Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Religion and ScienceLibrary Science: Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.Information Science: The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.Libraries, MedicalResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Translational Medical Research: The application of discoveries generated by laboratory research and preclinical studies to the development of clinical trials and studies in humans. A second area of translational research concerns enhancing the adoption of best practices.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.Librarians: Specialists in the management of a library or the services rendered by a library, bringing professional skills to administration, organization of material and personnel, interpretation of bibliothecal rules, the development and maintenance of the library's collection, and the provision of information services.Awards and PrizesHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.United StatesTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic and applied research to reduce the burden of human illness and dysfunction from environmental causes by, defining how environmental exposures, genetic susceptibility, and age interact to affect an individual's health. It was established in 1969.Library Surveys: Collection and analysis of data pertaining to operations of a particular library, library system, or group of independent libraries, with recommendations for improvement and/or ordered plans for further development.Societies: Organizations composed of members with common interests and whose professions may be similar.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Nobel PrizeEngineering: The practical application of physical, mechanical, and mathematical principles. (Stedman, 25th ed)Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Library AssociationsEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)HumanitiesJournal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.BooksLibrary Automation: The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Library Administration: Planning, organizing, staffing, direction, and control of libraries.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Models, Educational: Theoretical models which propose methods of learning or teaching as a basis or adjunct to changes in attitude or behavior. These educational interventions are usually applied in the fields of health and patient education but are not restricted to patient care.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Interlibrary LoansInterdisciplinary Communication: Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Cell Biology: The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.Bioethics: A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.MEDLARS: A computerized biomedical bibliographic storage and retrieval system operated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLARS stands for Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, which was first introduced in 1964 and evolved into an online system in 1971 called MEDLINE (MEDLARS Online). As other online databases were developed, MEDLARS became the name of the entire NLM information system while MEDLINE became the name of the premier database. MEDLARS was used to produce the former printed Cumulated Index Medicus, and the printed monthly Index Medicus, until that publication ceased in December 2004.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Medical Laboratory Science: The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Library Technical Services: Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Libraries: Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)Career Mobility: The upward or downward mobility in an occupation or the change from one occupation to another.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.MuseumsInformation Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Technology Transfer: Spread and adoption of inventions and techniques from one geographic area to another, from one discipline to another, or from one sector of the economy to another. For example, improvements in medical equipment may be transferred from industrial countries to developing countries, advances arising from aerospace engineering may be applied to equipment for persons with disabilities, and innovations in science arising from government research are made available to private enterprise.Literature, ModernPolicy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Creativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Students, Health Occupations: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program in the health occupations.Attitude: An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.History of MedicineEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Education, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform individuals of recent advances in their particular field of interest. They do not lead to any formal advanced standing.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Nursing Research: Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Famous PersonsMicrobiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Libraries, Digital: Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Information Literacy: The ability to recognize when information is needed and to locate, evaluate, and use the needed information effectively.Interior Design and Furnishings: The planning of the furnishings and decorations of an architectural interior.Education, Professional: Formal education and training in preparation for the practice of a profession.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Embryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Plagiarism: Passing off as one's own the work of another without credit.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Bibliography as Topic: Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Zoology: The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Animals, LaboratoryNational Institute of General Medical Sciences (U.S.): Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It conducts and supports basic biomedical research that is not targeted to specific diseases and funds studies on genes, proteins, and cells, as well as on fundamental processes like communication within and between cells and metabolism. It was established in 1962.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Exobiology: The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.ArtBiomedical Engineering: Application of principles and practices of engineering science to biomedical research and health care.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.

