Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Self Tolerance: The normal lack of the ability to produce an immunological response to autologous (self) antigens. A breakdown of self tolerance leads to autoimmune diseases. The ability to recognize the difference between self and non-self is the prime function of the immune system.Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Self Medication: The self administration of medication not prescribed by a physician or in a manner not directed by a physician.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Self-Injurious Behavior: Behavior in which persons hurt or harm themselves without the motive of suicide or of sexual deviation.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Breast Self-Examination: The inspection of one's breasts, usually for signs of disease, especially neoplastic disease.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.EnglandSelf-Examination: The inspection of one's own body, usually for signs of disease (e.g., BREAST SELF-EXAMINATION, testicular self-examination).Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Suicide, Attempted: The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.ScotlandGreat BritainReceptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Mice, Inbred C57BLPoisoning: A condition or physical state produced by the ingestion, injection, inhalation of or exposure to a deleterious agent.Literature, ModernEmpathy: An individual's objective and insightful awareness of the feelings and behavior of another person. It should be distinguished from sympathy, which is usually nonobjective and noncritical. It includes caring, which is the demonstration of an awareness of and a concern for the good of others. (From Bioethics Thesaurus, 1992)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Humanism: An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.Diagnostic Self Evaluation: A self-evaluation of health status.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Self Stimulation: Stimulation of the brain, which is self-administered. The stimulation may result in negative or positive reinforcement.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Identity Crisis: Chaotic concept of self wherein one's role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Molecular Mimicry: The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.Self-Evaluation Programs: Educational programs structured in such a manner that the participating professionals, physicians, or students develop an increased awareness of their performance, usually on the basis of self-evaluation questionnaires.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Trinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Gynecological Examination: Inspection and PALPATATION of female breasts, abdomen, and GENITALIA, as well as obtaining a gynecological history. (from Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology)Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Depersonalization: State in which an individual perceives or experiences a sensation of unreality concerning the self or the environment; it is seen in disorders such as schizophrenia, affection disorders, organic mental disorders, and personality disorders. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Drama: A composition in prose or verse presenting in dialogue or pantomime a story involving various characters, usually intended to be acted on a stage and to be regarded as a form of entertainment. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring: Self evaluation of whole blood glucose levels outside the clinical laboratory. A digital or battery-operated reflectance meter may be used. It has wide application in controlling unstable insulin-dependent diabetes.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.LondonProjection: A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.Postmodernism: A late 20th-century philosophical approach or style of cultural analysis that seeks to reveal the cultural or social construction of concepts conventionally assumed to be natural or universal. (from E.R. DuBose, The Illusion of Trust: Toward a Medical Theological Ethics in the Postmodern Age, Kluwer, 1995)Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.SwedenNarration: The act, process, or an instance of narrating, i.e., telling a story. In the context of MEDICINE or ETHICS, narration includes relating the particular and the personal in the life story of an individual.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Philosophy, MedicalAnxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.IraqChronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Psychophysiologic Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)Moral Development: The process by which individuals internalize standards of right and wrong conduct.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CLongitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Psychosomatic Medicine: A system of medicine which aims at discovering the exact nature of the relationship between the emotions and bodily function, affirming the principle that the mind and body are one.Clonal Deletion: Removal, via CELL DEATH, of immature lymphocytes that interact with antigens during maturation. For T-lymphocytes this occurs in the thymus and ensures that mature T-lymphocytes are self tolerant. B-lymphocytes may also undergo clonal deletion.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Minor Histocompatibility Loci: Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.HumanitiesCD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Vitiligo: A disorder consisting of areas of macular depigmentation, commonly on extensor aspects of extremities, on the face or neck, and in skin folds. Age of onset is often in young adulthood and the condition tends to progress gradually with lesions enlarging and extending until a quiescent state is reached.New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.HLA-B18 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*18 allele family.Internal-External Control: Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Mental Fatigue: A condition of low alertness or cognitive impairment, usually associated with prolonged mental activities or stress.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Sick Role: Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Socialism: A system of government in which means of production and distribution of goods are controlled by the state.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Social Identification: The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Social Mobility: The movement or shifting of membership between or within social classes by individuals or by groups.Freudian Theory: Philosophic formulations which are basic to psychoanalysis. Some of the conceptual theories developed were of the libido, repression, regression, transference, id, ego, superego, Oedipus Complex, etc.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Narcissism: A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Social Desirability: A personality trait rendering the individual acceptable in social or interpersonal relations. It is related to social acceptance, social approval, popularity, social status, leadership qualities, or any quality making him a socially desirable companion.Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Drug Overdose: Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.IrelandPersonal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Cotinine: The N-glucuronide conjugate of cotinine is a major urinary metabolite of NICOTINE. It thus serves as a biomarker of exposure to tobacco SMOKING. It has CNS stimulating properties.New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Biological Psychiatry: An interdisciplinary science concerned with studies of the biological bases of behavior - biochemical, genetic, physiological, and neurological - and applying these to the understanding and treatment of mental illness.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.

