Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Psychology, Clinical: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Psychology: The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Psychology, Social: The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Schizophrenia, Disorganized: A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Psychology, Comparative: The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Schizophrenia, Catatonic: A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.Psychology, Educational: The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.Psychology, Experimental: The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.Psychoanalytic Theory: Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Psychological Theory: Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Psychology, Medical: A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.Psychology, Industrial: The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Fluphenazine: A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Fantasy: An imagined sequence of events or mental images, e.g., daydreams.Schizophrenia, Childhood: An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.Rorschach Test: A projective test used to evaluate a broad range of personality variables including pathology of thought and perception. The subject's responses to inkblot prints are scored along with subjective interpretation by the test administrator.Paranoid Disorders: Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Milieu Therapy: A treatment program based on manipulation of the patient's environment by the medical staff. The patient does not participate in planning the treatment regimen.Behavioral Medicine: The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Behavioral Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.Ecological and Environmental Phenomena: Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Psychotherapy: A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Gestalt Theory: A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Behaviorism: A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Regression (Psychology): A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Cognitive Science: The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Individuation: A process of differentiation having for its goal the development of the individual personality.Germany, WestBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Projection: A defense mechanism, operating unconsciously, whereby that which is emotionally unacceptable in the self is rejected and attributed (projected) to others.Water Intoxication: A condition resulting from the excessive retention of water with sodium depletion.Aphorisms and Proverbs as Topic: Short popular sayings effectively expressing or astutely professing general truths or useful thoughts. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p97, p1556)Self Psychology: Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Displacement (Psychology): The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Psychology, Military: The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.Neurobehavioral Manifestations: Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.Psychology, Applied: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Codependency (Psychology): A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Narcissism: A psychoanalytic term meaning self-love.Latency Period (Psychology): The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Tranquilizing Agents: A traditional grouping of drugs said to have a soothing or calming effect on mood, thought, or behavior. Included here are the ANTI-ANXIETY AGENTS (minor tranquilizers), ANTIMANIC AGENTS, and the ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS (major tranquilizers). These drugs act by different mechanisms and are used for different therapeutic purposes.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Personality: Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Concept Formation: A cognitive process involving the formation of ideas generalized from the knowledge of qualities, aspects, and relations of objects.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Adolescent Psychology: Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Introversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.Character: In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Monoamine Oxidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Criminal Psychology: The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Reality Therapy: Method of psychotherapeutic treatment based on assumption of patients' personal responsibility for their own behavior. The therapist actively guides patients to accurate self-perception for fulfillment of needs of self-worth and respect for others. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Perazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE. Extrapyramidal symptoms may be more common than other side effects.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Identification (Psychology): A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.Homovanillic AcidRetention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Child Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Dissertations, Academic as Topic: Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Identity Crisis: Chaotic concept of self wherein one's role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.Catatonia: A neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by one or more of the following essential features: immobility, mutism, negativism (active or passive refusal to follow commands), mannerisms, stereotypies, posturing, grimacing, excitement, echolalia, echopraxia, muscular rigidity, and stupor; sometimes punctuated by sudden violent outbursts, panic, or hallucinations. This condition may be associated with psychiatric illnesses (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; MOOD DISORDERS) or organic disorders (NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME; ENCEPHALITIS, etc.). (From DSM-IV, 4th ed, 1994; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Psychiatric Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the organization and administration of psychiatric services.Biperiden: A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Societies, Scientific: Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Aspirations (Psychology): Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Role Playing: The adopting or performing the role of another significant individual in order to gain insight into the behavior of that person.DibenzothiazepinesRace Relations: Cultural contacts between people of different races.Education, Nursing: Use for general articles concerning nursing education.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Systems Theory: Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Knowledge: The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Imprinting (Psychology): A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.Transference (Psychology): The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.Halfway Houses: Specialized residences for persons who do not require full hospitalization, and are not well enough to function completely within the community without professional supervision, protection and support.Morals: Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.BooksCross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Countertransference (Psychology): Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Receptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Manuals as Topic: Books designed to give factual information or instructions.Psychosurgery: Treatment of chronic, severe and intractable psychiatric disorders by surgical removal or interruption of certain areas or pathways in the brain, especially in the prefrontal lobes.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Forgiveness: Excusing or pardoning for an offense or release of anger or resentment.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.