*  Energy for Sustainability | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... Also, it is important to address why the proposed work is important in terms of engineering science, as well as to also project ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ...
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*  Plant Genome Research Program - News | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ...
https://nsf.gov/news/index.jsp?pims_id=5338&org=BIO

*  Faculty Early Career Development Program | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... These awards foster innovative developments in science and technology, increase awareness of careers in science and engineering ... Selection for this award is based on two important criteria: 1) innovative research at the frontiers of science and technology ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ...
https://nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=503214&org=BIO&sel_org=BIO&from=fund

*  Ecosystem Science | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... The Ecosystem Science Cluster supports projects within two programs (see descriptions below): the Ecosystem Studies Program and ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ... Projects that are potentially transformative -- that is, those that may change the conceptual basis of ecosystem science and ...
https://nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=12822&org=CHE

*  Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases Create New Public Health Challenge | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across ... National Science Foundation, 2415 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 ... At NSF, the Directorate for Biological Sciences and Directorate for Geosciences fund the program. ...
https://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=126169&org=OCE&from=news

*  Penn Engineers Convert a Natural Plant Protein Into Drug-delivery Vehicles | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ... all fields of science and engineering. In fiscal year (FY) 2017, its budget is $7.5 billion. NSF funds reach all 50 states ...
https://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=124841&org=DMR&from=news

*  Frontiers Newsletter | NSF - National Science Foundation

The Internet: Expanding the Way We Do Science...Science Improves When Archaeologists Work with Locals...Morals: More Than Nice ... Shake, Rattle and Roll: The Science and Engineering of Earthquakes...A Bright Star in Science Education...Disease-Resistant ... The National Science Foundation has archived Frontiers, the monthly, or sometimes bimonthly, newsletter that profiled important ... Has the Jury Decided?...Bridging the Science Gender Gap: Raising Female Scientists and Engineers...The End of the World: More ...
https://nsf.gov/news/frontiers_archive/

*  At the Crossroads of Stem Cells and Computer Science | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... At the Crossroads of Stem Cells and Computer Science. A Rutgers University graduate student takes readers on a journey from ... This Behind the Scenes article was provided to LiveScience in partnership with the National Science Foundation. ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ...
https://nsf.gov/discoveries/disc_summ.jsp?cntn_id=111169&org=DMS

*  Partnerships for Innovation: Building Innovation Capacity | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ... behavioral sciences, and cognitive engineering. The proposer must show how these components will be integrated in the context ... Service Science 7(1):1-10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/serv.2015.0091 ...
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*  Collections in Support of Biological Research | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ... Please review before submitting a proposal to the Directorate for Biological Sciences. ...
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*  School Science Quiz : Vertebrates & Invertebrates - I - Worksheet / Test Paper

Environmental Science Education Quiz Activities to learn Physics, Chemistry and Biology for Kids, Teens, School and College ...
https://syvum.com/cgi/online/serve.cgi/squizzes/science/vertebrates_1.html?question_hide

*  Geoengineering and Climate Change Polarization: Testing a Two-channel Model of Science Communication by Dan M. Kahan, Hank C....

... to test a novel theory of science communication. The cultural cognition thesis posi ... Ordinary Science Intelligence': A Science-Comprehension Measure for Study of Risk and Science Communication, with Notes on ... Mathew D. McCubbins at Department of Political Science and Law School, Duke University, Mark B. Turner at Case Western Reserve ... Cognitive Social Science eJournal. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic ...
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1981907

*  BibMe: Generate Colloids and Interface Science Communications patent citations for your bibliography

The month, day, and year a content piece was published electronically (as opposed to in print). Depending on the webpage, it may or may not be shown ...
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*  Gender Discrimination a Reason Why Females Choose Careers Outside the Hard Sciences | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent federal agency that supports fundamental research and education across ... National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, Virginia 22230, USA Tel: (703) 292-5111, FIRS: (800) 877-8339 , ... Gender Discrimination a Reason Why Females Choose Careers Outside the Hard Sciences. ...
https://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=125993&org=HRD&from=newsField

*  Recent Articles | Science Communication, Cell & Molecular Biology And Immunology | The Scientist Magazine®

tags: science communication x cell & molecular biology x immunology x The Scientist. » science communication, cell & molecular ... The therapy, produced by Kite Pharma and owned by Gilead Sciences, is approved for use against some types of large B-cell ...
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*  2007 Science and Engineering Visualization Challenge Winners Announced | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... The National Science Foundation (NSF) along with the journal Science, published by the American Association for the Advancement ... Dana Topousis, National Science Foundation, (703) 292-7750, email: dtopousi@nsf.gov. Susan Mason, National Science Foundation ... the Science website (www.sciencemag.org ), and in the print issue of Science. First place and honorable mention winners are ...
https://nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?org=NSF&cntn_id=110114&preview=false