*  PA-11-070: Chronic Illness Self-Management in Children and Adolescents (R01)
There are now data emerging on the detrimental impact of the lack of self-care ability as this patient population reaches ... Also technology is becoming an increasing part of day-to-day patient care, presenting new challenges and driving new areas of ... care needs related to a chronic illness. Promoting self-management in young people with chronic illness can be difficult for ... veterinary care; 4) procedures for limiting discomfort, distress, pain and injury to that which is unavoidable in the conduct ...
*  Abstract 10324: Balancing Work, Life and Health: A Mixed Methods Study Describing the Self-care Practices of an Older Working...
Overall, 68% reported adequate self-care (Self-Care Heart Disease Index mean 76±14) with significant differences in self-care ... and WLB and job type on self-care (F 2.53, p=.024). Narrative accounts of self-care revealed that most struggled with diet and ... and self-care. A purposively selected subsample (n=40) participated in interviews about self-care within the context of work. ... Conclusions: Self-care is challenging for many older workers with CHD and influenced by multi-dimensional factors. In this ...
*  Determinants of activation for self-management in patients with COPD
METHODS: An explorative cross-sectional study was conducted in primary and secondary care in patients with COPD. Data were ... This knowledge enables health care professionals to identify patients at risk of inadequate self-management, which is essential ...
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*  Foundation for Health Care Quality
The Foundation for Health Care Quality is the sponsor for, and the home of, a number of programs which deal with variability, ... In addition, we have been a long time participant in the health care technology arena, and sponsor a major statewide patient ... The Foundation for Health Care Quality is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing a trusted, independent, third party ... 2016 by Foundation for Health Care Quality. Privacy Statement , (206) 682-2811 ...
*  Advanced Wound Care Market
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*  Health Care
House Ways and Means Committee Chairman Kevin Brady, R-Texas, talks to reporters at the Capitol after Republicans signed the conference committee report to advance the GOP tax bill, in Washington, Friday, Dec. 15, 2017. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite) ...
*  Procurement & Care
Special Care. In general, it is the responsibility of the facility staff to provide for the daily routine care of all animals. ... Special care procedures are generally the responsibility of the researcher although the researcher may request that OVR staff ... Both the Animal Welfare Act and the Department of Health and Human Services specify minimum 'standards' for providing care ...
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Short-term or temporary care of a few hours or weeks of the sick or disabled to provide relief, or respite, to the regular ... DEFINITION of 'Respite Care'. Respite care involves short term or temporary care of a few hours or weeks. Respite care is ... People who need round-the-clock care and supervision often need long-term, constant care. Respite care gives family members a ... Long-Term Care Insurance: What to Consider Long-term care may be a wild card in your financial plan, but at the very least, it ...
*  Personal Care Aides
Home Health Care Services 293,930. 24.24. $9.22. $19,180. Residential Intellectual and Developmental Disability, Mental Health ... Home Health Care Services 293,930. 24.24. $9.22. $19,180. Residential Intellectual and Developmental Disability, Mental Health ... Continuing Care Retirement Communities and Assisted Living Facilities for the Elderly 89,380. 10.97. $10.19. $21,200. ... Continuing Care Retirement Communities and Assisted Living Facilities for the Elderly 89,380. 10.97. $10.19. $21,200. ...
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CARE began its work in Mali in 1975 to help the government respond to an emergency. The work gradually shifted from emergency ... CARE FFBS Monitoring Tools. The Farmers' Field and Business Schools are a product of the CARE Pathways program, and focus on a ... CARE FFBS Marketing Tools. The Farmers' Field and Business Schools are a product of the CARE Pathways program, and focus on a ... CARE FFBS Seasonal Calendar. The Farmers' Field and Business Schools are a product of the CARE Pathways program, and focus on a ...
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*  Natural skin care - Wikipedia
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*  NetWare Care - Cool Solutions
The original scripts I wrote were to save time and facilitate an eDirectory upgrade. The scripts have evolved into simple, basic, time saving proactive management scripts. I wanted to share the scripts with the Cool Solutions readers (with the usual disclaimers of use at your own risk). I've since updated the scripts, revisited and retouched them for different needs, but here is the latest that i've been using. I use the %if variable command now on NetWare 6 and I've removed all 'Wait for text' commands that were reading the system console for text strings, and replaced them with pauses. The NetWare 6 Logger Screen changed where the output was going, and rather than get fancy I just went with the pause.. AT a minimum, you'll need STUFFKEY.NLM and TOOLBOX.NLM. I also use DELAYCMD.NLM and they're all ideally scheduled with CRON (I've included 3 example CRONTAB files). I've included an old version of TOOLBOX.NLM I used to use in case you're not patched to the latest and greatest SP levels on all ...
*  Health Care | Benzinga
