Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Schizophrenia, Paranoid: A chronic form of schizophrenia characterized primarily by the presence of persecutory or grandiose delusions, often associated with hallucination.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Schizophrenia, Disorganized: A type of schizophrenia characterized by frequent incoherence; marked loosening of associations, or grossly disorganized behavior and flat or grossly inappropriate affect that does not meet the criteria for the catatonic type; associated features include extreme social withdrawal, grimacing, mannerisms, mirror gazing, inappropriate giggling, and other odd behavior. (Dorland, 27th ed)Schizophrenia, Childhood: An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Schizophrenia, Catatonic: A type of schizophrenia characterized by abnormality of motor behavior which may involve particular forms of stupor, rigidity, excitement or inappropriate posture.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions, depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to characterize schizophrenia.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Schizophrenic Language: The artificial language of schizophrenic patients - neologisms (words of the patient's own making with new meanings).Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Risperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: A scale comprising 18 symptom constructs chosen to represent relatively independent dimensions of manifest psychopathology. The initial intended use was to provide more efficient assessment of treatment response in clinical psychopharmacology research; however, the scale was readily adapted to other uses. (From Hersen, M. and Bellack, A.S., Dictionary of Behavioral Assessment Techniques, p. 87)Delusions: A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Affective Disorders, Psychotic: Disorders in which the essential feature is a severe disturbance in mood (depression, anxiety, elation, and excitement) accompanied by psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, gross impairment in reality testing, etc.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, Cognitive Disorders: Cognitive disorders including delirium, dementia, and other cognitive disorders. These may be the result of substance use, trauma, or other causes.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.National Institute of Mental Health (U.S.): A component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with research, overall planning, promoting, and administering mental health programs and research. It was established in 1949.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.DibenzothiazepinesImage Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Thinking: Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Psychoses, Substance-Induced: Psychotic organic mental disorders resulting from the toxic effect of drugs and chemicals or other harmful substance.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Catechol O-Methyltransferase: Enzyme that catalyzes the movement of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionone to a catechol or a catecholamine.Reality Testing: The individual's objective evaluation of the external world and the ability to differentiate adequately between it and the internal world; considered to be a primary ego function.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Control Groups: Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Ego: The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.Fluphenazine: A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22: A specific pair of GROUP G CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Methylazoxymethanol Acetate: The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Personal Construct Theory: A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Mood Disorders: Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Paranoid Disorders: Chronic mental disorders in which there has been an insidious development of a permanent and unshakeable delusional system (persecutory delusions or delusions of jealousy), accompanied by preservation of clear and orderly thinking. Emotional responses and behavior are consistent with the delusional state.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Theory of Mind: The ability to attribute mental states (e.g., beliefs, desires, feelings, intentions, thoughts, etc.) to self and to others, allowing an individual to understand and infer behavior on the basis of the mental states. Difference or deficit in theory of mind is associated with ASPERGER SYNDROME; AUTISTIC DISORDER; and SCHIZOPHRENIA, etc.Neuregulin-1: A peptide factor originally identified by its ability to stimulate the phosphorylation the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2). It is a ligand for the erbB-3 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-3) and the erbB-4 receptor. Variant forms of NEUREGULIN-1 occur through alternative splicing of its mRNA.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Paternal Age: Age of the biological father.Anhedonia: Inability to experience pleasure due to impairment or dysfunction of normal psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. It is a symptom of many PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., DEPRESSIVE DISORDER, MAJOR; and SCHIZOPHRENIA).Rehabilitation, Vocational: Training of the mentally or physically disabled in work skills so they may be returned to regular employment utilizing these skills.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Nerve Tissue ProteinsSocial Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Psychoanalytic Therapy: A form of psychiatric treatment, based on Freudian principles, which seeks to eliminate or diminish the undesirable effects of unconscious conflicts by making the patient aware of their existence, origin, and inappropriate expression in current emotions and behavior.Psychopathology: The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.Personality Development: Growth of habitual patterns of behavior in childhood and adolescence.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.

*  Schizophrenia - Treatment - NHS Choices

Schizophrenia is usually treated with an individually tailored combination of therapy and medication. ... Many people with schizophrenia rely on family members for their care and support. While most family members are happy to help, ... Some people find expressing things in a non-verbal way through the arts can provide a new experience of schizophrenia and help ... exploring ways of supporting somebody with schizophrenia *deciding how to solve practical problems that can be caused by the ...

*  Aripiprazole Lauroxil (Schizophrenia) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022 - market research report

Schizophrenia) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022 Summary Schizophrenia is a persistent long-term brain disorder that ... Schizophrenia) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022, Aripiprazole Lauroxil ( ... Aripiprazole Lauroxil (Schizophrenia) - Forecast and Market Analysis to 2022. Summary. Schizophrenia is a persistent long-term ... About Schizophrenia Therapeutics Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disorder that alters the perception, thinking, and social ...

*  Feds approve first adult schizophrenia drug for teens, youth -

Until now, there has been no FDA-approved drug for the treatment of schizophrenia for pediatric use and only lithium is ... The FDA first approved Risperdal in 1993 for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. The drug later was approved for the ... The efficacy of Risperdal in the treatment of schizophrenia in adolescents was demonstrated in two short-term (6 to 8 weeks), ... Schizophrenia is a serious and disabling psychiatric disorder. Symptoms may include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized ...

*  Transcriptome Sequencing Revealed Significant Alteration of Cortical Promoter Usage and Splicing in Schizophrenia

Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings The ... Conclusions This study provided the first deep and un-biased analysis of schizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity ... Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes ... from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then ...

*  Treatment of schizophrenia with antipsychotics in Norwegian emergency wards, a cross-sectional national study

... Type. Journal ... Methods: Data from 486 discharges of patients from emergency inpatient treatment of schizophrenia were collected during a three ... and international guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia offer rational strategies to minimize the burden of side ...

