Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.

(1/1832) Barriers to guideline adherence. Based on a presentation by Michael Cabana, MD.

Successful implementation of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) should improve quality of care by decreasing inappropriate variation and by disseminating new advances to everyday practice. A key component of this process is physician adherence to JNC-VI guidelines. However several reports in the literature show a discrepancy between hypertension guidelines and actual practice. The factors that influence physician behavior change and optimal use of practice guidelines are poorly understood. A combined model that uses the Awareness-to-Adherence Model and Social Cognitive Theory identifies five sequential steps that lead to adherence to a guideline--awareness, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and presence of a cueing mechanism. Barriers to implementation may occur at any of these steps and can be identified with this model. Programs can then be designed to overcome specific barriers. By conceptualizing the underlying issues in physician adherence, the combined model should be useful to guideline developers, practice directors, and health services researchers.  (+info)

(2/1832) Comparison of stage-matched and unmatched interventions to promote exercise behaviour in the primary care setting.

This study examined the effectiveness of stages of change-based counselling for exercise delivered by nurses in four primary care centres. Two-hundred and ninety-four subjects enrolled, recruited from patients attending 30-min health checks. The average age of participants was 42.4 years (SD = 15.1) and 77% were female. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing stage of exercise adoption, self-efficacy and exercise levels. Each centre was assigned to either one of three experimental conditions or to a control condition. Participants were counselled accordingly, receiving either stage-oriented exercise materials with counselling (stage plus counselling), stage-oriented materials without counselling (stage no counselling), non-staged materials with counselling (counselling only) or the current level of advice (control). Sixty-one percent (n = 180) returned follow-up questionnaires. When baseline differences in self-efficacy, age and gender were controlled for, there was no significant group or interaction effect for stage. There was a significant time effect (F = 3.55, P = 0.031). Post hoc analyses showed that significant differences were between baseline and 2 (t = -3.02, P = 0.003) and 6 months (t = -2.67, P = 0.009). No changes in self-efficacy and exercise levels were observed. Stage-based interventions were not superior to the other interventions. All single-contact interventions, while having no impact on exercise behaviour and self-efficacy, did enhance motivation to change.  (+info)

(3/1832) 'Instilling the strength to fight the pain and get on with life': learning to become an arthritis self-manager through an adult education programme.

The aim of this study was to determine whether the Arthritis Self-Management Programme (ASMP) is effective in promoting perceived control and self-management ability when delivered in an adult education setting. The study was a pre-test-post-test design based on a sample of 89 people attending an ASMP. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires prior to the intervention and after the intervention, 4 months from baseline. The sample comprised 80% women, with a mean age of 57 years and a mean disease duration of 13 years. Most participants had either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. After 4 months, participants demonstrated significant increases in arthritis self-efficacy (P < 0.0005), cognitive symptom management (P < 0.0005), communication with doctors (P = 0.018), exercise (P = 0.003) and relaxation (P < 0.00005). In addition, significant decreases were found in terms of pain (P = 0.034) and visits to other health professionals (P = 0.004). The first evaluation of the ASMP, delivered within the context of adult education, suggests that this form of community health education programme can offer substantial benefits for participants, particularly in terms of perceived ability to control various aspects of arthritis and in greater utilization of cognitive-behavioral techniques.  (+info)

(4/1832) Comparing smoking and smoking cessation process in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and North Karelia, Finland.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess and validate self reported smoking prevalence and to assess smoking cessation related process variables in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and in North Karelia, Finland. DESIGN: Comparative population surveys of random population samples from both areas in spring 1992. The study included a self administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. The validity of self reported smoking prevalence was assessed by serum cotinine analyses. SETTING: The district of Pitkaranta in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and province of North Karelia, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: The study population was a 25 to 64 year old population in both areas. A stratified random sample of 1000 people in Pitkaranta and 2000 people in North Karelia was drawn from the population registers. In Pitkaranta 380 men and 455 women, and in North Karelia 673 men and 803 women, participated in the survey. RESULTS: The self reported prevalence rates of daily smoking in Pitkaranta were 65% among men and 10% among women. In North Karelia the respective rates were 29% and 13%. Women in Pitkaranta greatly underreported their smoking status, which was assessed by comparing the self reported data to the serum cotinine measurements. The smoking prevalence among women in Pitkaranta would rise from 10% to 21% if all participants with high cotinine values would be regarded as smokers. Compared with smokers in North Karelia, a higher percentage of smokers in Pitkaranta expressed their wish to quit and believed that they would succeed. However, on average they had fewer previous smoking cessation attempts than smokers in North Karelia. In addition, the health personnel in North Karelia were more active in advising smokers to quit. CONCLUSIONS: High smoking prevalence among men in Pitkaranta obviously contributes much to the high premature death rate in the Republic of Karelia. There is considerable underreporting of smoking in Pitkaranta, especially among women, which is probably attributable to the cultural unacceptability of female smoking in Russia. The common wish to quit, few previous cessation attempts and much lower rates of ex smokers, together with less smoking cessation counselling from health personnel, need to be considered in tailoring antismoking interventions in the area.  (+info)