*  Computational and Data-Enabled Science and Engineering | NSF - National Science Foundation

NSF's mission is to advance the progress of science, a mission accomplished by funding proposals for research and education ... Computational and Data-Enabled Science and Engineering in Mathematical and Statistical Sciences ... including development of science-driven algorithms to address pivotal problems in science and engineering and efficient methods ... computer science, and the core science disciplines of astronomy, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and materials research. ...
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*  Penn Engineering - Welcome to the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS)

Computer and Information Science, Electrical and Systems Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering and Mechanical ... The School of Engineering and Applied Science at the University of Pennsylvania, Penn Engineering, provides world-class ... Penn Engineering's Danielle Bassett Wins Top Prize in Complexity Science. Danielle S. Bassett, Eduardo D. Glandt Faculty Fellow ... university of pennsylvania , school of engineering and applied science 220 South 33rd Street , 107 Towne Building , ...
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*  The live attenuated dengue vaccine TV003 elicits complete protection against dengue in a human challenge model | Science...

Science Translational Medicine. 16 Mar 2016. : 330ra36 A controlled dengue human challenge model may determine whether to ... Science Translational Medicine. 16 Mar 2016. : 330ra36 A controlled dengue human challenge model may determine whether to ... 2017 American Association for the Advancement of Science. All rights Reserved. AAAS is a partner of HINARI, AGORA OARE, ... Science Translational Medicine 16 Mar 2016:. Vol. 8, Issue 330, pp. 330ra36. DOI: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaf1517 ...
stm.sciencemag.org/content/8/330/330ra36

*  Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences

... Admissions. +1.209.946.2211. Office of the Dean. +1.209.946.2561. 751 ... Sachin A. Shah, PharmD, associate professor of pharmacy practice at the Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences; ... The Pharmaceutical and Chemical Sciences Graduate Program (PCSP) offers students three degree tracks: MS, PhD and a dual degree ... Thomas J. Long School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. The School offers five academic programs - audiology, pharmacy, ...
pacific.edu/Academics/Schools-and-Colleges/Thomas-J-Long-School-of-Pharmacy-and-Health-Sciences.html

*  World Science

An e-newsletter with some of the world's most exciting science news and photos, often months before they appear in other news ... http://www.world-science.net/othernews/121003_amazon. * Next moon rover could be a boat -- on Titan:. http://www.world-science. ... Invite friends to join World Science for free!. Just click here to open an invitation email that you can send your friend or ... http://www.world-science.net/othernews/120922_honeybees. * Signs of 'ancient stream' on Mars:. http://www.world-science.net/ ...
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/WorldScience/conversations/messages/262

*  Science | Image

The New York Times ...
nytimes.com/imagepages/2010/12/22/science/earth/22carbon-graphic.html

*  Tech and Science

We rely on advertising to help fund our award-winning journalism.. We urge you to turn off your ad blocker for The Telegraph website so that you can continue to access our quality content in the future.. Thank you for your support.. ...
telegraph.co.uk/science-technology/

*  Science and technology

FILE - This Oct. 14, 2016 file photo shows Democratic presidential candidate Hillary Clinton's and Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump's names printed on a ballot on a voting machine to be used in the upcoming election, in Philadelphia. The federal government on Friday, Sept. 22, 2017, told election officials in 21 states that hackers targeted their systems before last year's presidential election. The notification came roughly a year after U.S. Department of Homeland Security officials first said states were targeted by hacking efforts possibly connected to Russia. (AP Photo/Matt Rourke, File ...
https://yahoo.com/news/photos/science-and-technology-slideshow/gadgets-photo-144813423.html?selected_tab=2&mod_id=latest-news-galleries&ref=gs

*  Science and technology

FILE- In this Oct. 2, 2009 file photo, in California's Westland Water District of the Central Valley, canals carry water to southern California. With no groups stepping forward to bankroll Gov. Jerry Brown's ambitious plan to re-engineer California's north-south water delivery system, state and local officials now say millions of California water customers will have to spend billions funding the state's biggest water project in decades. (AP Photo/Russel A. Daniels, File ...
https://yahoo.com/news/photos/science-and-technology-slideshow/fear-east-dr-congo-rebels-photo-142023833.html?selected_tab=1&mod_id=latest-news-galleries&ref=gs