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Mass of the Phoenix: The Mass of the Phoenix is a single person ritual within Thelema, a philosophy and religion created and organized by author and occultist Aleister Crowley. The Mass was first printed as Chapter 44 in Crowley's The Book of Lies, published in 1913.Ego (religion)Protective autoimmunity: Protective autoimmunity is a condition in which cells of the adaptive immune system contribute to maintenance of the functional integrity of a tissue, or facilitate its repair following an insult. The term ‘protective autoimmunity’ was coined by Prof.Self-administration: Self-administration is, in its medical sense, the process of a subject administering a pharmacological substance to him-, her-, or itself. A clinical example of this is the subcutaneous "self-injection" of insulin by a diabetic patient.Breast self-examination: Breast self-examination (BSE) is a screening method used in an attempt to detect early breast cancer. The method involves the woman herself looking at and feeling each breast for possible lumps, distortions or swelling.PMHC cellular microarray: PMHC cellular microarrays are a type of cellular microarray that has been spotted with pMHC complexes peptide-MHC class I or peptide-MHC class II.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Paul Ferdinand Schilder: Paul Ferdinand Schilder (February 15, 1886, Vienna – December 7, 1940, New York City) was an Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, researcher and author of numerous scientific publications. He was a pupil of Sigmund Freud.Jim RohnFigure rating scale: The Figure Rating Scale (FRS) also known as the Stunkard Scale is a psychometric measurement developed in 1983 as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women and men.Grogan, S.Dundee Royal Infirmary: Dundee Royal Infirmary, often shortened to DRI, was a major teaching hospital in Dundee, Scotland. Until the opening of Ninewells Hospital in 1974, Dundee Royal Infirmary was Dundee’s main hospital.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Kinetic-segregation model of T cell activationAutoimmune diseaseContinuous flash suppression: Continuous flash suppression (CFS) is an adapted version of the original flash suppression method. In CFS, the first eye is presented with a static stimulus, such as a schematic face, while the second eye is presented with a series of rapidly changing stimuli.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:List of poisonings: This is a list of poisonings in chronological order of victim. It also includes confirmed attempted and fictional poisonings.Jonathan AllynSimulation theory of empathy: Simulation theory of empathy is a theory that holds that humans anticipate and make sense of the behavior of others by activating mental processes that, if carried into action, would produce similar behavior. This includes intentional behavior as well as the expression of emotions.Antigen processing: Antigen processing is an immunological process that prepares antigens for presentation to special cells of the immune system called T lymphocytes. It is considered to be a stage of antigen presentation pathways.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Joachim Kahl: Joachim Kahl (born 1941 in Cologne, Germany) is a German freelance philosopher whose work focuses on the criticism of religion, ethics and aesthetics. His central theme is ‘secular humanism’.Tomcat: Dangerous DesiresFritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Coles PhillipsQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Hassall's corpuscles: Hassall's corpuscles (or thymic corpuscles (bodies)) are structures found in the medulla of the human thymus, formed from eosinophilic type VI epithelial reticular cells arranged concentrically. These concentric corpuscles are composed of a central mass, consisting of one or more granular cells, and of a capsule formed of epithelioid cells.PNU-99,194: (maleate) (hydrochloride)Autoantibody: An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins. Many autoimmune diseases, (notably lupus erythematosus), are caused by such autoantibodies.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Cryptic self epitopes: In immunology, cryptic self epitopes are a source of autoimmunity.Relative index of inequality: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.Auditory illusion: An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the aural equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds which are not present in the stimulus, or "impossible" sounds.The Tea Party discography: This is the discography for Canadian hard rock group The Tea Party.Promtov's signEscheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingGenetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.Isoantigen: An isoantigen is a type of antigen which is present only in subsets of a species.Endorphins: Endorphins ("endogenous morphine") are endogenous opioid neuropeptides. They are produced by the central nervous system and pituitary gland.Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.MHC class IIBBC television dramaDexcomRoyal London Hospital for Integrated MedicineRussian postmodernism: Russian postmodernism refers to the cultural, artistic, and philosophical condition in Russia since the downfall of the Soviet Union and dialectical materialism. With respect to statements about post-Soviet philosophy or sociology, the term is primarily used by non-Russians to describe the state of economic and political uncertainty they observe since the fall of communism and the way this uncertainty affects Russian identity.Spanking Shakespeare: Spanking Shakespeare (2007) is the debut novel by Jake Wizner. It is a young adult novel that tells the story of the unfortunately named Shakespeare Shapiro and his struggles in high school, dating and friendship.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.David Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Imagination (band)Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Climate change in Sweden: The issue of climate change has received significant public and political attention in Sweden and the mitigation of its effects has been high on the agenda of the two latest Governments of Sweden, the previous Cabinet of Göran Persson (-2006) and the current Cabinet of Fredrik Reinfeldt (2006-). Sweden aims for an energy supply system with zero net atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions by 2050.Downtown Train – Selections from the Storyteller Anthology: [ AllMusic review]Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.

