the olfactory organs, the antennae. The evolutionarily conserved expression of biotransformation enzymes in olfactory organs suggests that they play an important role in olfaction. In addition, we describe five Drosophila UGTs belonging to two families. All five UGTs contain a putative transmembrane domain at their C terminus as is the case for vertebrate UGTs where it is required for enzymatic activity. The primary sequence of the C terminus, including part of the transmembrane domain, differs between the two families but is highly conserved not only within each Drosophila family, but also between the members of one of the Drosophila families and vertebrate UGTs. The partial overlap of the conserved primary sequence with the transmembrane domain suggests that this part of the protein is involved in specific interactions occurring at the membrane surface. The presence of different C termini in the two Drosophila families suggests that they interact with different targets, one of which is conserved between Drosophila and vertebrates.  (+info)

(6/535) Prospero distinguishes sibling cell fate without asymmetric localization in the Drosophila adult external sense organ lineage.

The adult external sense organ precursor (SOP) lineage is a model system for studying asymmetric cell division. Adult SOPs divide asymmetrically to produce IIa and IIb daughter cells; IIa generates the external socket (tormogen) and hair (trichogen) cells, while IIb generates the internal neuron and sheath (thecogen) cells. Here we investigate the expression and function of prospero in the adult SOP lineage. Although Prospero is asymmetrically localized in embryonic SOP lineage, this is not observed in the adult SOP lineage: Prospero is first detected in the IIb nucleus and, during IIb division, it is cytoplasmic and inherited by both neuron and sheath cells. Subsequently, Prospero is downregulated in the neuron but maintained in the sheath cell. Loss of prospero function leads to 'double bristle' sense organs (reflecting a IIb-to-IIa transformation) or 'single bristle' sense organs with abnormal neuronal differentiation (reflecting defective IIb development). Conversely, ectopic prospero expression results in duplicate neurons and sheath cells and a complete absence of hair/socket cells (reflecting a IIa-to-IIb transformation). We conclude that (1) despite the absence of asymmetric protein localization, prospero expression is restricted to the IIb cell but not its IIa sibling, (2) prospero promotes IIb cell fate and inhibits IIa cell fate, and (3) prospero is required for proper axon and dendrite morphology of the neuron derived from the IIb cell. Thus, prospero plays a fundamental role in establishing binary IIa/IIb sibling cell fates without being asymmetrically localized during SOP division. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we find that the IIb cell divides prior to the IIa cell in the SOP lineage.  (+info)

(7/535) Sibling cell fate in the Drosophila adult external sense organ lineage is specified by prospero function, which is regulated by Numb and Notch.

Specification of cell fate in the adult sensory organs is known to be dependent on intrinsic and extrinsic signals. We show that the homeodomain transcription factor Prospero (Pros) acts as an intrinsic signal for the specification of cell fates within the mechanosensory lineage. The sensory organ precursors divide to give rise to two secondary progenitors - PIIa and PIIb. Pros is expressed in PIIb, which gives rise to the neuron and thecogen cells. Loss of Pros function affects the identity of PIIb and neurons fail to differentiate. Pros misexpression is sufficient for the transformation of PIIa to PIIb fate. The expression of Pros in the normal PIIb cell appears to be regulated by Notch signaling.  (+info)

(8/535) An essential role for the Drosophila Pax2 homolog in the differentiation of adult sensory organs.

The adult peripheral nervous system of Drosophila includes a complex array of mechanosensory organs (bristles) that cover much of the body surface of the fly. The four cells (shaft, socket, sheath, and neuron) which compose each of these organs adopt distinct fates as a result of cell-cell signaling via the Notch (N) pathway. However, the specific mechanisms by which these cells execute their conferred fates are not well understood. Here we show that D-Pax2, the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate Pax2 gene, has an essential role in the differentiation of the shaft cell. In flies bearing strong loss-of-function mutations in the shaven function of D-Pax2, shaft structures specifically fail to develop. Consistent with this, we find that D-Pax2 protein is expressed in all cells of the bristle lineage during the mitotic (cell fate specification) phase of bristle development, but becomes sharply restricted to the shaft and sheath cells in the post-mitotic (differentiative) phase. Two lines of evidence described here indicate that D-Pax2 expression and function is at least in part downstream of cell fate specification mechanisms such as N signaling. First, we find that the lack of late D-Pax2 expression in the socket cell (the sister of the shaft cell) is controlled by N pathway activity; second, we find that loss of D-Pax2 function is epistatic to the socket-to-shaft cell fate transformation caused by reduced N signaling. Finally, we show that misexpression of D-Pax2 is sufficient to induce the production of ectopic shaft structures. From these results, we propose that D-Pax2 is a high-level transcriptional regulator of the shaft cell differentiation program, and acts downstream of the N signaling pathway as a specific link between cell fate determination and cell differentiation in the bristle lineage.  (+info)


  • In mice, immune cells from the body cavity surrounding organs arrive at the site of damage to chew up the nuclei of dead cells. (
  • I have found that in the composition of the human body as compared with the bodies of animals the organs of sense are duller and coarser. (


  • The vomeronasal organ is found in the nasal septum and is mainly used to detect pheromones, which are chemical messengers that carry information between individuals of the same species. (