Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.

*  F-Type ATPase - mTOR inhibitors suppress homologous recombination repair
... reported barriers to self-management11 12 include knowledge deficits poor patient-provider communication low self-efficacy ...
*  Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of an AT-III Concentrate. - Full Text View -
Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of an AT-III Concentrate.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... To assess clinical efficacy by preventing thromboembolic or thrombotic events (prophylaxis) in individuals with congenital AT- ... To assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a plasma-derived AT-III concentrate in the treatment of subjects with ... A Phase II/III Pivotal Trial Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Efficacy of a Plasma-Derived Anti-thrombin ...
*  When Device Failure Translates to Therapeutic Efficacy | Circulation: Cardiovascular Interventions
When Device Failure Translates to Therapeutic Efficacy. Intentional Fracture of Bioprosthetic Valve Rings as an Adjunctive ...
*  Efficacy of prayer - Wikipedia
Efficacy of prayer, in "Sermons" B.H. Greene Press, Boston, 1849, pages 252-255 George Burnap, The efficacy of prayer in " ... The efficacy of prayer is about the outcome of prayer requests. This topic has been discussed in many fields such as theology, ... The efficacy of prayer has been the topic of various scientific studies since Francis Galton first addressed it in 1872. In ... The Efficacy of "Distant Healing" A Systematic Review of Randomized Trials Annals of Internal Medicine June 6, 2000 vol. 132 no ...
*  Efficacy stories at Techdirt.
There are a few reasons effectiveness may have declined over the past forty years, not all of which are tied to self-interest and profit chasing. One possible factor is that the low-hanging fruit of the pharmaceutical world was plucked first, generating effective medications for simpler ailments. It also could be that those volunteering for clinical trials are increasingly people not having success with currently available drugs. Another factor mentioned in the article is the fact that the quality of clinical trials has increased over the years and the additional scrutiny to detail has narrowed the definition of success ...
*  Efficacy of rubella vaccination. | The BMJ
Efficacy of rubella vaccination.. Br Med J 1978; 2 doi: (Published 02 September 1978) ...
*  Sedative's Efficacy in Executions Questioned - latimes
Sedative's Efficacy in Executions Questioned. Judge is `troubled' that anesthetic used in lethal injections has failed to ...
*  Treament Efficacy
Communication and Swallowing: Treatment Efficacy. Standardizing Laryngeal Endoscopy. Sponsor: South Carolina Clinical & ...
*  Efficacy of Intra-articular Steroids | The BMJ
Efficacy of Intra-articular Steroids. Br Med J 1965; 1 doi: (Published 20 March 1965) ...
*  Clozapine: Efficacy and Safety
1. Double-blind studies to examine clozapine's efficacy (1) for negative symptoms, including whether such efficacy includes ... What Is the Efficacy (vs. Placebo and/or Conventional Antipsychotics) of Clozapine During Acute Symptom Episodes for Reduction ... What Is the Efficacy (vs. Placebo and/or Conventional Antipsychotics) of Clozapine During Maintenance Treatment for Reduction ... Clozapine: Efficacy and Safety. By Robert W. Buchanan. Schizophrenia Bulletin, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1995. National Institute of ...
*  Efficacy and Safety of Cryopreserved Platelets
... Page Content. Please note: AABB reserves the right to make updates to this ... Summarize findings of clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of cryopreserved platelets. ... sufficient data has been generated for the development of a phase 2 clinical trial to analyze the efficacy of cryopreserved ...
*  Does melatonin improve sleep?: Efficacy of melatonin | The BMJ
Does melatonin improve sleep?: Efficacy of melatonin. BMJ 2006; 332 doi: (Published 02 ...
*  Thermogard™ Efficacy Trial - Full Text View -
Thermogard™ Efficacy Trial. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and ...
*  WHO | Norms and Standards: Quality, safety and efficacy of medicines
