Schools: Educational institutions.School Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with health and nursing care given to primary and secondary school students by a registered nurse.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Schools, Dental: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of dentistry.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.Schools, Nursery: Schools for children usually under five years of age.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Schools, Pharmacy: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of pharmacy.Schools, Nursing: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of nursing.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Education, Dental: Use for articles concerning dental education in general.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Student Dropouts: Individuals who leave school, secondary or college, prior to completion of specified curriculum requirements.Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Students, Dental: Individuals enrolled a school of dentistry or a formal educational program in leading to a degree in dentistry.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.School Dentistry: Preventive dental services provided for students in primary and secondary schools.Faculty, Dental: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Child Behavior: Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.Education, Premedical: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to medical school.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Lunch: The meal taken at midday.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Bullying: Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.Child Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease of children, infants or adolescents.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Training Support: Financial support for training including both student stipends and loans and training grants to institutions.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Schools, Veterinary: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of veterinary medicine.Menu PlanningUniversities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Sex Education: Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Library Schools: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of library science or information.Schools, Health Occupations: Schools which offer training in the area of health.Cultural Diversity: Coexistence of numerous distinct ethnic, racial, religious, or cultural groups within one social unit, organization, or population. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed., 1982, p955)Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Play and Playthings: Spontaneous or voluntary recreational activities pursued for enjoyment and accessories or equipment used in the activities; includes games, toys, etc.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Vocational Education: Education for specific trades or occupations.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Education, Predental: Preparatory education meeting the requirements for admission to dental school.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Community Dentistry: The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Bicycling: The use of a bicycle for transportation or recreation. It does not include the use of a bicycle in studying the body's response to physical exertion (BICYCLE ERGOMETRY TEST see EXERCISE TEST).BrazilMinority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Mainstreaming (Education): Most frequently refers to the integration of a physically or mentally disabled child into the regular class of normal peers and provision of the appropriately determined educational program.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Prosthodontics: A dental specialty concerned with the restoration and maintenance of oral function by the replacement of missing TEETH and related structures by artificial devices or DENTAL PROSTHESES.CaliforniaLearning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Problem-Based Learning: Instructional use of examples or cases to teach using problem-solving skills and critical thinking.Underachievement: Performance, usually in school work, poorer than that predicted from aptitude and/or intelligence testing.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Toilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.IndiaSubstance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Snacks: Foods eaten between MEALTIMES.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Education, Pharmacy: Formal instruction, learning, or training in the preparation, dispensing, and proper utilization of drugs in the field of medicine.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Societies, Dental: Societies whose membership is limited to dentists.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.TurkeyTexasInterviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Fund Raising: Usually organized community efforts to raise money to promote financial programs of institutions. The funds may include individual gifts.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.EnglandAggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Sunburn: An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.JapanStaff Development: The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.Great BritainDental Research: The study of laws, theories, and hypotheses through a systematic examination of pertinent facts and their interpretation in the field of dentistry. (From Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982, p674)Scalp DermatosesProfessional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Dentist-Patient Relations: The psychological relations between the dentist and patient.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Child Behavior Disorders: Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.Early Intervention (Education): Procedures and programs that facilitate the development or skill acquisition in infants and young children who have disabilities, who are at risk for developing disabilities, or who are gifted. It includes programs that are designed to prevent handicapping conditions in infants and young children and family-centered programs designed to affect the functioning of infants and children with special needs. (From Journal of Early Intervention, Editorial, 1989, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 3; A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, prepared for the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, 1976)Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Libraries, MedicalComputer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Teaching Materials: Instructional materials used in teaching.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Facility Design and Construction: Architecture, exterior and interior design, and construction of facilities other than hospitals, e.g., dental schools, medical schools, ambulatory care clinics, and specified units of health care facilities. The concept also includes architecture, design, and construction of specialized contained, controlled, or closed research environments including those of space labs and stations.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Helminthiasis: Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Students, Pharmacy: Individuals enrolled in a school of pharmacy or a formal educational program leading to a degree in pharmacy.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic: Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Tooth Injuries: Traumatic or other damage to teeth including fractures (TOOTH FRACTURES) or displacements (TOOTH LUXATION).Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.MinnesotaDisabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.PennsylvaniaTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Education, Dental, Graduate: Educational programs for dental graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic dental sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced dental degree.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.