The Republican War on Science: The Republican War on Science is a 2005 book by Chris C. Mooney, an American journalist who focuses on the politics of science policy.Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences: Vinnytsia Institute of Economics and Social Sciences – structural unit of Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine” (OIUHD “Ukraina”).MBF BioscienceRWTH Aachen Faculty of Mathematics, Computer science, and Natural sciences: thumbnail|200px|Institute for physical chemistryNoreen M. Clark: Noreen M. Clark was the Myron E.Science, Evolution, and Creationism: Science, Evolution, and Creationism is a publication by the United States National Academy of Sciences. The book's authors intended to provide a current and comprehensive explanation of evolution and "its importance in the science classroom".Realia (library science): Realia}}Relevance: Relevance is the concept of one topic being connected to another topic in a way that makes it useful to consider the first topic when considering the second. The concept of relevance is studied in many different fields, including cognitive sciences, logic, and library and information science.University of Sydney Library: The University of Sydney Library is the library system of the University of Sydney. According to its publications, it is the largest academic library in the southern hemisphere (circa 2005), with a print collection of over 5.Andrew Dickson WhiteNational Academy of Customs Excise and Narcotics: The National Academy of Customs, Excise and Narcotics, abbreviated as NACEN, is a premier National academy of the Government of India for the training of Indian Revenue Service (IRS) officers administering Customs, Central Excise, Service Tax and Narcotics laws in India. It imparts training to the officers of the elite Indian Revenue Service (IRS) who are selected through the prestigious Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examination, popularly known as the Civil Services Examination.Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences (CBCS) was established in year 2002 as an initiative of the University Grants Commission (India) and was set us as a Centre of Excellence.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentThe Flash ChroniclesAntenor Orrego Private UniversityBritish Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology: The Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology is a Polish scientific research organization and a part of Polish Academy of Sciences headquartered in Warsaw, Poland. Founded in 1918, it is a leading institution in the country in the field of neurobiology, molecular biology and biochemistry.Science Translational Medicine: Science Translational Medicine is an interdisciplinary medical journal established in October 2009 by the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Modern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors: The International Workshop on Nitride Semiconductors (IWN) is a biennial academic conference in the field of group III nitride research. The IWN and the International Conference on Nitride Semiconductors (ICNS) are held in alternating years and cover similar subject areas.Medical sign: A medical sign is an objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic that may be detected by a physician during a physical examination of a patient. For example, whereas paresthesia is a symptom (only the person experiencing it can directly observe their own tingling feeling), erythema is a sign (anyone can confirm that the skin is redder than usual).Nihon UniversityToronto Western Research Institute: The Toronto Western Research Institute (TWRI) is a non-profit academic medical research institute located in Canada’s largest city, Toronto. The TWRI is one the principal research institutes of the University Health Network of academic teaching hospitals associated with the University of Toronto; the TWRI is also one of the largest research institutes in Canada focussing on human neurological disease from both a basic science and clinical research perspective.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.Arthur Cowley (librarian): Sir Arthur Ernest Cowley, FBA (13 December 1861 – 12 October 1931) was a British librarian who was Bodley's Librarian (head of the Bodleian Library at the University of Oxford) from 1919 until a couple of months before his death. He was also a leading Semitic scholar.Lasker Award: The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1945 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist).Newington Green Unitarian ChurchAlexander Walker (physiologist): Alexander Walker (1779—1852) was a Scottish physiologist, aesthetician, encyclopaedist, translator, novelist, and journalist.