Quality, safety and efficacy of medicines WHO's mandate is to "develop, establish and promote international standards with ... Safety and efficacy of medicines. Alerts, pharmacovigilance, information exchange, utilization of medicines ...
*  Efficacy and safety of COX 2 inhibitors | The BMJ
Efficacy and safety of COX 2 inhibitors New data are encouraging but the risk:benefit ratio remains unclear ... Two large pivotal trials have been published, in which the efficacy and safety of the COX 2 inhibitors celecoxib and rofecoxib ... promised equivalent efficacy with greater safety and tolerability. ... Efficacy and safety of COX 2 inhibitors. BMJ 2002; 325 doi: (Published 21 September ...
*  Drug efficacy boost by using nanoparticles to t...
... cryo-MOST may be potentially useful for understanding neurodegenerative disease mechanisms and evaluating drug efficacy. ...
*  JCI - Targeting CD137 enhances the efficacy of cetuximab
To determine the efficacy against KRAS-WT and mutant tumors, nu/nu mice were inoculated with 1 × 106 T84 (KRAS-WT) tumor cells ... Targeting CD137 enhances the efficacy of cetuximab. Holbrook E. Kohrt,1 A. Dimitrios Colevas,1 Roch Houot,1,2,3 Kipp Weiskopf,1 ... Depletion of CD4+ T cells or macrophages had no influence on efficacy (Figure 5, D and E). As hypothesized, depletion of NK ... We observed equal efficacy in reducing tumor growth and prolonging survival with the combination of cetuximab and anti-CD137 ...
*  Acupuncture: Efficacy, Safety and Practice - A BMA Report
Efficacy, Safety and Practice - A BMA Report ... Acupuncture: Efficacy, Safety and Practice. A BMA Report This section is compiled by Frank M. Painter, D.C.. Send all comments ... Acupuncture: efficacy, safety and practice comes from the BMA's Board of Science and Education and is launched on the eve of ... Full details of the Recommendations in Acupuncture: efficacy, safety and practice will be available from Monday 26 June 2000 on ...
*  Thymus Transplantation Safety-Efficacy - Full Text View -
The purpose of this Phase I/II study is to continue thymus transplantation safety and efficacy research for the treatment of ... Thymus Transplantation Safety-Efficacy. Expanded access is currently available for this treatment. ... This Phase I/II study continues thymus transplantation safety and efficacy research for the treatment of complete DiGeorge ... Safety and Efficacy of Thymus Transplantation in Complete DiGeorge Anomaly, IND#9836. ...
*  Factors Which Influence the Efficacy of Behavioral Consequences
Factors Which Influence the Efficacy of Behavioral Consequences This clip from the show "The Big Bang Theory" shows the ...
*  Simulation Efficacy in Neurosurgical Education - Tabular View -
Simulation Efficacy in Neurosurgical Education. Official Title Investigating the Efficacy of Simulation Curricula in ... Simulation Efficacy in Neurosurgical Education (SENSE). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility ... This study aims to investigate the efficacy of simulation in neurosurgical training. This will be assessed using accuracy and ... This study aims to investigate the efficacy of simulation in neurosurgical training.. ...
*  Genetically Engineered Bug Strains to Improve Vaccine Efficacy
... researchers have developed more than 60 genetically engineered bug strains which can substantially increase the efficacy of flu ... Genetically Engineered Bug Strains to Improve Vaccine Efficacy. by Kathy Jones on January 18, 2013 at 8:26 PM Genetics & Stem ... researchers have developed more than 60 genetically engineered bug strains which can substantially increase the efficacy of flu ...
*  NHF: New Criteria for Efficacy in vWD | Medpage Today
New objective criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapy for von Willebrand disease may help avoid the potential ... On this scale, efficacy was rated as "none" if bleeding remained uncontrolled, "moderate" if additional treatment with other ... "The proposed hemostatic efficacy assessment using objective clinical criteria could be considered as indicative of a more ... NEW ORLEANS -- New objective criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapy for von Willebrand disease may help avoid the ...
*  Poverty Limits Efficacy of Treatment for Depression | Medpage Today
Poverty Limits Efficacy of Treatment for Depression. BOSTON - When depression is combined with poverty, the combination can ...