(1/2838) Back care instructions in physical therapy: a trend analysis of individualized back care programs.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The treatment of people with low back pain often includes giving a variety of instructions about back care. The objective of our study was to explore the content and sequence of these instructions. SUBJECTS: Our database contained information on 1,151 therapy sessions for 132 patients who were treated by 21 therapists. METHODS: Hierarchical linear modeling was used to establish trends in instructions during the course of treatment. Instructions were measured by means of a registration form. RESULTS: Pain management instructions were given at the start of treatment and then decreased in later sessions. Instructions about taking care of the back in daily activities followed the same course. Exercise instructions were introduced after the start of treatment and were spread evenly across the visits. The number of recommendations about general fitness decreased during treatment. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: The majority of back care instructions were spread evenly across therapy visits. Relatively little variation in instructions among patients was seen, which may indicate a lack of individualization of the back care programs.  (+info)

(2/2838) What parents think of fever.

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess knowledge, perception and management of fever by parents. METHODS: We conducted a questionnaire survey among 392 parents of children attending locally a paediatric clinic at The Royal Oldham Hospital. The main outcome measures were answers to questions covering a variety of aspects of the knowledge, perception and management of fever by parents. RESULTS: Almost half the parents used a liquid crystal forehead thermometer. Most could not use a glass thermometer. Thirty per cent did not know normal body temperature and would have treated children with a temperature below 38 degrees C. Sixty-four per cent treated fever with both paracetamol and tepid sponging. Most parents awakened children at night for antipyretics. Eighty-one per cent thought that untreated fever was most likely to cause fits or brain damage and 7% thought it could cause death. CONCLUSION: Parents perceive fever as being dangerous. They have a poor knowledge and measure it inaccurately. Needless consultations and hospital admissions could be avoided by a change in perception.  (+info)

(3/2838) The status of ORT (oral rehydration therapy) in Bangladesh: how widely is it used?

During 1980-1990 BRAC, a Bangladeshi non-governmental organization, taught over 12 million mothers how to prepare oral rehydration therapy (ORT) at home with lobon (common salt) and gur (unrefined brown sugar). This was followed by a strong promotion and distribution of prepackaged ORS by various agencies including the government. In 1993 we assessed knowledge of ORT preparation, its local availability and its use for the management of diarrhoea. Over 9000 households in 90 villages were revisited; 306 government outreach health workers, 296 drug sellers, and 237 village doctors were interviewed; 152 government facilities and 495 pharmacies/shops were visited. ORT prepared by mothers in a sub-sample of the households was analyzed for chloride content and interviewers collected information on use of ORT for diarrhoeal episodes occurring in the preceding two weeks. The data quality was assessed through a resurvey of sample respondents within two weeks of the first interview. Over 70% of the mothers could prepare a chemically 'safe and effective' ORS. A significant proportion of these mothers were very young at the time of the mass campaigns using house to house teaching, implying an intergenerational transfer of the knowledge on ORT. ORT was found to be used in 60% of all diarrhoeal episodes, but the rate varied with the type of diarrhoea, being highest for daeria (severe watery diarrhoea) and lowest for amasha (dysentery). Drug sellers and village doctors now recommend ORT much more frequently than before. Members of the medical profession (qualified and unqualified) still lag behind in prescribing the use of ORT. The availability of pre-packaged ORS in rural pharmacies has improved enormously. There is convincing evidence that the widescale promotion in the past of ORS for dehydration in diarrhoea has led to this marked improvement today. Nevertheless the use of rice-based ORS, culturally appropriate messages and the promotion of ORS with food offer opportunities to further improve the utilization of ORT.  (+info)

(4/2838) Resource utilization and work or school loss reported by patients with diabetes: experience in diabetes training programs.

Diabetes exerts a major economic impact on healthcare in the United States both in terms of direct and indirect costs. Diabetes management and education programs designed to assist patients in achieving more optimal glycemic control represent a potential mechanism for reducing the morbidity and costs associated with diabetes. The relationship between HbA1c and patient hospitalizations and between HbA1c and days lost from work or school related to diabetes within the past year were evaluated. A cohort of 2359 patients with diabetes (188 type I, 2171 type II) referred to a comprehensive diabetes self-management training program was included in the analyses. Overall, 350 (14.8%) patients reported hospitalization, and 212 (9.0%) reported days lost from work or school. Patients with type I diabetes reported more hospitalizations (26.1% vs 13.9% and days lost (19.2% vs 8.1%) than type II patients. For the hospitalization outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that younger age, the number of co-morbidities, and the duration of diabetes exerted a greater influence on the reported numbers of hospitalization than glycemic control. For the days lost outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that there was a marginally significant association between patients with poor glycemic control and reported work or school loss related to diabetes (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.2). These data suggest that interventions that improve glycemic control may decrease indirect costs related to diabetes.  (+info)

(5/2838) Exploring self-care and wellness: a model for pharmacist compensation by managed care organizations.

Self-care and wellness are rapidly becoming mainstays of practice for many pharmacists. Consumer confidence and trust in pharmacists provides continuing opportunities for pharmacists to create products and services to satisfy consumer demands related to disease prevention and healthcare delivery. We outline two pharmacy wellness programs designed to meet consumer needs, and offer them as models for pharmacists. Issues related to the program and extent of involvement by pharmacists are raised, including the role of the pharmacists in behavior modification efforts; selecting areas of focus (e.g., smoking cessation); working with physicians for referrals; enlightening community business leaders and managed care organizations to the economic benefits of the program; and developing strategies for fair purchase of services to achieve program goals and provide adequate compensation in return.  (+info)