Compulsory school attendance: election and duties of welfare officer, compulsory attendance law, and rules and regulations...N87p iCompulsory School Attendance N.C. Dept. of public Instruction ®I,? ffitbraru of% llnttifratty of -Nort!) OJarnltna Cil0llrrtton nf North (Carultmana Cp3T9.^3 UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 00034026394 FOR USE ONLY IN THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLECTION PuBLICATIO^^ No. 253 COMPULSORY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE (Revised Edition' of Publicatiox Xo. 247) Issued by the State Supebixtexde,'t of Public Instruction Raleigh, North Carolina CONTENTS Page Preface 3 Statement by the State Commissioner of Public Welfare 5 Compulsory Attendance in Schools-Law 7 Rulings of the Attorney General Concerning Compulsory School Attendance 11 Rules and Regulations Adopted by the State Board of Education 16 Forms Authorized by the State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 22 PREFACE School attendance is compulsory for all children between the ages of seven and fifteen for the school year 1944-45 and between the ages of seven and sixteen thereafter, except children living on farms or engaged in commercial fishing or ...
Educational Leadership:Customizing Our Schools:The Price of Public School ChoiceSchool choice programs and their scrappy offspring, charter schools, get good press. School choice gives parents and students the option of choosing a public school beyond neighborhood boundaries. Charter schools, formed by parents or teachers who want to create additional options for school choice, are said to produce high test scores, enthusiastic teachers, satisfied parents, and long waiting lists. Since the early 1990s, 37 states have enacted charter school legislation. Nearly 500,000 students attend charter schools. U.S. President George W. Bush and state governors proclaim that charter schools and other school choice options are the most promising approach to public school improvement. In Colorado, the state has approved legislation that mandates converting schools with low standardized test scores to charter schools unless the schools improve dramatically in two years. Despite this ...
Titirangi Rudolf Steiner School - 25/11/2013 | Education Review OfficeTitirangi Rudolf Steiner School initially catered for students from Class 1 to 6 (the Lower School). As the school roll continued to grow, provision was made to cater for Classes 7 and 8 (the Middle School). At the end of 2012, the Upper School (Classes 9 to 12) received full registration from the Ministry of Education. The school now operates as one school, providing education for students from the age of 6 to 18 years. Of the 160 students, 11 identify as Māori.. The school is owned by Rudolf Steiner Schools' (Titirangi) Trust. It is managed by the College of Teachers that has representatives from the on-site Kindergarten, the Lower, Middle and Upper Schools. The school is led by the school administrator. Teachers in the respective schools constitute the management groups. The Trust has recently reviewed the school's vision and mission statements. This review has resulted in the development of structures and processes to help ensure clarity and ...
Evaluation of the Bully-Proofing Your School Program in Colorado, 2001-2006Study Purpose: Bully-Proofing Your School (BPYS) was a school-based intervention program designed to reduce bullying and school violence. The BPYS program differed from other anti-bullying programs by providing teachers with a specific curriculum that could be implemented in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the BPYS program at the elementary school and middle school level. Study Design: The Bully-Proofing Your School (BPYS) outcome evaluation consisted of school climate surveys administered to elementary school students (Part 1), middle school students (Part 2), and staff (Part 3) in both the treatment and the comparison schools. The design of the data collection for the study was a repeated cross-sectional design. Within each cross-section, the basic design was a hierarchically nested multilevel design. Students were nested within the schools, and schools were split between treatment and comparison conditions, with unequal numbers of ...
Wash.DC Group Fights Cell Towers on School Grounds | Why Fry?1. Schools should be in the business of education, not radiation.. 2. Cell Towers put hazardous materials, lead acid batteries and diesel fuel, on school grounds.. 3. Cell tower equipment emits diesel exhaust increasing air pollution near schools.. 4. Schools should not have three cell towers on each site.. 5. Schools green space is paved over with cement and trees are cut down for the cell tower.. 6. Students and staff should not be made to be constantly exposed to cell tower microwave radiation and put at risk of adverse effects from cumulative long term radiation exposure.. 7. School zones should not be hard hat zones as falling and wind-flung ice, equipment, and tools have been determined to cause fatal injuries within cell towers' fall zones.. 8. Students should not be witness to tower worker accidents.. 9. Cell towers catch on fire putting students and staff at risk.. 10. Cell towers can collapse and schools and ...