(1/1832) Barriers to guideline adherence. Based on a presentation by Michael Cabana, MD.

Successful implementation of the Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC-VI) should improve quality of care by decreasing inappropriate variation and by disseminating new advances to everyday practice. A key component of this process is physician adherence to JNC-VI guidelines. However several reports in the literature show a discrepancy between hypertension guidelines and actual practice. The factors that influence physician behavior change and optimal use of practice guidelines are poorly understood. A combined model that uses the Awareness-to-Adherence Model and Social Cognitive Theory identifies five sequential steps that lead to adherence to a guideline--awareness, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and presence of a cueing mechanism. Barriers to implementation may occur at any of these steps and can be identified with this model. Programs can then be designed to overcome specific barriers. By conceptualizing the underlying issues in physician adherence, the combined model should be useful to guideline developers, practice directors, and health services researchers.  (+info)

(2/1832) Comparison of stage-matched and unmatched interventions to promote exercise behaviour in the primary care setting.

This study examined the effectiveness of stages of change-based counselling for exercise delivered by nurses in four primary care centres. Two-hundred and ninety-four subjects enrolled, recruited from patients attending 30-min health checks. The average age of participants was 42.4 years (SD = 15.1) and 77% were female. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing stage of exercise adoption, self-efficacy and exercise levels. Each centre was assigned to either one of three experimental conditions or to a control condition. Participants were counselled accordingly, receiving either stage-oriented exercise materials with counselling (stage plus counselling), stage-oriented materials without counselling (stage no counselling), non-staged materials with counselling (counselling only) or the current level of advice (control). Sixty-one percent (n = 180) returned follow-up questionnaires. When baseline differences in self-efficacy, age and gender were controlled for, there was no significant group or interaction effect for stage. There was a significant time effect (F = 3.55, P = 0.031). Post hoc analyses showed that significant differences were between baseline and 2 (t = -3.02, P = 0.003) and 6 months (t = -2.67, P = 0.009). No changes in self-efficacy and exercise levels were observed. Stage-based interventions were not superior to the other interventions. All single-contact interventions, while having no impact on exercise behaviour and self-efficacy, did enhance motivation to change.  (+info)

(3/1832) 'Instilling the strength to fight the pain and get on with life': learning to become an arthritis self-manager through an adult education programme.

The aim of this study was to determine whether the Arthritis Self-Management Programme (ASMP) is effective in promoting perceived control and self-management ability when delivered in an adult education setting. The study was a pre-test-post-test design based on a sample of 89 people attending an ASMP. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires prior to the intervention and after the intervention, 4 months from baseline. The sample comprised 80% women, with a mean age of 57 years and a mean disease duration of 13 years. Most participants had either osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. After 4 months, participants demonstrated significant increases in arthritis self-efficacy (P < 0.0005), cognitive symptom management (P < 0.0005), communication with doctors (P = 0.018), exercise (P = 0.003) and relaxation (P < 0.00005). In addition, significant decreases were found in terms of pain (P = 0.034) and visits to other health professionals (P = 0.004). The first evaluation of the ASMP, delivered within the context of adult education, suggests that this form of community health education programme can offer substantial benefits for participants, particularly in terms of perceived ability to control various aspects of arthritis and in greater utilization of cognitive-behavioral techniques.  (+info)

(4/1832) Comparing smoking and smoking cessation process in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and North Karelia, Finland.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to assess and validate self reported smoking prevalence and to assess smoking cessation related process variables in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and in North Karelia, Finland. DESIGN: Comparative population surveys of random population samples from both areas in spring 1992. The study included a self administered questionnaire, physical measurements and laboratory tests. The validity of self reported smoking prevalence was assessed by serum cotinine analyses. SETTING: The district of Pitkaranta in the Republic of Karelia, Russia and province of North Karelia, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: The study population was a 25 to 64 year old population in both areas. A stratified random sample of 1000 people in Pitkaranta and 2000 people in North Karelia was drawn from the population registers. In Pitkaranta 380 men and 455 women, and in North Karelia 673 men and 803 women, participated in the survey. RESULTS: The self reported prevalence rates of daily smoking in Pitkaranta were 65% among men and 10% among women. In North Karelia the respective rates were 29% and 13%. Women in Pitkaranta greatly underreported their smoking status, which was assessed by comparing the self reported data to the serum cotinine measurements. The smoking prevalence among women in Pitkaranta would rise from 10% to 21% if all participants with high cotinine values would be regarded as smokers. Compared with smokers in North Karelia, a higher percentage of smokers in Pitkaranta expressed their wish to quit and believed that they would succeed. However, on average they had fewer previous smoking cessation attempts than smokers in North Karelia. In addition, the health personnel in North Karelia were more active in advising smokers to quit. CONCLUSIONS: High smoking prevalence among men in Pitkaranta obviously contributes much to the high premature death rate in the Republic of Karelia. There is considerable underreporting of smoking in Pitkaranta, especially among women, which is probably attributable to the cultural unacceptability of female smoking in Russia. The common wish to quit, few previous cessation attempts and much lower rates of ex smokers, together with less smoking cessation counselling from health personnel, need to be considered in tailoring antismoking interventions in the area.  (+info)

(5/1832) A pragmatic intervention to promote condom use by female sex workers in Thailand.