*  Birth order and the severity of illness in schizophrenia.

Rh Isoimmunization / diagnosis, genetics*, psychology. Risk Factors. Schizophrenia / diagnosis, genetics*. Schizophrenic ... Psychotic Disorders / diagnosis, genetics*, psychology. Quality of Life / psychology. ... 9179936 - Genetic and clinical correlates of season of birth of schizophrenics.. 11534636 - Population dynamics of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Birth-order-severity-illness-in/17292486.html

*  Empathic abilities in people with schizophrenia.

Schizophrenic Psychology*. Social Perception*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Family / psychology. Female. Humans. Male. Neuropsychological Tests / statistics & numerical data. Personality Inventory / ... 8991344 - Ecg intervals in acute bipolar and schizophrenic relapse.. 21062444 - The use of array-cgh in a cohort of greek ... Cognition Disorders / diagnosis*, psychology. Control Groups. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Empathy*. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Empathic-abilities-in-people-with/18514324.html

*  The predictability of relapses in schizophrenic patients.

... outcome in schizophrenic patients and to gather these predictors into one simple prognosis model for the course of the disease ... Schizophrenic Psychology*. Social Adjustment*. Social Environment*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... Family / psychology. Female. Hostility. Humans. Male. Patient Readmission. Psychiatric Status Rating Scales. Recurrence. Risk ... Ninety-nine schizophrenic outpatients classified according to DSM-III criteria were observed for 3 years with regard to their ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/predictability-relapses-in-schizophrenic-patients/1829006.html

*  Electrophysiological brain activity and antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients with first-rank (passivity) symptoms.

Schizophrenic Psychology*. Verbal Learning / physiology. Young Adult. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Electrophysiological-brain-activity-antisaccade-performance/19906434.html

*  PakMediNet - Keywords (MeSH) Index

Following are Research Articles associated with keyword Schizophrenic,Psychology ------ Options ------- Print Selected Articles ...
pakmedinet.com/keyword/Schizophrenic Psychology

*  Antipsychotic combinations vs monotherapy in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Schizophrenic Psychology; Treatment Outcome; numerical data; numerical data ...
crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI&ID=12009105422

*  Olanzapine versus haloperidol treatment in first-episode psychosis.

Schizophrenic Psychology * Severity of Illness Index * Time Factors * Treatment Outcome ©2017 VIVO Project , Terms of Use ...
https://vivo.health.unm.edu/display/n233132799

*  Genetic linkage and association between chromosome 1q and working memory function in schizophrenia. - PubMed - NCBI

Schizophrenic Psychology. *Statistics as Topic. *Twins, Dizygotic/genetics. *Twins, Dizygotic/psychology. *Twins, Monozygotic/ ... Department of Psychology, UCLA, Los Angeles, California 90095-1563, USA.. Abstract. Schizophrenia is substantially heritable, ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12497606

*  Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive...

Schizophrenic Psychology*. *Schizotypal Personality Disorder/diagnosis*. *Schizotypal Personality Disorder/psychology. Grant ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14989408

*  Guillaume Vaiva

schizophrenic psychology*attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity*fear. Guillaume Vaiva. Summary. Affiliation: CHRU de ... SPECT imaging, clinical features, and cognition before and after low doses of amisulpride in schizophrenic patients with the ... SPECT imaging, clinical features, and cognition before and after low doses of amisulpride in schizophrenic patients with the ...
https://labome.org/expert/france/chru/vaiva/guillaume-vaiva-364183.html