Sri Sathya Sai School, Rishikesh CBSE Boarding School Vice Principal, Teachers job vacancySri Sathya Sai School, Rishikesh a day boarding school affiliated to Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi has advertised for various teaching and non-teaching job vacancies, forward resume through email immediately.
Middle school - definition of middle school by The Free DictionaryDefine middle school. middle school synonyms, middle school pronunciation, middle school translation, English dictionary definition of middle school. n. A school at a level between elementary and high school, typically including grades five or six through eight. mid′dle-school′ adj. mid′dle-school′er n.
School Administrator's Public Speaking Portfolio: With Model Speeches and Anecdotes, Book by P. Susan Mamchak (Paperback) |...Buy the Paperback Book School Administrator's Public Speaking Portfolio by P. Susan Mamchak at Indigo.ca, Canada's largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Reference and Language books over $25!
Griffith Woods School - Building & Modernizing Schools - CBEParents and Guardians of Students residing in Springbank Hill and Discovery Ridge and designated to Griffith Woods School. Re: Change to school opening date. The opening date for Griffith Woods School is changed due to delays in the construction process. The school will now open in January 2018. We understand a change in schools mid-year can be difficult for families and we are looking at how to best support students as they begin the 2017 school year and transition to a new school in January.. To that end, we are organizing based on the 'school within a school' concept. Students living in Springbank Hill and Discovery Ridge who are designated to Griffith Woods School will continue to attend their current school: Battalion Park, Jennie Elliott, A.E. Cross or Bishop Pinkham from September 2017 to December 2017. To the best of our ability, we will create 'school within a school' classes comprised of students designated to Griffith Woods School and their teachers. These classes will move as a ...
Wataalam Group braces school committees in GairoThe Wataalam Group, a Civil Society Organisation (CSO) based in Gairo has managed to transform school operations in the district by providing training to teachers on best governance practices. The CSO received funding from Foundation for Civil Society (FCS) to implement a project on Public Expenditure Tracking Systems (PETS) in Education.. Through that project, Wataalam Group managed to train school committees' members on how to discharge their duties effectively. Previously, teachers and citizens in Gairo District had little understanding on roles and responsibilities of schools committees in supporting school management. The Head Teacher of Kitende Chigongwe Primary School in Chigongwe ward, Mr. Amiri Saidi Kichombaki said that his school had a school committee which was not aware of its responsibilities and as a result teachers had to perform all school activities.. "It was difficult to seek assistance from the school committee without members asking for allowances. But as a result of the ...
Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and Adolescents in the US | International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition...In a recent report by the US General Accounting Office (GAO), food sales were reported to be the most prevalent form of commercial activity in schools.  Food sales involved primarily the sale of soft drinks from vending machines and short-term fundraising sales. The US national School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 (SHPPS) found that students could purchase soft drinks, sports drinks, or fruit drinks that are not 100% juice in a vending machine, school store, or snack bar in 58% of elementary schools, 83% of middle schools, and 94% of high schools.  In a recent survey of 336 secondary school principals in Minnesota, US, 98% of the school principals reported that soft drink vending machines were available to students, and 77% of the schools had a contract with a soft drink company.  The GAO report found that the sale of soft drinks by schools or districts under exclusive contracts is the ...
