Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Self-Help Groups: Organizations which provide an environment encouraging social interactions through group activities or individual relationships especially for the purpose of rehabilitating or supporting patients, individuals with common health problems, or the elderly. They include therapeutic social clubs.Bibliotherapy: A form of supportive psychotherapy in which the patient is given carefully selected material to read.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Pamphlets: Printed publications usually having a format with no binding and no cover and having fewer than some set number of pages. They are often devoted to a single subject.Shyness: Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Information Centers: Facilities for collecting and organizing information. They may be specialized by subject field, type of source material, persons served, location, or type of services.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Intrauterine Devices: Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.BooksBinge-Eating Disorder: A disorder associated with three or more of the following: eating until feeling uncomfortably full; eating large amounts of food when not physically hungry; eating much more rapidly than normal; eating alone due to embarrassment; feeling of disgust, DEPRESSION, or guilt after overeating. Criteria includes occurrence on average, at least 2 days a week for 6 months. The binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behavior (i.e. purging, excessive exercise, etc.) and does not co-occur exclusively with BULIMIA NERVOSA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Remote Consultation: Consultation via remote telecommunications, generally for the purpose of diagnosis or treatment of a patient at a site remote from the patient or primary physician.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Psychotherapy, Group: A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Alcoholics Anonymous: An organization of self-proclaimed alcoholics who meet frequently to reinforce their practice of abstinence.Device Removal: Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Panic Disorder: A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Temperance: Habitual moderation in the indulgence of a natural appetite, especially but not exclusively the consumption of alcohol.Newfoundland and Labrador: Province of Canada consisting of the island of Newfoundland and an area of Labrador. Its capital is St. John's.Septal Occluder Device: A CATHETER-delivered implant used for closing abnormal holes in the cardiovascular system, especially HEART SEPTAL DEFECTS; or passageways intentionally made during cardiovascular surgical procedures.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)
Assistive technology service provider: Assistive technology service providers help individuals with disabilities acquire and use appropriate Assistive Technology (AT) to help them participate in activities of daily living, employment and education.Twelve Traditions: The Twelve Traditions of twelve-step programs provide guidelines for relationships between the twelve-step groups, members, other groups, the global fellowship, and society at large. Questions of finance, public relations, donations, and purpose are addressed in the Traditions.Susan Elderkin: Susan Elderkin (born 1968Susan Elderkin | British Council Literature in CrawleyNew Writing Partnership : New Writing Season) is an English author of two critically acclaimed novels, her first, Sunset Over Chocolate Mountains won a Betty Trask Prize and shortlisted for the Orange Prize for Fiction,Susan Elderkin The Voices her second, The Voice was shortlisted for both the Ondaatje Prize and the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award. She was one of Granta Magazine's 20 Best Young British Novelists in 2003 and won the 2007 Society of Authors Travel Award.Roger Gould: Roger Gould, M.D.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.Debulking: DebulkingNCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute is the surgical removalSurgical debulking of tumors. [Surg Gynecol Obstet.Shyness Machine GirlFood and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.ShorteningBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Australian Network Information Centre: The Australian Network Information Centre (AUNIC) was the National Internet Registry for Australia. It is now disbanded, and its responsibilities undertaken by Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre which serves the entire Asia-Pacific region.List of people with bulimia nervosa: This is a list of notable people who suffered from bulimia nervosa. Often simply known as bulimia, this is an eating disorder which is characterized by consuming