*  J Volavka

schizophrenic psychology*schizophrenia*antipsychotic agents*hostility*violence*personality disorders*piperazines*haloperidol* ... and suggest that catecholaminergic alterations may contribute to these behaviors in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients ... to the iatrogenic effects of long-term treatment with typical antipsychotic agents or to a direct effect of schizophrenic ...
https://labome.org/expert/volavka/j-volavka-876815.html

*  Ulrich W Preuss

schizophrenic psychology*smoking*reaction time*aldehyde dehydrogenase*p300 event related potentials*schizophrenia*marijuana ... The aim of our analysis was to investigate potential changes of white matter in schizophrenic patients compared to controls, ... Thalamic volume in first-episode and chronic schizophrenic subjects: a volumetric MRI study. U W Preuss. Department of ... Striatal dopamine D2 receptor binding of risperidone in schizophrenic patients as assessed by 123I-iodobenzamide SPECT: a ...
https://labome.org/expert/germany/martin/preuss/ulrich-w-preuss-1233818.html

*  Aliza P Wingo

schizophrenic psychology. Aliza P Wingo. Summary. Affiliation: Emory University. Country: USA. Publications. *. Frequency of ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/emory/wingo/aliza-p-wingo-1334435.html

*  Roman Kotov

schizophrenic psychology*personality*schizotypal personality disorder*diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders* ... Department of Psychology, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794 2500, USA. Annu Rev Clin ... Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 2500, USA. J Abnorm Child Psychol 39:913-24. 2011 ... Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 2500, USA. Am J Psychiatry 167:987-93. 2010 ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/stony/kotov/roman-kotov-1103071.html

*  Kathryn Eve Lewandowski

schizophrenic psychology*statistical factor analysis*personality inventory*psychological models*anxiety*neurological models* ... Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401, USA. Am J Med Genet B ... Department of Psychology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina 27401, USA. Am J Med Genet B ... Schizophrenic-like neurocognitive deficits in children and adolescents with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Kathryn Eve Lewandowski. ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/university/lewandowski/kathryn-eve-lewandowski-989592.html

*  P D Harvey

schizophrenic psychology*neuropsychological tests*antipsychotic agents*psychiatric hospitals*mental status schedule*serotonin ... Department of Psychology, Hofstra University, Hempsted, New York, USA. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 13:357-66. 2001 ... Cognitive impairment in geriatric chronic schizophrenic patients: a cross-national study in New York and London. P D Harvey. ... Cognitive impairment in geriatric chronic schizophrenic patients: a cross-national study in New York and London. P D Harvey. ...
https://labome.org/expert/harvey/p-d-harvey-410078.html

*  Heather E McNeely

schizophrenic psychology*color perception*schizophrenia*verbal learning*arousal*judgment*brain mapping*cerebral cortex*computer ... Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Psychophysiology 41:117-29. 2004 ... Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. Psychophysiology 41:117-29. 2004 ... Rotman Research Institute of Baycrest Centre for Geriatric Care, Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 3560 Bathurst ...
https://labome.org/expert/canada/mcmaster/mcneely/heather-e-mcneely-1196374.html

*  Michael Soyka

schizophrenic psychology*germany*patient care team*group psychotherapy*schizophrenia*alcohol deterrents*ethanol*war crimes* ... Previously, we reported a high prevalence of aggression in a large sample of schizophrenic patients treated between 1990-1995 ... As previously demonstrated in another sample of schizophrenic patients, the AMDP syndromes mania (and hostility) is associated ... Institute of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Chemnitzerstrasse 46, 01187 Dresden, ...
https://labome.org/expert/germany/university/soyka/michael-soyka-298410.html

*  Michael J Minzenberg

schizophrenic psychology*frontal lobe*central nervous system stimulants*expressed emotion*locus coeruleus*hostility*anger*brain ... Center for Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95618, USA. Biol Psychiatry ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/university/minzenberg/michael-j-minzenberg-907092.html