Organizational alignment in charter school settings: investigation of a three-tier model for linking leadership, culture, and...Since A Nation At Risk (1954), a series of laws and key reform initiatives were passed to hold schools accountable for improving the quality of public education (e.g. IASA, Title 1, NCLB, RTTT). These reform initiatives require that public schools undergo continuous change but simply having these expectations will not guarantee their implementation. According to Fullan (1998), school leaders must know how to foster change in order to implement key reforms. However, a major problem in education is that school leaders do not know how to create and manage school cultures that are optimal for change toward instructional improvement to occur. To address this problem, this dissertation investigated a single case study to explore how one Principal set out to create and manage culture in a charter school setting. This study also explored the link, and the degree of alignment, between leadership, culture, and change. Two overarching questions were explored; (1) How does the school ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20029456 - Summer work and injury among middle school students, aged 10-14 years.BACKGROUND: Little information exists on injury and factors associated with injury in working youth aged 10-14 years. Most studies do not involve children younger than 15. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous survey was administered to middle school students in five school districts and one large urban school in October 2001. RESULTS: Of the 3189 working middle school students who responded to the
Health Promotion Schools by alex Fulwood on PreziWorld Health Organisation (WHOc), 2012, Global School Health Initiative - School and Youth Health, viewed 19 October 2012 http://www.who.int/school_youth_health/gshi/en/ (i) the formal health curriculum that gives school-aged children the essential knowledge and social skills that will allow them to make enlightened choices affecting their physical and psycho-social health (Deschesnes et al 2003) (ii) the school environment, which refers to the quality of the physical environment and the school climate, the health services and policies of the school(Deschesnes et al 2003) (iii) the school/community interactions (Deschesnes et al 2003). 3 Components of ...
Eau Claire Area School District Public SchoolsEau Claire Area School District at Public Schools Report. Details and information on public schools in Eau Claire Area School District
The King's Hospital Parents' Association l Boarding School Dublin l Church of Ireland Governed Co-Educational Boarding and Day...The King's Hospital Parents Association (KHPA) is very active in supporting the students, their parents and the school throughout the year, through events and fundraising. The Headmaster attends their committee meetings and their feedback and input is invaluable to the school.. A Committee is elected each year at the KHPA AGM, this year (2016) being held on Tuesday Septembers 13th @7.30pm. A nomination sheet went out to each household in the August mailing. A new Chairperson, Secretary and Treasurer is elected every three years from the elected committee members.. The KHPA meets approximately every 6 weeks, and divides up responsibility for the many events that they run. The success of all these events is dependent on support from all the parent body and it is a great way to meet other parents, which doesn't happen as frequently in secondary school. Additional volunteers are always welcome!. Contact email:. email@example.com. Below is a list of events that take place during ...
School Behavioral Health School District Learning Community | Houston, Texas USA | Mental Health America of Greater HoustonSchool Behavioral Health School District Learning Community - The School Behavioral Health Learning Community convenes bimonthly and is comprised of entities involved in the School Behavioral Health Collaborative. Continuous improvement in school systems requires commitment to solving problems and addressing systemic and organizational challenges to see education and children's behavioral health in a new light. The learning community ... Mental Health America of Greater Houston Mental Health America of Greater Houston Houston, Texas USA
Educational Leadership:Customizing Our Schools:Making Choice WorkWhat do objective sources (if there are any) say about the important questions related to vouchers and charter schools? Does choice enhance achievement for all students, give opportunity to the poorest students most in need of a better education, help integrate schools by race and class, and encourage innovation in instruction? Does it cost more or less than education in a neighborhood public school? Will increased opportunity for parents to choose the school, curriculum, and instruction for their children further democratic ideals? Will choice promote healthy competition among schools, or will it cripple public school efforts by funneling money away from them?. Although no one can answer any of these questions definitively at this time, a comprehensive analysis from RAND Education1 looks at what we know and don't know about the effectiveness of vouchers and charter schools. (See p. 90 for a Special Report on this study.) On the one hand, ...