(6/2838) Quality of contraceptive services in Finland.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the quality of contraceptive services in Finland varies by the type of care provider. DESIGN: A cross sectional questionnaire survey. PARTICIPANTS: A random sample of 3000 Finnish women aged 18-44 years (response rate 74%) in 1994. RESULTS: Almost all women (94%) had used contraception at some time and 75% were current users. Although self care was common (29% had obtained their latest method outside the health services), 83% had sometimes used the health services for contraception. For their last visit, 55% of women had chosen a health centre (a publicly administered and funded health service), and 33% a private unit. In the health centre, the care provider was usually a general practitioner or a public health nurse, whereas in private care the providers were gynaecologists. Women who used private care were more likely to be from higher social classes and urban areas. After adjustment for a women's background, the two groups were similar for most indicators of the quality of care, but access to care and woman's experiences of treatment were better with private care. CONCLUSIONS: In terms of availability and choices the current system of contraceptive services in Finland is adequate. It is not always an integral part of municipal primary health care, and many women prefer private care for gynaecological services; this may case problems of comprehensiveness and equality of care.  (+info)

(7/2838) Understanding lay perspectives: care options for STD treatment in Lusaka, Zambia.

Understanding lay persons' perceptions of STD care is critical in the design and implementation of appropriate health services. Using 20 unstructured group interviews, 10 focus group discussions and 4 STD case simulations in selected sub-populations in Lusaka, we investigated lay person perspectives of STD services. The study revealed a large diversity of care options for STD in the communities, including self-care, traditional healers, medicine sold in the markets and streets, injections administered in the compounds, private clinics, health centres and hospital. The factors identified as influencing care seeking behaviour are: lay referral mechanisms, social cost, availability of care options, economics, beliefs, stigma and quality of care as perceived by the users.  (+info)

(8/2838) Self-administered interventions: a health education strategy for improving population health.

A case is presented for using self-administered interventions (SAIs) as a viable public health education/promotion option. SAIs are promulgated as a means to more fully participate in projected health care changes. One readily available opportunity is to incorporate SAIs into managed care organizations concerned about balancing costs and care, and responsible for the health care of the populations they serve. SAIs are both clinical and 'population-based' strategies that are viable alternatives to 'usual' care because SAIs offer a means to enhance reach, efficiency and efficacy when used independently or as part of a sequential, systematic series of interventions. SAIs also have other advantages such as being easily shared, disseminated, reusable and capable of including a valuable, inexpensive human resource, trained peer helpers or volunteers. The SAIs of minimal intervention and self-instruction have been widely used with a variety of lifestyle behaviors associated with cardiovascular disease. Research from the weight management literature is used as a heuristic illustration of the application of SAIs, and to describe the nature and potential of SAIs as public health strategies to meet health care challenges of the future related to service delivery.  (+info)