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Journal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.Manganin: Manganin is a trademarked name for an alloy of typically 86% copper, 12% manganese, and 2% nickel. It was first developed by Edward Weston in 1892, improving upon his Constantan (1887).The Gentlemen's Alliance CrossKamaladalamRosalyn Sussman YalowBirse Civils: Birse Civils is a civil engineering company based in North Yorkshire, England. It was formerly a separate civil engineering company simply known as Birse Group, but is now owned by Balfour Beatty.Thirteen Steps To Mentalism: Thirteen Steps to Mentalism is a book on mentalism by Tony Corinda. It was originally published as thirteen smaller booklets as a course in mentalism, and was later, in 1961, republished as a book.List of youth publications: __NOTOC__Q Division Studios: Q Division Studios is a recording studio located in Somerville, Massachusetts, United States, at the heart of the Boston area's music scene. Founded in 1986, Q Division was originally located at 443 Albany Street in Boston, but moved to its current two-studio facility in 2000.List of medical schools in the United KingdomCharles Brandon, 3rd Duke of Suffolk: Charles Brandon, 3rd Duke of Suffolk (1537/1538 – 14 July 1551), known as Lord Charles Brandon until shortly before his death, was the son of the 1st Duke of Suffolk and the suo jure 12th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.Enlightenment Intensive: An Enlightenment Intensive is a group retreat designed to enable a spiritual enlightenment experience within a relatively short time. Devised by Americans Charles (1929–2007) and Ava Berner in the 1960s,http://www.Henry Charlton Bastian: Henry Charlton Bastian (26 April 1837 in Truro, Cornwall, England – 17 November 1915 in Chesham Bois, Buckinghamshire) was an English physiologist and neurologist. Fellow of Royal Society in 1868.Eden Prairie Library: The Eden Prairie Library is located in Eden Prairie, Minnesota and is one of 41 libraries of the Hennepin County Library system. The 40,000 square foot building houses a collection of 150,000 items, an automated materials handling system (AMH) for check in and rough sortation of materials, 82 public computers, two meeting rooms, a reading lounge with fireplace, a teen area, a children's area with a Family Reading Lounge, and several installations of artwork.Index of physics articles (J): The index of physics articles is split into multiple pages due to its size.Last Days of Humanity: Last Days of Humanity is a Dutch goregrind band, which was active from 1989 until 2006, and reformed in 2010. Their music is known for its nonstop sound and relentless blast beats, with regards to drummer Marc Palmen.The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer. The journal publishes 36 issues per year.Blue Peter Book Award: The Blue Peter Book Awards are a set of literary awards for children's books conferred by the BBC television programme Blue Peter. They were inaugurated in 2000 for books published in 1999.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.International Congress on Sleep ApneaDalian PX protest: The Dalian PX protest (locally called the 8-14 event; ) was a peaceful public protest in People's Square, Dalian, to protest against a paraxylene (PX) chemical factory—Dalian Fujia Dahua Petrochemical (大連福佳大化石油化工)—built in Dalian city. The protest took place in August 14, 2011.NeurogeneticsScientific misconduct: Scientific misconduct is the violation of the standard codes of scholarly conduct and ethical behavior in professional scientific research. A Lancet review on Handling of Scientific Misconduct in Scandinavian countries provides the following sample definitions: (reproduced in The COPE report 1999.Document-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.David Glass (sociologist): 1970sStudent loan default in the United States: Defaulting on a student loan in the United States can have a number of negative consequences. To understand loan default, it is helpful to have a few common terms defined:Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Discoverer 23The Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).David James (cell biologist): David Ernest James (born Sydney 1958) is a cell biologist who discovered the glucose transporter GLUT4. He has also been responsible for the molecular dissection of the intracellular trafficking pathways that regulate GLUT4 translocation to the cell surface, the topological mapping of the insulin signal transduction pathway, the creation of a method for studying in vivo metabolism in small animals, and the use of this method to gain insights into whole-animal fuel metabolism and homeostasis.University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics: The University of Toronto Joint Centre for Bioethics, or JCB, is an academic research centre located on the downtown campus of the University of Toronto in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. The Joint Centre for Bioethics is a partnership between the University and 15 affiliated health care organizations in the Greater Toronto Area.The Searchers discography: A discography of The SearchersDavid S. Cafiso: David S. Cafiso (born 18 March 1952) is an American biochemist and a Professor of Chemistry at the University of Virginia.Michael Colgan (nutritionist)Prosection: A prosection is the dissection of a cadaver (human or animal) or part of a cadaver by an experienced anatomist in order to demonstrate for students anatomic structure."Prosection.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.University of Santo Tomas Faculty of PharmacyIppolito de' MediciBiological pathway: A biological pathway is a series of actions among molecules in a cell that leads to a certain product or a change in a cell. Such a pathway can trigger the assembly of new molecules, such as a fat or protein.New York Public Library and Bryant ParkBlitzkrieg Booking and Promotions: Blitzkrieg Booking and Promotions was founded in 2000 as a musical management company. The company held a staff of over 200 members and had contractual management with over a dozen bands.Cold Lake Museums: The Cold Lake Museums are four museums that are located on the old facility of 42 Radar Squadron on the north edge of Cold Lake South. The museums included are the Cold Lake Air Force Museum, as well as the Oil and Gas, Heritage and Aboriginal Museums.