A School-Based Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govPeak bone mass is achieved during the first twenty years of life, and dietary and activity patterns that contribute to the formation of peak bone mass are developed during childhood. The IMPACT intervention was designed to increase bone density and ultimately prevent osteoporosis during adulthood. IMPACT included physical education, food service, and classroom environmental and behavioral components and was delivered by physical education (PE) specialists, food service personnel, and classroom teachers.. A group of 718 sixth grade girls (mean age 11.1) from twelve middle schools in central Texas participated in the study. The group was 72% non-Hispanic white, 12% Hispanic, 5% African American, and 11% other ethnicity. After baseline measurements were completed in the fall of 2000, the twelve middle schools were pair-matched based on school characteristics (ethnicity, % economically disadvantaged, % girls in athletics) to a control (usual health education program) or the ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show?term=bone health, calcium, osteoporosis&spons=National Institute of Child Health and Human Development&age=0&fund=0&rank=6
School Leaders Matter - Education Next : Education NextIt is widely believed that a good principal is the key to a successful school. No Child Left Behind encouraged the replacement of the principal in persistently low-performing schools, and the Obama administration has made this a requirement for schools undergoing federally funded turnarounds. Foundations have invested millions over the past decade in New Leaders for New Schools, an organization that recruits nontraditional principal candidates and prepares them for the challenges of school leadership. And the recently launched George W. Bush Institute is making the principalship a focus of its activities. Yet until very recently there was little rigorous research demonstrating the importance of principal quality for student outcomes, much less the specific practices that cause some principals to be more successful than others. As is often the case in education policy discussions, we have relied on anecdotes instead.. This study provides new evidence on the ...
Prison Planet.com » Minor in Possession of Tea is Suspended from Cali School; Interrogated By PoliceOct 15, 2012. Editor's Note: In a state where massive cuts in school budgets have left California children without access to classes like art, music, second language, and physical education, school administrators have, instead of finding new and innovative ways to educate their pupils, turned to following the lead of their police state benefactors and shoved the boot of tyranny down their throats. While First Lady Michelle Obama'sgovernment mandated school lunch programs have been heralded by teachers' unions and the like as a step in the right direction for reducing obesity in America, when an involved parent steps in to do the same, they are lambasted by government and quasi-government officials, threatened with the real possibility of having their child taken from them under duress, and their child is interrogated in a way that would make the Schutzstaffel proud. As Kimberly Paxton of The Daily Sheeple points out in the report below, this is exactly what happened to one mother after her 7th ...
Chukitong Govt Hr Sec School celebrate 75 years - The Morung ExpressWokha, June 9 (DIPR): Minister for School Education, Nagaland, Yitachu graced the 75th year Jubilee celebration of Government Higher Secondary School, Chukitong on June 9 as the chief guest.. The Minister said that the Government, with the intention of providing quality education has appointed the best and qualified teachers in all government schools and expressed hope that the school will continue to produce responsible leaders and individuals as done in the past. He urged the area people to extend co-operation and contribute towards the upliftment of the institution. Minister for Home, Y. Patton who graced the occasion as the special guest, informed that GHSS Chikitong has been elevated to higher secondary keeping in consideration for being the third oldest school in the State. Congratulating the school on the occasion of the 75th year's celebration, he reminded the school authority to give their best in educating the students to achieve excellence. The Home minister also assured to donate ...
Behealthy School Kids Program Evaluation ResultsDuring the 2016-2017 school year, the BeHealthy School Kids Program scheduled to visit a total of 12 elementary schools to their entire student body; grades pre-K through 5th grade. Title I schools were chosen based on the schools with students who had the unhealthiest Body Mass Indexes. Each school will be given a pre and post test to determine much they retained after the BeHealthy campaign visited their school. Please view the overall results to see the students' progress. If you would like more detailed information, feel free to contact the program coordinator at 336-703-3217 or firstname.lastname@example.org.. 2016-2017 Evaluation Results ...
Allergies Policy - Canterbury Road Primary SchoolStatement of Intent:. This policy is concerned with a whole school approach to the health care and management of those members of the school community suffering from specific allergies.. Canterbury Road Primary School are aware that children who attend may suffer from food, bee/ wasp sting, animal or nut allergies and we believe that all allergies should be taken seriously and dealt with in a professional and appropriate way.. Canterbury Road Primary School's position is not to guarantee a completely allergen free environment but rather to minimise the risk of exposure, encourage self-responsibility, and plan for effective response to possible emergencies.. The Statutory Framework states that the provider must obtain information about any dietary requirements/allergy. As such parents are asked to provide details of allergies in the child's Health Form, which is submitted before starting school.. Aim:. The intent of this policy is to minimize the risk of any child suffering allergy-induced ...