  • preventive
  • This includes professionals in medicine, psychology, physiotherapy, nursing, dentistry, midwifery and allied health, plus many others such as public health practitioners, community health workers and assistive personnel, who systematically provide personal and population-based preventive, curative and rehabilitative care services. (
  • Collections care, which is sometimes called preventive conservation, involves any actions taken to prevent or delay the deterioration of cultural heritage. (
  • In modern medicine, preventive medicine aligns most closely with self-care. (
  • Continuity is a key characteristic of primary care, as patients usually prefer to consult the same practitioner for routine check-ups and preventive care, health education, and every time they require an initial consultation about a new health problem. (
  • person's
  • The caregiver normally goes into a person's private residence to care for the patient. (
  • Assist the elderly, convalescents, or persons with disabilities with daily living activities at the person's home or in a care facility. (
  • These external factors can determine a person's ability to perform self-care maintenance because a person may not be able to perform a behavior based on its availability. (
  • CARE, USAID and the Bangladesh government launched the SHOUHARDO program in 2004 to reduce child malnutrition in Bangladesh's poorest communities. (
  • 2017
  • The report titled "Advanced Wound Care Market - Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017-2025" offers strategic insights into the overall advanced wound care market along with the market size and estimates for the duration of 2015 to 2025. (
  • Wound Care
  • Currently, advanced wound care therapies for different composition and indications have being developed, it includes collagen products, alginate, biological skin equivalents (BSE), etc. (
  • With advent of wound care technology, innovative products and devices are accessible and affordable for the treatment of wound. (
  • Rise in chronic diseases has led to chronic wound such as diabetic foot ulcer, pressure ulcer, etc., is one the driving factor of advanced wound care market. (
  • The product type segment studied for analyzing the overall global advanced wound care market is majorly segmented into advanced wound dressings and active wound care. (
  • Active wound care further sub segmented into artificial skin andskin substitutes, and growth factors. (
  • The wound type segment studied for analyzing the overall global advanced wound care market is majorly segmented into burns, pressure ulcers, diabetic foot ulcer, arterial ulcer, surgical and traumatic wounds. (
  • Information such as market inclination insights and drivers, challenges, and opportunities assist the readers for understanding the ongoing trends in the global advanced wound care market. (
  • Tools such as market positioning of key players and attractive investment proposition provide the readers with insights on the competitive scenario of the global advanced wound care market. (
  • This report concludes with company profiles section that highlights major information about the key players engaged in global advanced wound care market. (
  • Skin care differs from dermatology, as traditionally practiced, by its additional but less medical scope and by its inclusion of non-physician professionals, such as estheticians and wound care nursing staff. (
  • centres
  • It can be provided in different settings, such as Urgent care centres which provide services to patients same day with the appointment or walk-in basis. (
  • Praxis Care provides a range of accommodation and support services for services users, including residential and supported living, domiciliary care, floating support, home response, drop-in centres, an advocacy project, a befriending department and workskills projects. (
  • Aims
  • Care Highway is a humanitarian aid organization that aims to help in areas of the world where people are suffering and are in great need due to catastrophes caused by man or nature. (
  • Care's
  • Care's progress led to an invitation to join the Leeds Tykes Academy at the start of the 2003-04 season - a season which ended with Tykes winning the National Under-19 Colts Cup and Care being named as Tykes' Players' Young Player of the Year. (
  • composition
  • Many countries require that the ingredient composition of skin care products is listed on the product, using the International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients (INCI) conventions. (
  • refugees
  • CARE Packages containing food and supplies helped European refugees survive after World War II. (
  • Today's CARE Package provides debit cards that Syrian refugees use to buy blankets, food and other essentials. (
  • Once child refugees themselves, recipients of the world's first CARE Packages pay it forward 70 years later, sending compassion - and so much more - to Syrian refugee children. (
  • In addition, CARE is working in Egypt to help refugees fleeing violence in Syria. (
  • The foundation of Care Highway began a number of years ago, when a young teacher/youth worker named Christopher Morrison spent six weeks at a youth centre, which worked mainly with refugees and asylum seekers. (
  • Organizations
  • CARE works with beneficiaries, civil society organizations, government, aid agencies, networks, community-based associations and the increasingly socially aware Egyptian private sector. (
  • In its short history, Care Highway has worked with a number of different non-governmental organizations, and because of its "work with all" policy, it has been able to achieve a high degree of success. (
  • Primary
  • While the definitions of the various types of health care vary depending on the different cultural, political, organizational and disciplinary perspectives, there appears to be some consensus that primary care constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process, that may also include the provision of secondary and tertiary levels of care. (
  • Such a professional would usually be a primary care physician, such as a general practitioner or family physician, a licensed independent practitioner such as a physiotherapist, or a non-physician primary care provider such as a physician assistant or nurse practitioner. (
  • Primary care is often used as the term for the health care services which play a role in the local community. (
  • Self-care is considered a primary form of care for patients with chronic conditions who make many day-to-day decisions, or self-manage, their illness. (
  • Self-management is critical and self-management education complements traditional patient education in primary care to support patients to live the best possible quality of life with their chronic condition. (
  • Patients commonly receive primary care from professionals such as a primary care physician (general practitioner or family physician), a nurse practitioner (adult-gerontology nurse practitioner, family nurse practitioner, or pediatric nurse practitioner), or a physician assistant. (
  • Consequently, a primary care practitioner must possess a wide breadth of knowledge in many areas. (
  • Collaboration among providers is a desirable characteristic of primary care. (
  • Primary care also includes many basic maternal and child health care services, such as family planning services and vaccinations. (
  • In context of global population ageing, with increasing numbers of older adults at greater risk of chonic non-communicable diseases, rapidly increasing demand for primary care services is expected around the world, in both developed and developing countries. (