An overview is presented of a multifaceted intervention to promote consistent condom use by female commercial sex workers in Thailand, in the context of the government's 100% condom use policy for preventing spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The project is described with reference to a succession of stages including pre-programme needs assessment, intervention design, implementation and evaluation. The key elements of the intervention were video scenarios and discussions coordinated by health personnel, and video-depicted open-ended narratives aimed at helping sex workers to explore their personal and work-related dilemmas and concerns. A core objective was to enhance sex workers' self-esteem and perceived future with a view to strengthening their motivation to take preventive action against HIV infection. The intervention was evaluated using a combination of qualitative (process evaluation) and quantitative (outcome) methods. The outcome evaluation was undertaken using a pretest, post-test intervention and control group quasi-experimental design. There were significant increases in consistent condom use among the intervention groups but not among the controls. Pragmatic stability is advocated for the Thai sex industry and recommendations are offered for good quality HIV prevention activities.  (+info)

(6/1832) Hip protectors improve falls self-efficacy.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of use of external hip protectors on subjects' fear of falling and falls self-efficacy (belief in their own ability to avoid falling). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Aged-care health services in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 131 women aged 75 years or older, who had two or more falls or one fall requiring hospital admission in the previous year and who live at home. Sixty-one subjects were in the intervention group and 70 in the control group. INTERVENTION: Use of external hip protectors and encouragement to use the protectors by an adherence nurse. MEASUREMENTS: At the time of enrolment into a wider study examining the effect of hip protectors on hip fractures, participants recruited at home completed an assessment of fear of falling and falls efficacy as measured by the Falls Efficacy Scale and the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale. At 4-month follow-up, these scales were readministered by an observer who was not aware of the allocation of the participant to intervention or control groups. RESULTS: Fear of falling and falls self-efficacy, as measured by the Falls Efficacy and Modified Falls Efficacy Scales, were similar at baseline in both groups. Fear of falling was present at follow-up in 43% of subjects using hip protectors and 57% of the control group (chi2 = 2.58, P = 0.11). Hip protector users had greater improvement in falls self-efficacy at follow-up as measured by the Falls Efficacy Scale (t = 2.44, P = 0.016) and the Modified Falls Efficacy Scale (t = 2.08, P = 0.039). CONCLUSION: Hip protectors improve falls self-efficacy. As users of hip protectors feel more confident that they can complete tasks safely, they may become more physically active and require less assistance with activities of daily living.  (+info)

(7/1832) Development and evaluation of the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire: a new health status measure for heart failure.

OBJECTIVES: To create a valid, sensitive, disease-specific health status measure for patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). BACKGROUND: Quantifying health status is becoming increasingly important for CHF. The Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) is a new, self-administered, 23-item questionnaire that quantifies physical limitations, symptoms, self-efficacy, social interference and quality of life. METHODS: To establish the performance characteristics of the KCCQ, two distinct patient cohorts were recruited: 70 stable and 59 decompensated CHF patients with ejection fractions of <40. Upon entry into the study, patients were administered the KCCQ, the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire and the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Questionnaires were repeated three months later. RESULTS: Convergent validity of each KCCQ domain was documented by comparison with available criterion standards (r = 0.46 to 0.74; p < 0.001 for all). Among those with stable CHF who remained stable by predefined criteria (n = 39), minimal changes in KCCQ domains were detected over three months of observation (mean change = 0.8 to 4.0 points, p = NS for all). In contrast, large changes in score were observed among patients whose decompensated CHF improved three months later (n = 39; mean change = 15.4 to 40.4 points, p < 0.01 for all). The sensitivity of the KCCQwas substantially greater than that of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure and the SF-36 questionnaires. CONCLUSIONS: The KCCQis a valid, reliable and responsive health status measure for patients with CHF and may serve as a clinically meaningful outcome in cardiovascular research, patient management and quality assessment.  (+info)

(8/1832) Self-efficacy as a mediator between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Differences based on history of prior depression.