a large amount of food in a short amount of time, followed by an attempt to rid oneself of the calories consumed, usually by vomiting, laxative, diuretics or excessive exercise.Intrauterine deviceBlue Peter Book Award: The Blue Peter Book Awards are a set of literary awards for children's books conferred by the BBC television programme Blue Peter. They were inaugurated in 2000 for books published in 1999.Claustrophobia: Claustrophobia is the fear of having no escape and being in closed or small space or room It is typically classified as an anxiety disorder and often results in panic attack, and can be the result of many situations or stimuli, including elevators crowded to capacity, windowless rooms, and even tight-necked clothing. The onset of claustrophobia has been attributed to many factors, including a reduction in the size of the amygdala, classical conditioning, or a genetic predisposition to fear small spaces.Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine: The Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal on ayurvedic medicine. It was established in 2010.Medical device: A medical device is an instrument, apparatus, implant, in vitro reagent, or similar or related article that is used to diagnose, prevent, or treat disease or other conditions, and does not achieve its purposes through chemical action within or on the body (which would make it a drug).Summarised from the FDA's definition.Tobacco cessation clinicKonop v. Hawaiian Airlines, Inc.: Konop v. Hawaiian Airlines, Inc.Telecare: Telecare is the term for offering remote care of elderly and physically less able people, providing the care and reassurance needed to allow them to remain living in their own homes. The use of sensors may be part of a package which can provide support for people with illnesses such as dementia, or people at risk of falling.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Biological resistanceMartin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerPanic Disorder Severity Scale: The Panic Disorder Severity Scale is a questionnaire developed for measuring the severity of panic disorder. The clinician-administered PDSS is intended to assess severity and considered a reliable tool for monitoring of treatment outcome.Telephone numbers in Panama: Country Code: +507Newfoundland Margarine Company Limited: The Newfoundland Butter Company founded by Sir John Chalker Crosbie in 1925 was one of threeVolume four, p. 168, Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, ISBN 0-9693422-1-7.Pinhole occluder: A pinhole occluder is an opaque disk with one or more small holes through it, used by ophthalmologists, orthoptists and optometrists to test visual acuity. The occluder is a simple way to focus light, as in a pinhole camera, temporarily removing the effects of refractive errors such as myopia.Social anxiety disorder
(1/212) The effect of walking aids on exercise capacity and oxygenation in elderly patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
BACKGROUND: high walking frames may improve exercise capacity in young patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have assessed the effect of Zimmer, rollator and gutter frames on 6-min walking distance and on arterial oxygenation during exercise in elderly patients with COPD. METHODS: 27 out-patients (15 men) aged 70-82 (mean 75) years were recruited. Exclusions comprised: COPD exacerbation or oral steroid use within 6 weeks, confusional state, participation in a pulmonary rehabilitation programme and exercise limitation by other diseases. Subjects completed 6-min walk tests unaided and with the three frames on four separate days in random order 30 min after nebulized salbutamol (5 mg) and ipratropium (0.5 mg) and were accompanied by an investigator blinded to results of all other walk tests undertaken. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) was monitored by finger probe during exercise. Grouped t-tests were used to compare distances and reductions in SaO2. RESULTS: Unaided, the mean (SEM) 6-min walk distance was 210 (16) m and fall in oxygen saturation was 6.0 (1.1)%. Use of a rollator frame did not significantly affect either of these values. Using the Zimmer frame reduced the mean distance to 165 (13) m (t=5.2, P < 0.001 vs unaided walk) with an SaO2 fall similar to that recorded during the unaided walk. Using the gutter frame increased the mean distance to 234 (150) m (t=3. 1, P=0.004 vs unaided walk) and reduced the fall in SaO2 to 3.7 (0.8)% (t=2.3, P=0.03 vs unaided walk). CONCLUSIONS: gutter frames improve exercise capacity and SaO2 during exercise in elderly COPD patients who remain symptomatic on optimal therapy, whereas unwheeled Zimmer frames have a deleterious effect in such patients. (+info)
(2/212) Comparison of two self-help smoking cessation booklets.