  • In the United Kingdom, patients can access primary care services through their local general practice, community pharmacy, optometrist, dental surgery and community hearing care providers. (
  • The research identified a set of innovations that could enhance the quality, efficiency and effectiveness of primary care in the United States. (
  • The success of the expansion of health insurance under the ACA in large measure depends on the availability of primary care physicians. (
  • Unfortunately, The ACA has drastically exacerbated the projected deficit of primary care physicians needed to ensure care for insured Americans. (
  • organisations
  • Gerald Cavendish Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster - Patron Gerald Grosvenor, 6th Duke of Westminster has dedicated time to the support of charities and other organisations and has been involved with Arthritis Care for over twenty years. (
  • formerly
  • Care Opinion, formerly Patient Opinion, is a not for profit organisation founded by Dr Paul Hodgkin in 2005 which offers patients an opportunity to offer feedback about their experience of health and social care. (
  • hospitals
  • Our Board draws from a broad diversity of opinions and resources in the community to help us maintain our status as a trusted, independent resource: including representatives from acute care hospitals, government agencies, and state associations, as well as licensed physicians, attorneys, consumers, and public purchasers. (
  • include
  • Much of the recent literature reviews plant-derived ingredients, which may include herbs, roots, flowers and essential oils, but natural substances in skin care products include animal-derived products such as beeswax, and minerals. (
  • The professions most influenced by collections care include conservator-restorers, curators, collection managers, and registrars. (
  • Self-care maintenance behaviors include illness prevention, illness behaviors, and proper hygiene. (
  • Hygiene behaviors include adequate sleep, regular oral care, and hand washing. (
  • 2000
  • Breay & Harrison, p. 134 Andrew Pyle (editor), The Dictionary of Seventeenth Century British Philosophers (2000), Thoemmes Press (two volumes), article Henry Care, p. 157. (
  • humanitarian
  • CARE is already responding to humanitarian needs in Afghanistan and Pakistan and is ready to scale up as more information on the impact of the earthquake is available. (
  • This idea of dealing with people in an individual humanitarian way became the foundation of the Care Highway humanitarian organization. (
  • In 1999 the Care Highway organization was launched in the memory of Mr. Morrison's brother Sean, who was himself a humanitarian worker in Albania. (
  • people
  • The Foundation's resources are used frequently to bring together people with varied perspectives around a shared goal: the continual improvement of sustainable health care that meets or exceeds established standards. (
  • People who need round-the-clock care and supervision often need long-term, constant care. (
  • The Alzheimer's Association and the M.S. Society have grant opportunities for people who care for patients with those medical conditions. (
  • Arthritis Care campaigns locally and nationally to make sure people with arthritis have access to treatments and services. (
  • Self Management Courses: Arthritis Care runs a range of self-management and personal development programs, giving people the confidence and skills to manage their arthritis. (
  • Peer-to-Peer Support: Arthritis Care puts people with arthritis in touch with each other through its network of around 300 branches and groups. (
  • By the time of Bowen's death on 31 January 1980, Arthritis Care had grown into a national organisation with a wide range of services for people with arthritis.In that year, Arthritis News was published for the first time. (
  • All in all, the organisation employs about 1,400 people, the majority of whom are in care roles although a significant minority are involved in support services. (
  • Social determinants of health play a huge role in how people take care of themselves. (
  • The Health Care Project is bringing much-needed medicine, equipment, and doctors to the people of Bosnia who are suffering from illness and injury and greatly in need of medical assistance. (
  • debut
  • We Care is the debut album by Swedish alternative rock group Whale. (
  • Having been an unused replacement for Tykes in home and away European Challenge Cup games against Grenoble, Care finally made his competitive debut for the club at fly-half away to VRAC in Valladolid, Spain in the European Challenge Shield just a week after returning from Australia. (
  • A pre-season injury to Tykes' No.2 scrum-half Mark McMillan gave Care an early opportunity to understudy Marshall and he made his Guinness Premiership debut away at Saracens in September 2005 as a replacement for Marshall late in the game. (
  • routine
  • Skin care is a routine daily procedure in many settings, such as skin that is either too dry or too moist, and prevention of dermatitis and prevention of skin injuries. (
  • depends
  • The delivery of modern health care depends on groups of trained professionals and paraprofessionals coming together as interdisciplinary teams. (
  • farmers
  • The Farmers' Field and Business Schools are a product of the CARE Pathways program, and focus on a learning by doing approach, putting. (
  • For example CARE and the Ministry of Agriculture demonstrated that small farmers with less than 3 hectares of land could be linked to existing markets, and therefore should be included in the compensation program that the government established after signing the Free Trade Agreement with the United States. (
  • patients
  • The Foundation for Health Care Quality is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing a trusted, independent, third party resource to all participants in the health care community - including patients, providers, payers, employers, government agencies, and public health professionals. (
  • Some respite care providers might take patients for outings and to activities away from the residence. (
  • collections
  • Take care of your prized collections and you'll have family heirlooms to pass down for generations. (
  • Collections care strives to mitigate the occurrence of damage and deterioration through research and the implementation of procedures which enhance the safety of cultural heritage objects and collections. (
  • surgical
  • The Foundation for Health Care Quality is the sponsor for, and the home of, a number of programs which deal with variability, outcomes and quality in various medical and surgical services. (
  • beneficial
  • Clinical and laboratory studies have identified activities in many natural ingredients that have potential beneficial activities for personal skin care, but there is a shortage of convincing evidence for natural product efficacy in medical problems. (
  • support
  • In addition to its community-based work, CARE Afghanistan advocates with and on behalf of vulnerable and marginalized Afghans for national and international policies that support and protect their interests and maximize their chances to break out of the cycle of poverty. (
  • Today, CARE Egypt works to promote and support quality education and girls' leadership, more effective and equitable natural resource management to enhance rural livelihoods, effective governance and civic engagement, and equitable social protection for vulnerable groups - especially women. (