(5/1832) A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.

An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions coordinated by health personnel, and video-depicted open-ended narratives aimed at helping sex workers to explore their personal and work-related dilemmas and concerns. A core objective was to enhance sex workers' self-esteem and perceived future with a view to strengthening their motivation to take preventive action against HIV infection. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of qualitative (process evaluation) and quantitative (outcome) methods. The outcome evaluation was undertaken using a pretest, post-test intervention and control group quasi-experimental design. There were significant increases in consistent condom use among the intervention groups but not among the controls. Pragmatic stability is advocated for the Thai sex industry and recommendations are offered for good quality HIV prevention activities.  (+info)

(6/1832) Hip protectors improve falls self-efficacy.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of use of external hip protectors on subjects' fear of falling and falls self-efficacy (belief in their own ability to avoid falling). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Aged-care health services in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 131 women aged 75 years or older, who had two or more falls or one fall requiring hospital admission in the previous year and who live at home. Sixty-one subjects were in the intervention group and 70 in the control group. INTERVENTION: Use of external hip protectors and encouragement to use the protectors by an adherence nurse. MEASUREMENTS: At the time of enrolment into a wider study examining the effect of hip protectors on hip fractures, participants recruited at home completed an assessment of fear of falling and falls efficacy as measured by the Falls Efficacy Scale and the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale. At 4-month follow-up, these scales were readministered by an observer who was not aware of the allocation of the participant to intervention or control groups. RESULTS: Fear of falling and falls self-efficacy, as measured by the Falls Efficacy and Modified Falls Efficacy Scales, were similar at baseline in both groups. Fear of falling was present at follow-up in 43% of subjects using hip protectors and 57% of the control group (chi2 = 2.58, P = 0.11). Hip protector users had greater improvement in falls self-efficacy at follow-up as measured by the Falls Efficacy Scale (t = 2.44, P = 0.016) and the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (t = 2.08, P = 0.039). CONCLUSION: Hip protectors improve falls self-efficacy. As users of hip protectors feel more confident that they can complete tasks safely, they may become more physically active and require less assistance with activities of daily living.  (+info)

(7/1832) Development and evaluation of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire: a new health status measure for heart failure.

OBJECTIVES: To create a valid, sensitive, disease-specific health status measure for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: Quantifying health status is becoming increasingly important for CHF. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) is a new, self-administered, 23-item questionnaire that quantifies physical limitations, symptoms, self-efficacy, social interference and quality of life. METHODS: To establish the performance characteristics of the KCCQ, two distinct patient cohorts were recruited: 70 stable and 59 decompensated CHF patients with ejection fractions of <40. Upon entry into the study, patients were administered the KCCQ, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Questionnaires were repeated three months later. RESULTS: Convergent validity of each KCCQ domain was documented by comparison with available criterion standards (r = 0.46 to 0.74; p < 0.001 for all). Among those with stable CHF who remained stable by predefined criteria (n = 39), minimal changes in KCCQ domains were detected over three months of observation (mean change = 0.8 to 4.0 points, p = NS for all). In contrast, large changes in score were observed among patients whose decompensated CHF improved three months later (n = 39; mean change = 15.4 to 40.4 points, p < 0.01 for all). The sensitivity of the KCCQwas substantially greater than that of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure and the SF-36 questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The KCCQis a valid, reliable and responsive health status measure for patients with CHF and may serve as a clinically meaningful outcome in cardiovascular research, patient management and quality assessment.  (+info)

(8/1832) Self-efficacy as a mediator between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Differences based on history of prior depression.