(1/635) Innovation and public accountability in clinical research.

For more than 20 years, clinical researchers have expressed alarm about the decline of their field, but they have failed to achieve a consensus on policies to revitalize and sustain it. Although they have traced the plight of clinical research to profound changes in science, medicine, and public expectations, their conservative vision and preference for short-term measures inhibit effective policy formulation. These trends are the outcome of historical developments, and they seem to mandate a new approach to public policy. A potential source for more viable and socially accountable policies lies in practitioners' notion that clinical research bridges basic and applied science (by translating scientific innovations into practical measures). Exploiting that idea, however, would require a major reorientation of the field toward health services research and the institutions that are struggling to support it.  (+info)

(2/635) Tolerance in a rigorous science.

Scientists often evaluate other people's theories by the same standards they apply to their own work; it is as though scientists may believe that these criteria are independent of their own personal priorities and standards. As a result of this probably implicit belief, they sometimes may make less useful judgments than they otherwise might if they were able and willing to evaluate a specific theory at least partly in terms of the standards appropriate to that theory. Journal editors can play an especially constructive role in managing this diversity of standards and opinion.  (+info)

(3/635) The transition to agricultural sustainability.

The transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production during the 21st century will take place within the context of a transition to a stable population and a possible transition to a stable level of material consumption. If the world fails to successfully navigate a transition to sustainable growth in agricultural production, the failure will be due more to a failure in the area of institutional innovation than to resource and environmental constraints.  (+info)

(4/635) Challenge of Goodness II: new humanitarian technology, developed in croatia and bosnia and Herzegovina in 1991-1995, and applied and evaluated in Kosovo 1999.

This paper presents improvements of the humanitarian proposals of the Challenge of Goodness project published earlier (1). In 1999 Kosovo crisis, these proposals were checked in practice. The priority was again on the practical intervention - helping people directly - to prevent, stop, and ease suffering. Kosovo experience also prompted us to modify the concept of the Challenge of Goodness. It should include research and education (1. redefinition of health, 2. confronting genocide, 3. university studies and education, and 4. collecting experience); evaluation (1. Red Cross forum, 2. organization and technology assessment, 3. Open Hand - Experience of Good People); activities in different stages of war or conflict in: 1. prevention (right to a home, Hate Watch, early warning), 2. duration (refugee camps, prisoners-of-war camps, global hospital, minorities), 3. end of conflict (planned, organized, and evaluated protection), 4. post conflict (remaini ng and abandoned populations, prisoners of war and missing persons, civilian participation, return, and renewal). Effectiveness of humanitarian intervention may be performed by politicians, soldiers, humanitarian workers, and volunteers, but the responsibility lies on science. Science must objectively collect data, develop hypotheses, check them in practice, allow education, and be the force of good, upon which everybody can rely. Never since the World War II has anybody in Europe suffered in war and conflict so much as peoples in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Kosovo. We should search for the meaning of their suffering, and develop new knowledge and technology of peace.  (+info)

(5/635) Closer to a compromise on the direction of environmental research.