OBJECTIVE: To compare two self-help smoking cessation booklets distributed to callers to a Quitline telephone service in Queensland (Australia). DESIGN: Callers were randomised to receive either a structured 14-day quit programme (Time to quit) or another booklet and described four broad stages of quitting (Can quit). Approximately one month later, these callers were interviewed by telephone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Self-reported smoking status at one month and recent quit attempts together with process measures. RESULTS: Altogether, 521 callers (78.3%) were interviewed. They were heavier smokers when compared with all Queensland smokers: on average they had smoked for more than 15 years, smoked nearly 25 cigarettes per day, and almost two-thirds had attempted to quit smoking in the past year. In each group, significant proportions either did not begin to use the booklet (50.5-56.0%), or did not complete its use (77.4-82.3%). There were no differences in the self-reported quit rates at one month (17.0% vs 16.1%; p = 0.93). In an ordinal regression modelling procedure involving age, sex, number of recent quit attempts, number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking status of partner, number of five closest friends who smoke, education, and booklet received, only the number of cigarettes smoked per day was significantly related to smoking status at one month. CONCLUSIONS: Callers to telephone Quit-line services are typically heavier smokers than the general smoking population, and simple strategies, such as self-help booklets, appear to achieve relatively high success. Nevertheless, there is potential to improve the effectiveness of these materials by making a range of materials available and encouraging callers to make a serious attempt to quit smoking. (+info)
(3/212) How well do we care for patients with end stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? A comparison of palliative care and quality of life in COPD and lung cancer.
BACKGROUND: Patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have a poor quality of life and limited life expectancy. This study examined whether these patients were relatively disadvantaged in terms of medical and social care compared with a group with inoperable lung cancer. METHODS: An open two group comparison was made of 50 patients with severe COPD (forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) <0.75 l and at least one admission for hypercapnic respiratory failure) and 50 patients with unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A multi-method design was used involving standardised quality of life tools, semi-structured interviews, and review of documentation. RESULTS: The patients with COPD had significantly worse activities of daily living and physical, social, and emotional functioning than the patients with NSCLC (p<0.05). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores suggested that 90% of patients with COPD suffered clinically relevant anxiety or depression compared with 52% of patients with NSCLC. Patients were generally satisfied with the medical care received, but only 4% in each group were formally assessed or treated for mental health problems. With regard to social support, the main difference between the groups was that, while 30% of patients with NSCLC received help from specialist palliative care services, none of the patients with COPD had access to a similar system of specialist care. Finally, patients in both groups reported a lack of information from professionals regarding diagnosis, prognosis and social support, although patients' information needs were disparate and often conflicting. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that patients with end stage COPD have significantly impaired quality of life and emotional well being which may not be as well met as those of patients with lung cancer, nor do they receive holistic care appropriate to their needs. (+info)
(4/212) HFs/ergonomics of assistive technology.
An assistive device is designed to accommodate the special needs of disability that can help people with physical, mental or cognitive challenges go through their day-to-day activities with less difficulty. An assistive device usually provide alternatives to functional limitations imposed by the client's disorder, and thereby minimising rehabilitation costs. It is therefore important to know about how assistive technology will function in all the possible aspects of such disabilities and impairements. When designing a technical device, particularly in conjunction with the target user group, ergonomic issues are therefore important to find out the extent to which an assistive device is convenient or not, and to check the quality performance of assistive technology. Since the question of the match or mismatch of an assistive device and a disabled person requires much attention, it is therefore suggested that paying attention on how an assistive device be ergonomically designed and developed is important. Ergonomic applications are to be applied for increasing motivation of prospective customers through innovative performance of AT. The authors believe that there are opportunities in ergonomic applications to manufacture an assistive device as unique, cost saving, and allows less exertation and reduces energy consumption when it is used. Hence this paper highlights human factors and/or ergonomics consideration in the process of design and development of assistive devices synchronising with gerontechnological research and development aiming to emphasise user's requirement. (+info)
(5/212) Non discrimination on the basis of disability in air travel. Final rule.