Alan KnoblochAfter five years as a middle school principal, I was thrilled to be appointed to my current position of high school principal. I inherited a wonderful high school with a veteran faculty and impressive student performances. (Go here to learn more about my school, my article is on page two) While I marveled at the past accomplishments of the students and teachers, believing in that being a great school is a process and not a location (to hear Jim Collins explain this, click here the moment you think you are great, you've lost it), I challenged the teachers to look for ways to make our school even better. This did not go over well. The veteran teachers did not see any reason to change what they were doing. Early on, any suggestions I made was met with "Why should we change? Look at our test scores." I realized I had made the rookie mistake of assuming everyone would view the situation the same way I did. I had to start over.. I reread one of my favorite books about school leadership Bringing Out ...
St. Vrain Valley School DistrictNASN School Nurse: NASN School Nurse is an American bimonthly peer-reviewed nursing journal that covers the field of school nursing. The editor-in-chief is Cynthia Galemore.List of medical schools in the United KingdomDental Schools Council: The Dental Schools Council represents the interests of UK dental schools as it relates to national health, wealth, knowledge acquisition through teaching, research, and the profession of dentistry.Universities UK http://www.Cigarette smoking among college students: The rates of college students smoking in the United States have fluctuated for the past twenty years. Majority of lifelong smokers begin smoking habits before the age of 24, which makes the college years a crucial time in the study of cigarette consumption.Shabondama: is a Japanese nursery rhyme written by Ujō Noguchi in 1922. It is widely taught in Japanese nursery schools and kindergartens as a simple melody; it is also sometimes used in elementary school moral education courses, where students learn that it is a meditation on the death of a child.School meal programs in the United States: School meal programs in the United States provide school meals freely, or at a subsidized price, to the children of low income families. These free or reduced meals have the potential to increase household food security, which can improve children's health and expand their educational opportunities.RNAi Global Initiative: The RNAi Global InitiativeRNAi Global Initiative website: www.rnaiglobal.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Glucerna: Glucerna is the brand name of a family of tube feeding formula, bottled or canned shakes, and snack bars manufactured by Abbott Laboratories. These medical nutritional products are meant for people with diabetes and are promoted for their ability to satisfy hunger without causing rapid increases in glucose concentration in the bloodstream.DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research: Divya Jyoti (DJ) College of Dental Sciences and Research is a dental college located in Modinagar in the nagar panchayat of Niwari in Ghaziabad district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The founder and chairman is Ajit Singh Jassar.Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Leiden International Medical Student ConferenceGeneral Educational Development: Ged}}School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Standard evaluation frameworkBecky JamesPacific ElectricPre-health sciences: Pre-health sciences refers to the undergraduate courses to prepare American college students for admission in medical, dentistry, pharmacy, optometry, veterinary, and physical therapy schools, and for training as a physician assistant. In the United States, colleges have moved away from the impractical designation of students as "Pre-med" majors, as only a small percentage of applicants actually achieve admission into medical schools.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Save Me (Wake Up Call)Let's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.Special education in the United Kingdom: 'Special Educational Needs' is an umbrella term for an aspect of UK school education focusing on students primarily with learning difficulties and/or disability. In school documents, it is abbreviated to 'SEN' / 'SEND' – these abbreviations are also used in Commonwealth countries such as Australia and Singapore.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Louis Melsens: Louis-Henri-Frédéric Melsens (1814 in Leuven – 1886 in Brussels) was a Belgian physicist and chemist. In 1846, he became professor of chemistry in the Veterinary School in Kureghem.Menu FoodsAntenor Orrego Private UniversityBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.General Medicine Faculty of RostGMU (Rostov State Medical University): Rostov State Medical University, Faculty of General Medicine - Located in Rostov city center with 20 departments, each departments has its own clinics with numbers of beds.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Assunta LegnanteSpecial Program of Assisted Reproduction: The Special Program of Assisted Reproduction (SPAR) is a program offered to HIV discordant couples (serodiscordant) at the Bedford Research Foundation’s clinical laboratory. The program takes advantage of ART (Assisted Reproduction Technology) procedures (including "sperm washing") to assist couples achieve a pregnancy who would otherwise risk transmitting the father's HIV infection to the mother and the child through intercourse.Yo KobayashiMedical school in the United Kingdom: In the United Kingdom, medical school generally refers to a department within a university which is involved in the education of future medical practitioners. All leading British medical schools are state-funded and their core purpose is to train doctors on behalf of the National Health Service.Madrasi chess: Madrasi chess is a chess variant invented in 1979 by Abdul Jabbar Karwatkar which uses the conventional rules of chess with the addition that when a piece is attacked by a piece of the same type but opposite colour (for example, a black queen attacking a white queen) it is paralysed and becomes unable to move, capture or give check. Most of the time, two like pieces attack each other mutually, meaning they are both paralysed (en passant pawn captures are an exception to this, since the attack is not mutual.