*  dibenzothiazepines

schizophrenic psychology*quinolones*double blind method*drug administration schedule*pirenzepine*antimanic agents* ... Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 1563, USA. Drug Alcohol Rev 29:568-75. 2010 ... Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 8:457-72. 2005 ... Discontinuation of treatment of schizophrenic patients is driven by poor symptom response: a pooled post-hoc analysis of four ...
https://labome.org/topics/chemicals/heterocyclic/3/dibenzothiazepines-11575.html

*  B Kirkpatrick

schizophrenic psychology*borna disease virus*syndrome*psychotic disorders*family*organ preservation*psychiatric status rating ... These results suggest that the limbic system, especially the hippocampus, is functionally involved in schizophrenic psychosis ...
https://labome.org/expert/kirkpatrick/b-kirkpatrick-671726.html

*  Danai Dima

schizophrenic psychology*neurological models*computer assisted image interpretation*visual perception*prefrontal cortex*nerve ... Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King s College London, London, UK Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School ... Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King s College London, London, UK Department of Psychiatry, Icahn School ... Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King s College London, UK. Eur ...
https://labome.org/expert/uk/kings/dima/danai-dima-1640662.html

*  Haya Ascher-Svanum

schizophrenic psychology*benzodiazepines*psychiatric status rating scales*risperidone*clozapine*drug costs*hospitalization* ... School of Psychology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada, and The Provincial Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental ... the use and economic cost of antiparkinsonian agents during the medication management of patients diagnosed with schizophrenic ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/eli/ascher-svanum/haya-ascher-svanum-411277.html

*  Michael C Craig

schizophrenic psychology*auditory cortex*auditory pathways*case control studies*risk assessment*neural pathways*cerebellum* ...
https://labome.org/expert/uk/kings/craig/michael-c-craig-1633156.html

*  Diego Novick

schizophrenic psychology*perphenazine*geography*cohort studies*sulpiride*ambulatory care*polypharmacy*bipolar disorder* ... To determine the cost utility of treating schizophrenic patients with olanzapine compared with other antipsychotics in a ...
https://labome.org/expert/usa/eli/novick/diego-novick-835091.html

Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology: Eastern philosophy in clinical psychology refers to the influence of Eastern philosophies on the practice of clinical psychology based on the idea that East and West are false dichotomies. Travel and trade along the Silk Road brought ancient texts and mind practices deep into the West.Paranoid anxiety: Paranoid anxiety is a term used in object relations theory, particularity in discussions about the Paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions. The term was frequently used by Melanie Klein, especially to refer to a pre-depressive and persecutory sense of anxiety characterised by the psychological splitting of objects.List of social psychology theoriesAtypical antipsychotic: The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval (e.Reduplicative paramnesia: Reduplicative paramnesia is the delusional belief that a place or location has been duplicated, existing in two or more places simultaneously, or that it has been 'relocated' to another site. It is one of the delusional misidentification syndromes and, although rare, is most commonly associated with acquired brain injury, particularly simultaneous damage to the right cerebral hemisphere and to both frontal lobes.DelusionTrans-species psychology: Trans-species psychology is the field of psychology that states that humans and nonhuman animals share commonalities in cognition (thinking) and emotions (feelings). It was established by Gay A.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Logorrhea (psychology): In psychology, logorrhea or logorrhoea (from Ancient Greek λόγος logos "word" and ῥέω rheo "to flow") is a communication disorder, expressed by excessive wordiness with minor or sometimes incoherent talkativeness. Logorrhea is sometimes classified as a mental illness, resulting in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders including aphasia, localized cortical lesions in the thalamus, mania, or most typically in catatonic schizophrenia.Confidence weighting: Confidence weighting (CW) is concerned with measuring two variables: (1) what a respondent believes is a correct answer to a question and (2) what degree of certainty the respondent has toward the correctness of this belief.Loftus, North YorkshirePaul Ferdinand Schilder: Paul Ferdinand Schilder (February 15, 1886, Vienna – December 7, 1940, New York City) was an Austrian psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, researcher and author of numerous scientific publications. He was a pupil of Sigmund Freud.Schizotypy: In psychology, schizotypy is a theory stating that there is a continuum of personality characteristics and experiences ranging from normal dissociative, imaginative states to more extreme states related to psychosis and in particular, schizophrenia. This is in contrast to a categorical view of psychosis, where psychosis is considered to be a particular (usually pathological) state, that someone either has, or has not.Bicameralism (psychology): Bicameralism (the philosophy of "two-chamberedness") is a hypothesis in psychology that argues that the human mind once assumed a state in which cognitive functions were divided between one part of the brain which appears to be "speaking", and a second part which listens and obeys—a bicameral mind. The term was coined by Julian Jaynes, who presented the idea in his 1976 book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, wherein he made the case that a bicameral mentality came to be the normal and ubiquitous state of the human mind until as recently as 3000 years ago.Psychotic depression: Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.Hales E and Yudofsky JA, eds, The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Nathan Raw: Lieutenant-Colonel Nathan Raw C.M.May Smith (psychologist)Peduncular hallucinosis: Peduncular hallucinosis (PH), or Lhermitte's peduncular hallucinosis, is a rare neurological disorder that causes vivid visual hallucinations that typically occur in dark environments, and last for several minutes. Unlike some other kinds of hallucinations, the hallucinations that patients with PH experience are very realistic, and often involve people and environments that are familiar to the affected individuals.Ego (religion)FluphenazineDesmethylclozapine: N-Desmethylclozapine (NDMC), or norclozapine, is a major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Unlike clozapine, it possesses intrinsic activity at the D2/D3 receptors, and acts as a weak partial agonist at these sites similarly to aripiprazole and bifeprunox.HaloperidolFantasy prone personality: Fantasy prone personality (FPP) is a disposition or personality trait in which a person experiences a lifelong extensive and deep involvement in fantasy. This disposition is an attempt, at least in part, to better describe "overactive imagination" or "living in a dream world".Hermann RorschachParanoia Network: The Paranoia Network, founded in November 2003, is a self-help user-run organisation in Sheffield, England, for people who have paranoid or delusional beliefs.Substance-induced psychosisRisperidoneDSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Otto Allen Will, Jr.: Otto Allen Will, Jr. (April 26, 1910 – November 17, 1993) was a U.Ovide F. PomerleauNihon UniversityLevodopa-induced dyskinesia: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a form of dyskinesia associated with levodopa used to treat Parkinson's disease. It often involves hyperkinetic movements, including chorea, dystonia, and athetosis.NeuroeconomicsNoreen M. Clark: Noreen M. Clark was the Myron E.Bipolar disorderNeurogeneticsPhenothiazineMartin Weaver: Martin Weaver is a psychotherapist, author and media writerDevelopmental psychopathology: Developmental psychopathology is the study of the development of psychological disorders, such as psychopathy, autism, schizophrenia and depression, with a lifecourse perspective.Cicchetti, D.