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy, a characteristic that is protective against depressive symptoms, may be undermined by stressful life events. AIMS: To estimate the effects of stressful life events on self-efficacy, and to examine self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of stressful life events on symptoms of depression. METHOD: Using a sample of 2858 respondents from the longitudinal Americans' Changing Lives study, path analyses were used to evaluate interrelationships between self-efficacy, life events and symptoms of depression controlling for a variety of potentially confounding variables. Separate models were estimated for those with and without prior depression. RESULTS: For those with prior depression, dependent life events had a significant, negative impact on self-efficacy. For those without prior depression, life events had no effect on self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: For those with prior depression, self-efficacy mediates approximately 40% of the effect of dependent stressful life events on symptoms of depression.  (+info)


  • This study addressed the question, 'How are different levels of specificity in self-referent thoughts related to the intention of creating one's own business? (
  • Definition(social cognitive theory) - one's belief in one's ability to succeed in specific situations - Self-referent thought mediates between knowledge and action;through self-reflection individuals evaluate their own experiences and thought processes - According to Bandura's theory, people with high self-efficacy-that is, those who believe they can perform well-are more likely to view difficult tasks as something to be mastered rather than something to be avoided. (
  • Evidence suggests that general self-efficacy, one's beliefs about his or her global abilities, and social self-efficacy, one's beliefs in his or her ability to navigate social situations, are strongly connected to levels of social anxiety. (

develop self-efficacy beliefs

  • Individuals also create and develop self-efficacy beliefs as a result of the social messages they receive from others. (
  • This post describes the theory of self-efficacy, the research surrounding it, and four ways in which people develop self-efficacy beliefs. (


  • Depending on the situation people either rely on specific efficacy beliefs or they rely on more general self-efficacy beliefs, or general self-esteem. (
  • The study focuses on domain-specific and general self-referent beliefs and their association to first stage of the entrepreneurial process - entrepreneurial intention. (
  • The teacher's beliefs about self-efficacy shape their instructional practice. (
  • the interpreted result of purposive performance, is the most influential source of self-efficacy beliefs. (
  • persuaders can play an important part in the development of an individual's self-beliefs. (
  • Or perhaps you are curious about how people develop their self-efficacy beliefs? (
  • Multifaceted impact of self-efficacy beliefs on academic functioning. (
  • Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories. (

general self-efficacy

  • the Schwarzer's General Self-Efficacy Scale, and the Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Scale, data about self-referent thoughts were collected from 332 unemployed, potential entrepreneurs attending an entrepreneurship preparation training programme. (
  • Findings suggest that higher levels of general self-esteem, general self-efficacy and domain-specific self-efficacy are positively associated with entrepreneurial intention, but only domain-specific self-efficacy is a good predictor of this intention. (
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between negative self-statements and selfefficacy and examine both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy as mediator variables in the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. (
  • A significant relationship between negative self-statements and both general self-efficacy and social self-efficacy respectively was established. (
  • Results also indicated that general self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety while social self-efficacy only partially mediated the relationship between negative self-statements and social anxiety. (


  • Factor loadings from 3-factor Rheumatoid Arthritis Self-efficacy scale (RASE) model. (
  • The measuring instruments used were the Assessing Emotions Scale, the Self-efficacy Scale and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ Form 5X). (
  • Belief in the MMS under the Internalization of Model Minority Stereotype Scale (IMMSS) was found to be a significant predictor for academic self-efficacy. (
  • ABC), and fear of falling (Falls Efficacy Scale). (


  • A lo largo de una carrera de casi seis décadas, Bandura ha sido responsable de grandes contribuciones en campos muy diferentes de la psicología, incluyendo la teoría social-cognitiva, terapia y psicología de la personalidad. (
  • Algunos de estos títulos fueron otorgados por las universidades de Roma, Indiana, Leiden, Berlín y Salamanca[2]​ Bandura fue además presidente de la American Psychological Association en el año 1974. (
  • 3]​ Una encuesta en 2002 situó a Bandura en el cuarto puesto de los psicólogos más citados de todos los tiempos, después de B. F. Skinner, Sigmund Freud y Jean Piaget, y el más citado vivo. (


  • The instructor's actual instructional practice tends to be less efficacious or less effective than their self-reporting perception of efficaciousness in instructional effectiveness. (
  • The subjective perception of the self. (