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test: The Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT, ) is a test administered by the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) in Australia and New Zealand to assist in the selection of domestic students into certain health science courses including most Medical (MBBS or MBChB or MD) and Dentistry (BDSc or BDS) courses, as well as other health science courses such as physiotherapy and optometry. The UMAT is used for domestic applicant selection into undergraduate courses only; applicants for graduate courses must sit the GAMSAT and international applicants must sit the ISAT instead.Hacettepe University: ) Suburban ()Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Neighbourhood: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.Hygiene: Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health.Cadence (cycling): In cycling, cadence (or pedaling rate) is the number of revolutions of the crank per minute; roughly speaking, this is the rate at which a cyclist is pedalling/turning the pedals. Cadence is related to wheel speed, but is a distinct measurement.University of CampinasEthnic groups in the United Kingdom: People from various ethnic groups reside in the United Kingdom. Migration from Northern Europe has been happening for millennia, with other groups such as British Jews also well established.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Lough TaltUnited States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: The United States Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs was a select committee of the United States Senate between 1968 and 1977. It was sometimes referred to as the McGovern committee, after its only chairperson, Senator George McGovern of South Dakota.ProsthodonticsSan Diego County, California Probation: The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on community supervision orders.Learning Disability Coalition: The Learning Disability Coalition is a group of fourteen organisations which campaigns to secure better funding for social care for people with learning disabilities in England.Coalition was formed in May 2007.
(1/3103) Role of schools in the transmission of measles in rural Senegal: implications for measles control in developing countries.
Patterns of measles transmission at school and at home were studied in 1995 in a rural area of Senegal with a high level of vaccination coverage. Among 209 case children with a median age of 8 years, there were no deaths, although the case fatality ratio has previously been 6-7% in this area. Forty percent of the case children had been vaccinated against measles; the proportion of vaccinated children was higher among secondary cases (47%) than among index cases (33%) (prevalence ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.76). Vaccinated index cases may have been less infectious than unvaccinated index cases, since they produced fewer clinical cases among exposed children (relative risk = 0.55, 95% CI 0.29-1.04). The secondary attack rate was lower in the schools than in the homes (relative risk = 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.49). The school outbreaks were protracted, with 4-5 generations of cases being seen in the two larger schools. Vaccine efficacy was found to be 57% (95% CI -23 to 85) in the schools and 74% (95% CI 62-82) in the residential compounds. Measles infection resulted in a mean of 3.8 days of absenteeism per case, though this did not appear to have an impact on the children's grades. Among the index cases, 56% of children were probably infected by neighbors in the community, and 7% were probably infected at health centers, 13% outside the community, and 24% in one of the three schools which had outbreaks during the epidemic. However, most of the school-related cases occurred at the beginning and therefore contributed to the general propagation of the epidemic. To prevent school outbreaks, it may be necessary to require vaccination prior to school entry and to revaccinate children in individual schools upon detection of cases of measles. Multidose measles vaccination schedules will be necessary to control measles in developing countries. (+info)
nvited commentary: vaccine failure or failure to vaccinate? (+info)
aning of vaccine-induced immunity: is it a problem in Africa? (+info)
(4/3103) Outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness of unknown etiology associated with eating burritos--United States, October 1997-October 1998.
From October 1997 through October 1998, 16 outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness associated with eating burritos occurred in Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, North Dakota, and Pennsylvania. All but one outbreak occurred in schools, and most of the approximately 1700 persons affected were children. This report summarizes investigations of two of these outbreaks and describes the collaborative efforts of CDC, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to identify the etiologic agent(s); these outbreaks may have been caused by an undetected toxin or a new agent not previously associated with illness. (+info)
(5/3103) School and community influences on adolescent alcohol and drug use.