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Thirteen Steps To Mentalism: Thirteen Steps to Mentalism is a book on mentalism by Tony Corinda. It was originally published as thirteen smaller booklets as a course in mentalism, and was later, in 1961, republished as a book.Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Biosignal: A biosignal is any signal in living beings that can be continually measured and monitored. The term biosignal is often used to refer to bioelectrical signals, but it may refer to both electrical and non-electrical signals.Unconscious cognition: Unconscious cognition is the processing of perception, memory, learning, thought, and language without being aware of it.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.List of psychological research methods: A wide range of research methods are used in psychology. These methods vary by the sources of information that are drawn on, how that information is sampled, and the types of instruments that are used in data collection.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).Sylvain ChavanelModern Moral Philosophy: "Modern Moral Philosophy" is an influential article on moral philosophy by G. E.Psychophysiology: Psychophysiology (from Greek , psȳkhē, "breath, life, soul"; , physis, "nature, origin"; and , [is the branch of psychology] that is concerned with the [[physiology|physiological bases of psychological processes. While psychophysiology was a general broad field of research in the 1960s and 1970s, it has now become quite specialized, and has branched into subspecializations such as social psychophysiology, cardiovascular psychophysiology, cognitive psychophysiology, and cognitive neuroscience.Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences: Centre of Behavioural and Cognitive Sciences (CBCS) was established in year 2002 as an initiative of the University Grants Commission (India) and was set us as a Centre of Excellence.West Germany at the 1976 Winter Paralympics: The West Germany competed at the 1976 Winter Paralympics in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden from February 21 to 28, 1976. The team finished first out of the sixteen competing nations in the medal table and won twenty eight medals: ten gold, twelve silver and six bronze.Andrew Dickson WhiteOrganic prepartum and postpartum psychosesRuby Lindsay: Ruby Lindsay (20 March 1885 – 12 March 1919) was an Australian illustrator and painter, sister of Norman Lindsay and Percy Lindsay.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).ChlorpromazineDivisions of the American Psychological Association: The American Psychological Association offers 54 active divisions, based upon popular areas of expertise within psychology. These divisions are:Traffic psychology: Traffic psychology is a discipline of psychology that studies the relationship between psychological processes and the behavior of road users. In general, traffic psychology aims to apply theoretical aspects of psychology in order to improve traffic mobility by helping to develop and apply accident countermeasures, as well as by guiding desired behaviors through education and the motivation of road users.Richard Bromfield: Richard Bromfield, Ph.D.Middle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Testamentary capacity: In the common law tradition, testamentary capacity is the legal term of art used to describe a person's legal and mental ability to make or alter a valid will. This concept has also been called sound mind and memory or disposing mind and memory.Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale: The Spann-Fischer Codependency Scale is a 16-item self-report instrument used to define and measure co-dependency in order to operationalize it as a personality disorder. Individual items are rated on a 6-point Likert scale, and then summed with two reversed items to describe co-dependency on a scale from a high of 96 to a low of 16.Benzodiazepine misuse: The non-medical use of Benzodiazepine drugs (called misuse or abuse in public health journals) is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects. Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally.Community mental health service: Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as Community Mental Health Teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum). The array of community mental health services vary depending on the country in which the services are provided.Healthy narcissism: Healthy narcissism is a concept that developed slowly out of the psychoanalytic tradition, and became popular in the late twentieth century.Cross-cultural psychiatry: Cross-cultural psychiatry, transcultural psychiatry, or cultural psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry concerned with the cultural context of mental disorders and the challenges of addressing ethnic diversity in psychiatric services. It emerged as a coherent field from several strands of work, including surveys of the prevalence and form of disorders in different cultures or countries; the study of migrant populations and ethnic diversity within countries; and analysis of psychiatry itself as a cultural product.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is rating scale which a clinician or researcher may use to measure psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hallucinations and unusual behaviour.Overall JE, Gorham DR (1962).Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Conscientiousness: Conscientiousness is the personality trait of being thorough, careful, or vigilant. Conscientiousness implies a desire to do a task well.