The Department of Transportation (DOT or Department) is amending its rules implementing the Air Carrier Access Act of 1986 (ACAA) and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 to require airports and air carriers to provide boarding assistance to individuals with disabilities by using ramps, mechanical lifts, or other suitable devices where level-entry boarding by loading bridge or mobile lounge is not available on any aircraft with a seating capacity of 31 or more passengers. This final rule parallels the 1996 final rule for aircraft with a seating capacity of 19 through 30 passengers (+info)
(6/212) Effects of a standing aid on loads on low back and legs during dishwashing.
In order to prevent low back pain during dishwashing, we developed a standing aid for supporting the forward bending posture, and then evaluated the effects of the standing aid on decreasing load on the low back and legs. Eight female volunteers were asked to wash plates for 60 minutes in each of three working postures: (a) without the standing aid, (b) with the standing aid under the thighs, and (c) with the standing aid under the shins. The following were measured: electromyogram (EMG), electrocardiogram (ECG), the force applied to the standing aid, the ground reaction force, the bending angle of the trunk, the bending angle of the knee, and local discomfort in body regions. While using the standing aid under the shins, the muscle load decreased in the low back and legs. While using the standing aid under the thighs, the muscle loads decreased in the low back but increased in the legs. It was suggested that the standing aid under the shins was more effective in decreasing the load on the low back and legs than the standing aid under the thighs. (+info)
(7/212) Individually fitted sports shoes for overuse injuries among newspaper carriers.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of new, individually fitted sports shoes against overuse injuries to the lower limb among newspaper carriers. METHODS: Patients (N = 176) with lower-limb overuse injuries were randomly assigned to use new, individually adjusted footwear with good shock absorbing properties (test group = 86) or the subjects' own, used footwear (control group = 90). The main outcome measurements were lower-limb pain intensity during walking, as rated on a visual analogue scale (0-100), number of painful days, subjective assessment of global improvement, foot fatigue, number of hyperkeratotic skin lesions and diagnosed overuse injuries, and costs of foot care as compared between the treatment groups. RESULTS: At the 6-month follow-up there was a difference in favor of the test group with respect to lower-limb pain intensity and number of painful days, when compared with the control group. At 1 year, 53% and 33% of the test and control groups, respectively, thought they were better than at the time of the baseline examination (number needed to treat being 5 between the test and control groups). The test subjects had less foot fatigue and fewer hyperkeratotic skin lesions. There was no difference in the number of diagnosed overuse injuries between the groups. During the year of follow-up, the all-inclusive mean costs of foot care were USD 70 and USD 158 in the test and control groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Individually adjusted shock-absorbing shoes offer slight health benefits for lower-limb overuse injuries. Proper shoes may decrease the need to use health care resources. (+info)
(8/212) The effects of a contoured foam seat on postural alignment and upper-extremity function in infants with neuromotor impairments.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Physical therapists and occupational therapists frequently use adaptive seating devices to improve stability in sitting for children with neuromotor impairments. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a contoured foam seat (CFS) on postural alignment and on the ability of infants with neuromotor impairments to engage with toys. Parental perceptions regarding the use and effects of the CFS also were assessed via semistructured interviews. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 4 infants, ages 9 to 18 months, who were unable to sit independently. METHOD: A time-series, alternating-treatments design was used, with data collected under 3 conditions: (1) a regular highchair, (2) a regular highchair with a thin foam liner, and (3) a CFS used as an insert in a regular highchair. The primary dependent measures were postural alignment and engagement with toys. Engagement with toys was defined as percentage of intervals with 2 hands on a toy and percentage of intervals with no hands on a highchair tray and 1 or 2 hands on a toy. RESULTS: Results showed a sustained effect of the CFS on improving postural alignment for all subjects. Effects of the CFS on increasing the number of intervals of bimanual play were not demonstrated for any subjects, although some improvement in the infant's ability to free the arms from support was observed for 2 subjects. Mothers reported acceptability of the CFS for everyday use and described benefits for themselves and their infants. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The results support the use of a CFS for improving postural alignment. Future research on adaptive seating should focus on interventions and outcomes that help children participate in functional activities relevant to them and their families. (+info)