BACKGROUND: Self-efficacy, a characteristic that is protective against depressive symptoms, may be undermined by stressful life events. AIMS: To estimate the effects of stressful life events on self-efficacy, and to examine self-efficacy as a mediator of the effect of stressful life events on symptoms of depression. METHOD: Using a sample of 2858 respondents from the longitudinal Americans' Changing Lives study, path analyses were used to evaluate interrelationships between self-efficacy, life events and symptoms of depression controlling for a variety of potentially confounding variables. Separate models were estimated for those with and without prior depression. RESULTS: For those with prior depression, dependent life events had a significant, negative impact on self-efficacy. For those without prior depression, life events had no effect on self-efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: For those with prior depression, self-efficacy mediates approximately 40% of the effect of dependent stressful life events on symptoms of depression.  (+info)

  • One's
  • There are two types of political efficacy: internal efficacy (the belief that one can understand politics and therefore participate in politics) and external efficacy (that the government will respond to one's demands). (
  • outcomes
  • 1. What is the efficacy (vs. placebo and/or conventional antipsychotics) of clozapine during acute symptom episodes for reduction of positive symptoms, negative/deficit symptoms (i.e., primary, enduring negative symptoms), and other outcomes? (
  • The clinical efficacy of clozapine for two outcomes, positive and negative symptoms, in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients has been most extensively studied. (
  • Vaccine efficacy studies are used to measure several possible outcomes such as disease attack rates, hospitalizations, medical visits, and costs. (
  • The major disadvantages of vaccine efficacy trials are the complexity and expense of performing them, especially for relatively uncommon infectious outcomes of diseases for which the sample size required is driven up to achieve clinically useful statistical power. (
  • clinical efficacy
  • To assess clinical efficacy by preventing thromboembolic or thrombotic events (prophylaxis) in individuals with congenital AT-III deficiency who are undergoing surgical procedures or who are pregnant and undergoing parturition. (
  • In clinical studies, clozapine has been shown to have differential clinical efficacy for treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and to be associated with a low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) (Kane et al. (
  • The studies examining the use of clozapine as a maintenance treatment are not as methodologically rigorous as those examining the drug's clinical efficacy in acutely psychotic or treatment-resistant patients. (
  • collective efficacy
  • In the sociology of crime, the term collective efficacy refers to the ability of members of a community to control the behavior of individuals and groups in the community. (
  • Collective efficacy involves residents monitoring children playing in public areas, acting to prevent truancy and street corner "hanging" by teenagers, and confronting individuals who exploit or disturb public spaces. (
  • Advocates of collective efficacy claim that these measures increase community control over individuals, thus creating an environment where violent crime is less likely to occur. (
  • Researchers have argued that increasing collective efficacy can lead to a significant reduction of crime in communities. (
  • Communities with high levels of collective efficacy have been found to have lower rates of violence and homicide, suggesting that community participation in preventing violence reduces crime. (
  • Collective efficacy depends on the values shared by community members. (
  • The concept of collective efficacy has been used to explain why urban neighborhoods differ in the amount of crime that takes place in them. (
  • A key element of the collective efficacy perspective is that it focuses on the effects of informal norms and practices of the community in preventing crime, rather than on the effects of formal, established institutions (such as police forces). (
  • In order for collective efficacy to develop in a specific community or neighborhood, it is necessary that members of the community have strong feelings of trust and solidarity for each other. (
  • Collective efficacy thus requires that community members feel strongly bonded to each other. (
  • Collective efficacy is thought to reduce the likelihood of crime by preventing public disputes from erupting into violence. (
  • Collective efficacy not only reduces crime in public places, but also lowers the likelihood of some forms of crime in private spaces (for example, inside the home). (
  • A 2002 Chicago study, for example, found that collective efficacy reduces the probability of both female homicide and physical violence against females by male partners. (
  • The 2002 study, however, also found that the association between collective efficacy and lower levels of crime against women is stronger in communities where violence between intimate partners is commonly seen as negative. (