The Committee for the National Institute for the Environment (CNIE) was created in 1990 "to improve the scientific basis for making decisions on environmental issues," possibly through the establishment of a separate institute devoted to the environmental sciences. But while the goals proposed for the National Institute for the Environment were universally applauded, Congress was averse to adding a new agency to the federal bureaucracy. Recently, a compromise plan has been proposed that could expand the science base without having to create a new agency. On 29 July 1999, the National Science Board approved an interim report recommending an expanded program of environmental research and research planning, education, and scientific assessment with a funding target of an additional $1 billion over five years. The report stresses the importance of environmental research in formulating environmental protection programs and contains 12 recommendations intended to enhance and complement existing research activities in environmental sciences and engineering. If the National Science Foundation implements the recommendations in the report and if Congress appropriates funds for that purpose, the need for additional funding for new science activities identified by the CNIE should be satisfied.  (+info)

(6/635) The scientist's world.

This paper describes the features of the world of science, and it compares that world briefly with that of politics and the law. It also discusses some "postmodern" trends in philosophy and sociology that have been undermining confidence in the objectivity of science and thus have contributed indirectly to public mistrust. The paper includes broader implications of interactions of government and science.  (+info)

(7/635) The myth of objectivity: is medicine moving towards a social constructivist medical paradigm?

Biomedicine is improperly imbued with a nomothetic methodology, which views 'disease' in a similar way to other 'natural' phenomena. This arises from a 300-year history of a positivist domination of science, meaning that objectivist research (e.g. randomized controlled trials or biochemical research) attracts more funding and is more readily published than 'softer' qualitative research. A brief review of objectivism and subjectivism is followed by a definition of an emerging medical paradigm. Current 'inappropriate' medical practices become understandable in this broader context, and examples are given. A constructivist paradigm can continue to incorporate 'objective' clinical findings and interventions, as well as the recent evidence for the doctor-patient relationship as a major contributor to patient outcomes.  (+info)

(8/635) Organizational interventions: facing the limits of the natural science paradigm.

This paper reviews current challenges in the conceptualization, design, and evaluation of organizational interventions to improve occupational health. It argues that attempts to confirm cause-and-effect relationships and allow prediction (maximize internal validity) are often made at the expense of generalizability (external validity). The current, dominant experimental paradigm in the occupational health research establishment, with its emphasis on identifying causal connections, focuses attention on outcome at the expense of process. Interventions should be examined in terms of (i) conceptualization, design and implementation (macroprocesses) and (ii) the theoretical mediating mechanisms involved (microprocesses). These processes are likely to be more generalizable than outcomes. Their examination may require the use of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It is suggested that such an approach holds unexplored promise for the healthier design, management, and organization of future work.  (+info)



behavioral


  • The Behavioral Sciences Student Fellowship is open to students in the behavioral sciences for work on an epilepsy study project. (fastweb.com)
  • Their dream was of a building to house the classrooms and staff and faculty offices of the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences on the campus of California State University, San Bernardino. (ecaroh.com)
  • For the first time, it will allow all of our social and behavioral science faculty to have offices in the same facility,' said Albert Karnig, President of the university. (ecaroh.com)
  • Having all of the departments of the college in one building pulls faculty together into a community where they have much more interaction in the natural flow of their daily work,' says John Conley, dean of the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences. (ecaroh.com)
  • Chairman Smith, Chairman Baird, and distinguished members of the Subcommittees, thank you for this opportunity to discuss the social, behavioral and economic (SBE) sciences and the military. (nsf.gov)
  • I am Mark Weiss, the Division Director for Behavioral and Cognitive Sciences within the Directorate for Social, Behavioral and Economic Sciences at the National Science Foundation (NSF). (nsf.gov)
  • The social, behavioral and economic sciences, or what we also call the human sciences, are concerned with human actions at every level, from an individual's brain, to individual behavior, to the actions of social groups and organizations. (nsf.gov)
  • Because warfare is a human activity, there are deep and compelling reasons for the military to be cognizant of research in the social and behavioral sciences. (nsf.gov)
  • The federal support of basic research in the social, behavioral and economic sciences is largely funded by NSF through grants to researchers, most of whom are located at academic institutions within the United States. (nsf.gov)
  • In this testimony, I will first describe the role that NSF plays in advancing basic research in the social, behavioral and economic sciences. (nsf.gov)
  • The social, behavioral and economic sciences comprise several different disciplines focused on one common goal: a deeper understanding of human beings at every level. (nsf.gov)

faculty


  • Ranking the Research Productivity of Library and Information Science Faculty and Schools: An Evaluation of Data Sources and Research Methods. (wikipedia.org)