Social environment risk factors present in schools and communities have not been thoroughly investigated. This study cross-sectionally examined the social environments of schools and communities, and their influence on adolescent alcohol and drug use. Survey responses of eighth grade students (N = 2309), a random half of their parents (n = 943), community leaders (n = 118), school principals (n = 30), school counselors (n = 30) and chemical health providers (n = 14) were pooled to create indices of social environmental norms, role models, social support and opportunities for non-use of alcohol. Each index was examined for its association with prevalences from 30 schools of alcohol use onset, last-month alcohol use, heavy alcohol use and last-year marijuana use in univariate and stepwise regression analyses. Increases in the levels of norms, role models and opportunities for non-use predicted decreases in alcohol use prevalences. The explanatory power of the examined constructs in multivariate analyses was acceptably high (R2: 38-53%). These findings further support the notion that community-wide efforts need to be launched to affect changes in the normative, role model and opportunity structures of adolescents' social environments in order to curb adolescent alcohol and drug use. (+info)
(6/3103) The epidemic of obesity in American Indian communities and the need for childhood obesity-prevention programs.
American Indians of all ages and both sexes have a high prevalence of obesity. The high prevalence of diabetes mellitus in American Indians shows the adverse effects that obesity has in these communities. Obesity has become a major health problem in American Indians only in the past 1-2 generations and is believed to be associated with the relative abundance of high-fat foods and the rapid change from active to sedentary lifestyles. Intervention studies are urgently needed in American Indian communities to develop and test effective strategies for weight reduction. The poor success rate of adult obesity treatment programs in the general population points to the need to develop prevention approaches aimed toward children. Because eating and physical activity practices are formed early in life and may be carried into adulthood, prevention programs that encourage increased physical activity and healthful eating habits targeted toward young people need to be developed and tested. To be most effective, interventions must be developed with full participation of the American Indian communities. (+info)
(7/3103) Design and statistical analysis for the Pathways study.
We report the design, rationale, and statistical procedures used in Pathways, a randomized, school-based intervention for the primary prevention of obesity in American Indian children. The intervention, which is now being implemented in 7 American Indian communities around the country, includes a health-promotion curriculum, a physical education program, a school meal program, and a family involvement component. Forty-one schools serving American Indian children were randomly assigned to be either intervention or control groups. The intervention will begin in the third grade and continue through the end of the fifth grade. Efficacy of intervention will be assessed by differences in mean percentage body fat, calculated by a prediction equation, between intervention and control schools at the end of the fifth grade. Power computations indicate that the study has power to detect a mean difference of 2.8% in body fat. Data analysis will use intention-to-treat concepts and the mixed linear model. The study will be completed in 2000. (+info)
(8/3103) Body composition assessment in American Indian children.
Although the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian children was documented in several surveys that used body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2) as the measure, there is limited information on more direct measurements of body adiposity in this population. The present study evaluated body composition in 81 boys (aged 11.2+/-0.6 y) and 75 girls (aged 11.0+/-0.4 y) attending public schools in 6 American Indian communities: White Mountain Apache, Pima, and Tohono O'Odham in Arizona; Oglala Lakota and Sicangu Lakota in South Dakota; and Navajo in New Mexico and Arizona. These communities were participating in the feasibility phase of Pathways, a multicenter intervention for the primary prevention of obesity. Body composition was estimated by using a combination of skinfold thickness and bioelectrical impedance measurements, with a prediction equation validated previously in this same population. The mean BMI was 20.4+/-4.2 for boys and 21.1+/-5.0 for girls. The sum of the triceps plus subscapular skinfold thicknesses averaged 28.6+/-7.0 mm in boys and 34.0+/-8.0 mm in girls. Mean percentage body fat was 35.6+/-6.9 in boys and 38.8+/-8.5 in girls. The results from this study confirmed the high prevalence of excess body fatness in school-age American Indian children and permitted the development of procedures, training, and quality control for measurement of the main outcome variable in the full-scale Pathways study. (+info)