  • In other words, collective efficacy reduces crime in public and private spaces, but its effectiveness for deterring specific types of crime is higher in communities where those types of crime are disapproved of. (
  • Collective efficacy develops more easily in some types of communities than in others. (
  • Those communities that experience high levels of population decline, as well as those where most of the residents belong to social groups that possess a smaller share of the resources available in society, are less likely to develop a sufficient level of collective efficacy to significantly prevent or reduce crime. (
  • Since developing mutual trust and cooperation with neighbors requires time, those communities where individuals are more likely to move out have lower levels of collective efficacy. (
  • and] offers numerous suggestions for improving our personal lives and restructuring our social, political, and educational institutions and numerous insights into the nature of personal and social change" He also wrote that "the final chapter on collective efficacy. (
  • refers
  • citation needed] Specifically, efficacy refers to "whether a drug demonstrates a health benefit over a placebo or other intervention when tested in an ideal situation, such as a tightly controlled clinical trial. (
  • citation needed] Effectiveness refers "how the drug works in a real-world situation," and is "often lower than efficacy because of interactions with other medications or health conditions of the patient, sufficient dose or duration of use not prescribed by the physician or followed by the patient, or use for an off-label condition that had not been tested. (
  • Glycemic efficacy refers to the capacity of regulated glycemic levels to produce an effect in people with diabetes and heart disease. (
  • trials
  • Two large pivotal trials have been published, in which the efficacy and safety of the COX 2 inhibitors celecoxib and rofecoxib were compared with various traditional NSAIDs. (
  • Since 2004, clinical trials testing the efficacy of the influenza vaccine have been drifting in: 2058 people were vaccinated in October and November 2005. (
  • The FDA Animal Efficacy Rule (also known as Animal Rule) applies to development and testing of drugs and biologicals to reduce or prevent serious/life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic agents (chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear substances), where human efficacy trials are not feasible or ethical. (
  • beliefs
  • It reviews in considerable detail the origins of efficacy beliefs, their structure, the processes through which they affect human well-being and accomplishments, and how these processes can be developed and enlisted for human betterment. (
  • In Contemporary Psychology, James E. Maddux wrote that "Bandura's aim is to 'document the many ways in which efficacy beliefs operate in concert with other socio-cognitive determinants in governing human adaptation and change' (p. vii). (
  • agonists
  • According to Zeev Vlodaver, Robert F. Wilson and Daniel J. Garry, "exenatide and liraglutide are synthetic GLP-1 agonists and have demonstrated glycemic efficacy (HbA1c reductions of between 0.7 and 2%) associated with mild weight loss. (
  • safety
  • Safety, Pharmacokinetics and Efficacy of an AT-III Concentrate. (
  • To assess the safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a plasma-derived AT-III concentrate in the treatment of subjects with congenital AT-III deficiency. (
  • A Phase II/III Pivotal Trial Evaluating the Safety, Pharmacokinetic Properties and Efficacy of a Plasma-Derived Anti-thrombin III Concentrate With Administration in Surgery, Pregnancy and Thromboembolic or Thrombotic Events. (
  • WHO provides relevant expertise and technical assistance through various activities in the areas of Quality Assurance, Regulation and Legislation, Safety and Efficacy. (
  • 1 - 3 The introduction of new anti-inflammatory agents, with more specific inhibitory effects on cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX 2) pathways, promised equivalent efficacy with greater safety and tolerability. (
  • Acupuncture: efficacy, safety and practice comes from the BMA's Board of Science and Education and is launched on the eve of the Association's week-long Annual Representative Meeting in London. (
  • This Phase I/II study continues thymus transplantation safety and efficacy research for the treatment of complete DiGeorge anomaly. (
  • Lack
  • The lack thereof results typically in violence and is a side effect of having low political efficacy, and therefore the feeling that a citizen is powerless in their own country. (
  • In women with bicornuate uterus and in need of contraception, two IUDs are generally applied (one in each horn) due to lack of evidence of efficacy with only one IUD. (
  • sufficient
  • As a result of this team effort, sufficient data has been generated for the development of a phase 2 clinical trial to analyze the efficacy of cryopreserved platelets in bleeding patients. (