  • While some previous studies had investigated the various cultural and familial influences on the academic achievement of Asian American college students, this study provided a unique opportunity for researchers and practitioners to gain an understanding of the specific pattern of relationship of MMS, ACV, and ACC to goal orientation, academic self-efficacy, and academic achievement in Asian American college students. (
  • The prime purpose of this study was to propose and test an integrated parental and social-cognitive model of academic achievement and examine the effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on academic achievement by employing an ex-post facto prospective research design. (
  • A one-way Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was also used to assess sex differences in the academic self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic achievement of students. (
  • The results of the path analyses provided partial support for the hypothesized model, in that, irrespective of students' sex, parenting styles had a significant and positive direct effect on academic self-efficacy, as well as significant and positive mediated effects on achievement motivation (i.e., via academic self-efficacy) and academic achievement (i.e., via achievement motivation for female students and via academic self-efficacy for male students). (
  • The results also revealed that both female and male students who described their parents as authoritative had higher academic self-efficacy and these students in turn had higher achievement motivation than their counterparts who characterized their parents as non-authoritative. (
  • Similarly, male students who characterized their parents as authoritative had higher academic self-efficacy and these students in turn had higher academic achievement when compared with their counterparts from non-authoritative families. (
  • With regard to the interrelationships among academic self-efficacy, achievement motivation, and academic achievement, irrespective of students' sex, academic self-efficacy had a significant and positive direct effect on achievement motivation and a significant and positive mediated effect (i.e., through achievement motivation) on academic achievement. (
  • Academic self-efficacy had also a significant and positive direct effect on academic achievement for male students, but not for female students. (


  • Self-regulation of motivation through anticipatory and self-reactive mechanisms. (


  • they can gauge their confidence by the emotional state they experience as they contemplate an action - However, typical anxiety experienced before an important endeavor is NOT a guide to low self-efficacy. (
  • Negative self-statements, also known as negative self-referent cognitions, have also been linked with levels of social anxiety. (
  • Although self-efficacy and negative self-statements have been shown to be important variables in the phenomenology and maintenance of social anxiety in children, they have yet to be examined in conjunction with one another. (
  • Moree, Brittany Nicole, "The relationship among self-efficacy, negative self-statements, and social anxiety in children: a mediation" (2010). (


  • The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between three constructs, namely emotional intelligence, self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness in a policing context. (
  • This study explores the psychological constructs of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy on the leadership effectiveness of the police. (
  • This research adopted a quantitative approach to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy as attributes of leadership effectiveness. (
  • The results confirmed a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness. (
  • One can ask whether this ability to adjust to the complexities is innate and, for the purpose of this research, whether a leader's effectiveness is associated with the psychological constructs of emotional intelligence and self-efficacy. (
  • When analyzing the efficacy and effectiveness levels of the six community college mathematics teachers, the range of efficaciousness varies from "moderately efficacious to slightly efficacious" and the effectiveness also ranges from "very effective and moderately effective" to "slightly effective and not effective. (



  • Se centró en estudios de tendencia conductual-cognitiva y es profesor de la Universidad Stanford,[1]​ reconocido por su trabajo sobre la teoría del aprendizaje social y su evolución al Sociocognitivismo, así como por haber postulado la categoría de autoeficacia. (


  • And, in that moment, it occurred to me that while some people have many obvious talents, skills, and aptitudes, it is the rare person who has a strong sense of self-efficacy. (
  • Why would people maintain negative self-evaluations when they result in a great degree of distress? (


  • This study, What Is the Relationship between Community College Mathematics Faculty and Effective Instructional Practice, stems from the research that teachers' self-efficacy has proved to be significantly related to teachers' success that impacts student learning. (


  • What is the relationship between self-efficacy of community college mathematics faculty and effective instructional practice? (


  • Multiple Factors of Workforce Development that Affect the Efficacy of Training Transfer to the On-the-Job Performance of Public Health Care Workers. (


  • is measured at a more general level of specificity and includes the evaluation of such competence and the feelings of self-worth (selfesteem)associated with the behaviors in question. (
  • to increase student achievement in school, educational efforts should focus on raising students' feelings of self-worth or of competence. (


  • Have you ever wondered whether you have a strong self-efficacy belief or not? (


  • Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. (
  • The purpose of this study is to conduct a randomized controlled trial among 468 Non-Hispanic black mothers and their families to test the efficacy of MOTHERS AND OTHERS, a multi-component home visitation program, compared to an attention control (child safety) in promoting appropriate weight gain during infancy. (


  • This study also aimed to determine which type of self-efficacy would be the best fit for the proposed mediation model. (


  • Emotional intelligence and self-efficacy should be considered as attributes during the selection of leaders in police organisations or used for developmental purposes to enhance these attributes in police leaders. (


  • What purpose do negative self-evaluations have? (


  • Many human decisions are dependent to some degree on self-referent thoughts. (