(1/2753) Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls.

We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted.  (+info)

(2/2753) Neurocognitive and social functioning in schizophrenia.

This cross-sectional study examined the relationships between neurocognitive and social functioning in a sample of 80 outpatients with DSM-III-R schizophrenia. The neurocognitive battery included measures of verbal ability, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, visual-spatial organization, vigilance, and early information processing. Positive and negative symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. A range of social behaviors were assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), the Quality of Life Scale (QLS), and a video-based test, the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills (AIPSS). Social functioning as assessed by the SFS was unrelated to neurocognitive functioning. Poor cognitive flexibility was associated with low scores on the QLS and the AIPSS. Verbal ability and verbal memory were also significantly associated with the AIPSS. Visual-spatial ability and vigilance were associated with the sending skills subscale of the AIPSS. In this study, which used a wide range of neurocognitive tests and measures of community functioning and social problem solving, results support earlier research that suggests an association between certain aspects of neurocognitive functioning and social functioning.  (+info)

(3/2753) Ziprasidone 80 mg/day and 160 mg/day in the acute exacerbation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: a 6-week placebo-controlled trial. Ziprasidone Study Group.

In this double-blind study, patients with an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomized to receive either ziprasidone 80 mg/day (n = 106) or 160 mg/day (n = 104) or placebo (n = 92), for 6 weeks. Both doses of ziprasidone were statistically significantly more effective than placebo in improving the PANSS total, BPRS total, BPRS core items, CGI-S, and PANSS negative subscale scores (p < .05). Ziprasidone 160 mg/day significantly improved depressive symptoms in patients with clinically significant depression at baseline (MADRS > or = 14, over-all mean 23.5) (p < .05) as compared with placebo. The percentage of patients experiencing adverse events was similar in each treatment group, and resultant discontinuation was rare. The most frequent adverse events associated with ziprasidone were generally mild dyspepsia, nausea, dizziness, and transient somnolence. Ziprasidone was shown to have a very low liability for inducing movement disorders and weight gain. The results indicate that ziprasidone is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of the positive, negative, and depressive symptoms of an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.  (+info)

(4/2753) Activation of Heschl's gyrus during auditory hallucinations.

Apart from being a common feature of mental illness, auditory hallucinations provide an intriguing model for the study of internally generated sensory perceptions that are attributed to external sources. Until now, the knowledge about the cortical network that supports such hallucinations has been restricted by methodological limitations. Here, we describe an experiment with paranoid schizophrenic patients whose on- and offset of auditory hallucinations could be monitored within one functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session. We demonstrate an increase of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in Heschl's gyrus during the patients' hallucinations. Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of primary auditory areas in auditory verbal hallucinations and establish novel constraints for psychopathological models.  (+info)

(5/2753) Psychophysical isolation of a motion-processing deficit in schizophrenics and their relatives and its association with impaired smooth pursuit.

Schizophrenia patients and many of their relatives show impaired smooth pursuit eye tracking. The brain mechanisms underlying this impairment are not yet known, but because reduced open-loop acceleration and closed-loop gain accompany it, compromised perceptual processing of motion signals is implicated. A previous study showed that motion discrimination is impaired in schizophrenia patients. Motion discrimination can make use of position and contrast as well as velocity cues. Here, we report that the motion discrimination deficit, which occurs in both schizophrenic patients and in their first-degree relatives, involves a failure of velocity detection, which appears when judging intermediate target velocities. At slower and faster velocities, judgments of velocity discrimination seemed normal until we experimentally disentangled velocity cues from nonmotion cues. We further report that compromised velocity discrimination is associated with sluggish initiation of smooth pursuit. These findings point to specific central nervous system correlates of schizophrenic pathophysiology.  (+info)

(6/2753) Concurrent performance of motor tasks and processing capacity in patients with schizophrenia.

Any task is carried out more successfully if we allocate undivided attention to it, but as demands on attentional capacity increase-for example, in concurrent or dual task conditions-performance on attended tasks becomes more impaired. Patients with schizophrenia show impaired performance on tasks requiring high levels of attentional capacity. This study examines performance of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 13 normal controls on two motor tasks (placing pegs in a pegboard and repetitive index finger tapping) under unimanual, bimanual, and dual task conditions. The patients with schizophrenia placed fewer pegs and had reduced tapping speed in unimanual and bimanual conditions. However, the decrement in bimanual performance as a percentage of unimanual performance was not significantly different for the patients and controls on either the pegboard or tapping tasks. By contrast, under dual task conditions, the performance of the patients with schizophrenia in peg placement actually improved relative to the unimanual pegboard task, whereas tapping performance deteriorated compared with the unimanual tapping, a decrement that was significantly greater for the patients. Thus the improvement in the visually guided pegboard task was at the expense of the repetitive tapping task. These results are discussed in terms of an impairment of self initiated movement with general sparing of externally triggered movements in schizophrenia and the role of frontostriatal loops in this process.  (+info)