  • The word efficacy is used in pharmacology and medicine to refer both to the maximum response achievable from a pharmaceutical drug in research settings, and to the capacity for sufficient therapeutic effect or beneficial change in clinical settings. (
  • belief
  • In political science, political efficacy is the citizens' faith and trust in government and their belief that they can understand and influence political affairs. (
  • types
  • There are, of course, also certain types of prayer whose efficacy can not (by definition) be measured in the physical world, e.g. (
  • Absolute efficacy against both types of influenza, as measured by isolating the virus in culture, identifying it on real-time polymerase-chain-reaction assay, or both, was 68 percent (95 percent confidence interval [CI], 46 to 81) for the inactivated vaccine and 36 percent (95 percent CI, 0 to 59) for the live attenuated vaccine. (
  • human
  • The luminous efficacy of a source is the product of how well it converts energy to electromagnetic radiation, and how well the emitted radiation is detected by the human eye. (
  • study
  • The NEJM did a study on the A flu efficacy Influenza virus. (
  • Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) was a program begun by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the 1960s after the requirement (in the Kefauver-Harris Drug Control Act) that all drugs be efficacious as well as safe, was made part of US law. (
  • The Drug Efficacy Study Implementation (DESI) evaluated over 3000 separate products and over 16,000 therapeutic claims. (
  • The Drug Efficacy Study of the National Research Council's Division of Medical Sciences, 1966-1969 Chhabra R, Kremzner ME, Kiliany BJ. (
  • studies
  • The efficacy of prayer has been the topic of various scientific studies since Francis Galton first addressed it in 1872. (
  • Studies consistently support its efficacy for reducing positive symptoms in acutely psychotic patients and in treatment-resistant patients, for preventing positive symptom exacerbations as a maintenance treatment, and for reducing symptoms of hostility and violence. (
  • several
  • The introduction of clozapine and further research regarding its novel clinical effects have stimulated renewed interest in drug development and fostered several hypotheses regarding ways in which the efficacy or adverse effects profile of antipsychotic drugs might be improved. (
  • biological
  • It is the combined influence of both affinity and efficacy which will determine how effectively a drug will produced a biological effect, a property known as potency. (
  • high
  • When citizens have high efficacy, they have faith in their government and believe that they have the ability to influence political leaders and affect the government. (
  • generally
  • The implication of this work is that efficacy has to be defined by at least two equilibrium constants (or, more generally, by four rate constants). (
  • difference
  • The main difference between the luminous efficacy of radiation and the luminous efficacy of a source is that the latter accounts for input energy that is lost as heat or otherwise exits the source as something other than electromagnetic radiation. (
  • 2013. Making a Difference: Political Efficacy and Policy Preference Construction. (
  • ways
  • There are multiple ways in which citizens' political efficacy can be expressed: through the media, by having the right to protest, by being able to create petitions, and by having free and fair elections. (
  • possible
  • Luminous efficacy can be normalized by the maximum possible luminous efficacy to a dimensionless quantity called luminous efficiency. (
  • Photopic luminous efficacy of radiation has a maximum possible value of 683 lm/W, for the case of monochromatic light at a wavelength of 555 nm (green). (
  • When expressed in dimensionless form (for example, as a fraction of the maximum possible luminous efficacy), this value may be called luminous efficiency of a source, overall luminous efficiency or lighting efficiency. (
  • control
  • Though both share similar antecedents, general efficacy is thought to be more resistant to ephemeral influences and more tied to other self-evaluation constructs such as self-esteem or locus of control. (
  • example
  • In medicine, efficacy is the capacity for beneficial change (or therapeutic effect) of a given intervention (for example a drug, medical device, surgical procedure, or a public health intervention). (
  • actions
  • When citizens have low efficacy, they do not have faith in their government and do not believe that their actions affect the government and the actions of their political leaders. (
  • greater
  • The maximum response, Emax, will be reduced if efficacy is sufficiently low, but any efficacy greater than 20 or so gives essentially the same maximum response. (
  • terms
  • Artificial light sources are usually evaluated in terms of luminous efficacy of the source, also sometimes called wall-plug efficacy. (
  • In terms of relative efficacy, there was a 50 percent (95 percent CI, 20 to 69) reduction in laboratory-confirmed influenza among subjects who received inactivated vaccine as compared with those given live attenuated vaccine. (