  • Skin care is the range of practices that support skin integrity, enhance its appearance and relieve skin conditions. (
  • time
  • In addition, we have been a long time participant in the health care technology arena, and sponsor a major statewide patient safety coalition. (
  • Care, who lived at the time in the Great Old Bailey, continued to work on his own account. (
  • After a summer spent getting fit and completing his A-level studies at Prince Henry's, Care was able to join Tykes on a full-time basis with the opportunity to train alongside All Black scrum-half legend Justin Marshall who signed for the club during the close season. (
  • Hedgehog Care generally cares for 50-200 hedgehogs at any given time, and approximately 1,500 per year. (
  • work
  • CARE began its work in Mali in 1975 to help the government respond to an emergency. (
  • This 56 page report highlights impacts and stories of change from CARE Egypt's work between 2005 and 2015. (
  • The organisation also has its own in-house staff development department, which is responsible for regularly inducting new staff and for providing other relevant training, primarily though not exclusively to ensure that care staff are adequately trained for their work, which can involve dealing with complex needs and challenging behaviours. (
  • CARE Peru resumed work in 1970. (
  • provides
  • It provides treatment and care throughout pregnancy, childbirth, IVF treatment, sub-fertile and post-reproductive age. (
  • Information and Helplines: Arthritis Care provides information about arthritis. (
  • fruits
  • Another important aspect to self care includes eating fresh fruits and vegetables, lean meats and other proteins. (
  • arthritis
  • Arthritis Care has four national offices (in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and England). (
  • It would later be renamed Arthritis Care in 1980. (
  • Jane Asher - President Jane Asher became president of Arthritis Care in 2003. (
  • In addition to her position with Arthritis Care, Jane is a well-known actress, novelist, businesswoman, and patron and president of a number of other UK charities. (
  • Arthritis Care, or the British Rheumatic Association (BRA) as it was then known, was founded by Arthur Mainwaring Bowen on 1 February 1947. (
  • governments
  • In some countries and jurisdictions, health care planning is distributed among market participants, whereas in others, planning occurs more centrally among governments or other coordinating bodies. (
  • Self-care is seen as a partial solution to the global rise in health care costs placed on governments. (
  • Care Highway is an independent organization that works with human rights on a practical level and not with issues concerning governments, political factions, ideologies, economic interests, or religious creeds. (
  • patient
  • Urgent Dental Care - North London Private Dental Practice providing highest quality patient care and friendly welcoming atmosphere. (
  • On March 23, 2010 President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) into law. (
  • family
  • Respite care gives family members a break from the stressful task of nearly constant care of a loved one. (
  • Before signing up for respite care, a family should check into the credentials of the temporary caregiver. (
  • Respite care agencies may fill out insurance forms, offer several payment methods and set up billing schedules so the family knows exactly how much money to budget. (
  • Family-to-Family is an annual project like many others run by Care Highway. (
  • Spent
  • At school level Care spent the season playing at fly-half and helped Prince Henry's to success in the Under-18 Yorkshire Cup and a famous victory at Twickenham in the final of the Daily Mail Under-18 Vase where he scored 13 points in an 18-11 win against St Columba's College from St Albans. (
  • personal care pro
  • There are no legal definitions in the U.S. for advertising terms "natural" or "organic" when applied to personal care products. (
  • Accordingly, there are no legal definitions in the U.S. for the advertising terms "natural" or "organic" in personal care products. (
  • services
  • In 1998, CARE Peru assisted with the establishment of EDYFICAR, a financial entity to provide financial services to low-income sectors. (
  • help
  • Our customer care team is standing by to help you manage your Shipping Pass subscription. (
  • With hope, Care Highway will be able to help them help themselves. (
  • needs
  • Search for respiratory companies and products to meet your needs through the all new AARC Respiratory Care Marketplace. (
  • There are a number of self-care requisites applicable to all humans across all ages and necessary to fundamental human needs. (
  • care also needs to be taken with the process of elimination and excrement. (
  • Market
  • It has a strong position in the jobs market for social workers, claiming up to 3,000 social care jobs are advertised each week. (
  • Aspects
  • AIDS Care (subtitle: Psychological and Socio-medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV) is a peer-reviewed medical journal publishing HIV/AIDS research from multiple different disciplines, including psychology and sociology. (
  • Nevertheless, dermatology has co-opted some aspects of skin care, particularly in the U.S., and to a significantly lesser extent elsewhere, such as the U.K. Add from Guidelines for neonatal skin care have been developed. (
  • It has a system of 'tag bubbles' which enable searches of the data linked to particular aspects of care. (
  • food
  • Patanjali Ayurved produces products in the categories of personal care and food. (
  • Living in a food desert or having limited resources that allow for physical activity would decrease the likelihood of participating in self-care maintenance behaviors. (
  • given
  • Operation Care was the name given to a police investigation concerning widespread allegations of historical child sexual abuse in children's homes in the Merseyside district of England. (
  • staff
  • Praxis Care has a dedicated in-house research department which monitors issues as diverse as staff and service user satisfaction and the evaluation of schemes, as well as doing research into relevant issues. (
  • school
  • When CARE opened the first-ever girls' school in her Afghani village, it kindled the dreams of 13-year-old Malalai. (
  • Access
  • Access to health care may vary across countries, groups, and individuals, largely influenced by social and economic conditions as well as the health policies in place. (
  • Access within a one's living environment is another factor that influences self-care maintenance. (
  • CARE Peru's contributions were mainly through education, health care, access to safe water, reduction in poverty and hunger. (
  • skin care
  • Natural skin care uses topical creams and lotions made of ingredients available in nature. (
  • There seems a few brands which are mainly focused on manufacturing and distributing organic and natural products including skin care and they make sure the products are made with natural ingredients and avoid testing them on animals, the names of few of such brands are below. (
  • According to Patanjali, all the products manufactured by Patanjali are made from Ayurveda and natural components Aveda sells natural and organic products ranging from skin care to hair care. (
  • Skin care is a part of the treatment of wound healing, radiation therapy and some medications. (
  • Add from Sun protection is an important aspect of skin care. (