Disciplines


  • Many universities have entire colleges, departments or schools devoted to the study of information science, while numerous information-science scholars work in disciplines such as communication , computer science , law , library science , and sociology . (wikipedia.org)

cognitive


  • This volume--the ninth in the Vancouver Studies in Cognitive Science series--brings together chapters by psychologists, philosophers, computer scientists, and artists to explore the nature of human color perception with the aim to further our understanding of color by encouraging interdisciplinary interaction.Davis, Steven is the author of 'Color Perception: Philosophical, Psychological, Artistic, and Computational Perspectives (New Directions in Cognitive Science)', published 2000 under ISBN 9780195136678 and ISBN 0195136675. (valorebooks.com)
  • available public 29220 http://www.pbs.org/wnet/tavissmiley/interviews/professor-cognitive-science-george-lakoff/ 2365951602 cove 29220 Professor of Cognitive Science, George Lakoff George Lakoff is an author, linguist and cognitive scientist. (pbs.org)
  • The cognitive science and linguistics professor joins us to discuss the scientific factors behind the suggestive media messaging used by the Trump administration. (pbs.org)
  • He is the Goldman Distinguished Professor of Cognitive Science and Linguistics at UC Berkeley, where he's taught since 1972. (pbs.org)
  • Tonight then, a conversation with linguist and cognitive scientist, George Lakoff, about the science of framing and unconscious thought. (pbs.org)
  • He is an author and professor emeritus of cognitive science at UC Berkeley. (pbs.org)

organization


  • Given the scientific stakes, we may assume that Meyer, Program Director of the Discovery Institute 's Center for Science and Culture , the major organization promoting ID, has put forward the best case that ID has to offer. (talkreason.org)
  • From fighting the war on terrorism to understanding and overseeing an immense organization, the SBE sciences can provide military policymakers with knowledge-based solutions to critical challenges. (nsf.gov)

psychology


  • Other features include a Psychology Community Counseling Center, a Child Development Center and a Political Science Debate Room. (ecaroh.com)

social


  • Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) INSPEC Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts (LISTA) Library Literature and Information Science Social Sciences Citation Index Web of Science ^ Meho, Lokman I. & Spurgin, Kristina M. (2005). (wikipedia.org)

Technology


  • That is why different roles (IT Admin, C.S. engineer, etc.) in Information technology and Computer Science major exist to assist information for all the fields of study. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this respect, one can see information science as a response to technological determinism , the belief that technology "develops by its own laws, that it realizes its own potential, limited only by the material resources available and the creativity of its developers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Distinctive Voices series presents innovations, discoveries, and emerging issues in science, technology and medicine in an exciting public forum. (umd.edu)
  • Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 56(12), 1314-1331. (wikipedia.org)
  • Library and information science research areas: Analysis of journal articles in LISA, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(1), 150-154. (wikipedia.org)

library science


  • Not to be confused with information theory , data science , library science , information systems (discipline) , or informatics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Information science should not be confused with information theory or library science . (wikipedia.org)
  • Information science as an academic discipline is often taught in combination with Library science as Library and Information Science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Library science as such is a field related to the dissemination of information through libraries making use of the principles of information science. (wikipedia.org)

major


  • The program received major funding from the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Fund of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering. (umd.edu)

Open


  • Washington (CNN) - Florida Sen. Marco Rubio attempted to walk the line between science and faith-based creationism in remarks that that have provoked the ire of liberal blogs, leaving the door open to creationism in responding to a recent question about the age of the Earth. (cnn.com)

Center


  • The National Academy of Sciences has selected ISR-affiliated Associate Professor Jaydev Desai (ME) to give the June 2011 talk in its "Distinctive Voices" seminar series at The Beckman Center in Irvine, Calif. (umd.edu)