(7/2753) Computed tomographic findings in schizophrenia: relation with symptom dimensions and sex differences.

OBJECTIVE: Loss of grey matter, a consistent finding in schizophrenia, is likely to be influenced by symptom heterogeneity and sex. This study was conducted to determine the extent and region of brain atrophy in schizophrenia and its relation to symptom syndromes and to patient sex. DESIGN: Prospective study of consecutive patients. SETTING: Psychiatric department of a general teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Sixty-one consecutive patients (37 men and 24 women) admitted to hospital for acute exacerbation of schizophrenia, as diagnosed according to the DSM third edition, revised. INTERVENTIONS: Computed tomographic examination of the head. OUTCOME MEASURES: Diffuse atrophy and atrophy in the frontal and temporal regions and the sylvian fissure were rated using the CT Rating Scale for Schizophrenia. Ratings were contrasted between male and female subjects; relations between atrophy ratings and 3 symptom dimensions of schizophrenia were examined for male and female subjects separately. RESULTS: Widening of the sylvian fissure was positively related to psychomotor poverty (r = 0.32, p < 0.01). There was a significantly stronger relation between diffuse atrophy and reality distortion in female than in male subjects. There was no sex difference in the atrophy rating in all regions of the brain, and this lack of sex difference was not related to age of onset, length of illness or age at the time of the CT scan. CONCLUSION: The morphological changes in the brain on CT are no greater in men than in women with schizophrenia. Different mechanisms may be involved in producing reality distortion symptoms in men and women.  (+info)

(8/2753) Disruption of latent inhibition in rats with postnatal hippocampal lesions.

Disruption of latent inhibition has been proposed as a possible model of cognitive abnormalities that underlie positive symptoms of a schizophrenia. We tested neonatal hippocampal lesioned rats in a latent inhibition paradigm. Lesions of the ventral hippocampus were induced by bilateral injections of ibotenic acid in 7 days old rats. The behavior of lesioned rats was tested postpubertally. We found a hyperresponsiveness to dopaminergic stimulation by apomorphine in locomotion tests. Latent inhibition was tested using the acquisition of a conditioned reaction in a two-way shuttle box. Sham operated control animals showed after preexposure of the to-be-conditioned stimulus (combined tone and light stimulus) a low acquisition. Ibotenic acid lesioned animals learned the conditioned reaction with and without preexposure in the same way, indicating disturbed latent inhibition. These results demonstrate disturbances in early postnatal hippocampal lesioned rats comparable with those seen in schizophrenic patients, thus further validating this procedure as a useful animal model of some aspects of schizophrenia.  (+info)



relapse


  • Ninety-nine schizophrenic outpatients classified according to DSM-III criteria were observed for 3 years with regard to their relapse (rehospitalization) frequency. (biomedsearch.com)

diagnosis


  • Psychopathology in dual-diagnosis and nonaddicted schizophrenics: are there differences? (labome.org)

outcome


  • The objective of this study was to identify clinically relevant predictors of short-term (2 years) outcome in schizophrenic patients and to gather these predictors into one simple prognosis model for the course of the disease. (biomedsearch.com)

patients


  • The predictability of relapses in schizophrenic patients. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Novel antipsychotic treatment has been reported to improve certain cognitive skills in schizophrenic patients, but no information is yet available about the effect of newer medications on skill learning. (labome.org)