*  Schizophrenia | Definition of Schizophrenia by Merriam-Webster

Define schizophrenia: a mental disorder that is characterized by disturbances in thought (such as delusions),… - schizophrenia ... Learn More about schizophrenia. * See words that rhyme with schizophrenia Spanish Central: Translation of schizophrenia Nglish ... There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including paranoid schizophrenia and those types marked by catatonia or ... Translation of schizophrenia for Spanish speakers Britannica English: Translation of schizophrenia for Arabic speakers ...

*  Analysis of Schizophrenia Data Using A Nonlinear Threshold Index Logistic Model

The suggested approach is therefore applied to the analysis of the Schizophrenia classification by using a real set of SNP data ... nonlinear effects of categorical/discrete SNP covariates for Schizophrenia class prediction. A maximum likelihood methodology ... models well outperform the widely used linear and tree based logistic regression models in class prediction of schizophrenia ... from Western Australian Family Study of Schizophrenia (WAFSS). Our empirical findings provide evidence that the proposed ...

*  Canakinumab Add-on Treatment for Schizophrenia (CATS) Study - NeuRA

Home ❯ Projects ❯ Canakinumab Add-on Treatment for Schizophrenia (CATS) Study. Canakinumab Add-on Treatment for Schizophrenia ( ... Neuregulin Dependent Neuronal Migration and Schizophrenia PROF CYNDI SHANNON WEICKERT The path to developing therapies to ... Canakinumab adjunctive treatment to reduce symptoms and improve cognition in people with schizophrenia displaying elevated ... can improve thought processing and reduce symptoms in people with schizophrenia, and to determine if this human immune cell- ...

*  Schizophrenia - Wikipedia

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*  Structural brain changes in first episode Schizophrenia compared with Fronto-Temporal Lobar Degeneration: a meta-analysis | BMC...

... the patient group in the schizophrenia studies consisted of subjects with child-onset schizophrenia or chronic schizophrenia ... Goodman AB: A family history study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders suggests new candidate genes in schizophrenia and autism ... overlapping with those of schizophrenia [73-75]. Autistic spectrum disorders and schizophrenia share gray matter deficits in ... Schizophrenia/pathology FTLD/pathology Meta-analysis Magnetic resonance imaging/methods Humans Brain/pathology Brain mapping ...

*  Meta-analysis of sex differences in gene expression in schizophrenia | BMC Systems Biology | Full Text

Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with a population frequency of approximately 1 % [30]. Schizophrenia is a ... Schizophrenia Male, Control Male, Schizophrenia Female and Control Female. Individuals could also be combined into two groups ... the fold change of Schizophrenia Female vs. Control Females, and Schizophrenia Male vs Control Males should be in the same ... The pathophysiology of schizophrenia is likely to be different between males and females. Sex differences have been noted in ...

*  Download Journal of Neurophysiology Podcasts - Caveolin-1 Regulates Gene Associated with Schizophrenia | Podbean

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that manifests in early adulthood. Disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 (DISC1), a ... Caveolin-1 regulation of disrupted-in-schizophrenia-1 as a potential therapeutic target for schizophrenia Adam Kassan, Junji ... Could this work lead to new treatments for schizophrenia? Listen and find out. ... is a promising candidate gene for schizophrenia, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its role in the pathogenesis of the ...

*  Study Evaluating Vabicaserin in Subjects With Schizophrenia - Full Text View -

Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders. Mental Disorders. Risperidone. Serotonin Antagonists. ... Hospitalization because of an acute exacerbation of schizophrenia with a diagnosis of schizophrenia established greater than 1 ... Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) Score [ Time Frame: Baseline, Day 7, 14, 21, 28 ]. CDSS: 9-item clinician ... PANSS positive subscale assesses positive symptoms associated with schizophrenia. The positive subscale consists of 7 items ( ...

*  Canakinumab Add-on Treatment for Schizophrenia (CATS) Study - NeuRA

Home ❯ Projects ❯ Canakinumab Add-on Treatment for Schizophrenia (CATS) Study. Canakinumab Add-on Treatment for Schizophrenia ( ... Neuregulin Dependent Neuronal Migration and Schizophrenia PROF CYNDI SHANNON WEICKERT The path to developing therapies to ... Men or women age 18-55 years old with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. You must be taking ... Canakinumab adjunctive treatment to reduce symptoms and improve cognition in people with schizophrenia displaying elevated ...

*  A Comparison of Risperidone With Haloperidol in Patients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder - Tabular View -...

Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that causes changes in a person's perception, thoughts, and behaviour. In ... Diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Diseases, ... A Comparison of Risperidone With Haloperidol in Patients With Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder. This study has been ... The purpose of the study is to compare the time to relapse in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders ...

*  Improving Adherence to Oral Antipsychotic Medications in People With Schizophrenia - Tabular View -

Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating mental disorder. People with schizophrenia often experience unusual thoughts or ... Schizophrenia Symptoms [ Time Frame: Measured at Months 4, 7, and 10 months averaged across the treatment period which began 1 ... Diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder according to DSM-IV criteria, as determined on the basis of the ... Improving Adherence to Oral Antipsychotic Medications in People With Schizophrenia. Official Title ICMJE Interventions for ...

*  schizophrenia | The Mouse Trap

Models of autism as a subset of schizophrenia (Fig. 1A), and autism and schizophrenia as independent or separate (model 1B), ... subsumed in schizophrenia) or model B (autism and schizophrenia are independent of each other). ... What Crespi et al did was look at theCNV s and the locus whee CNV in both Autism and Schizophrenia are involved and sure enough ... It is to the credit of Badcock that he had published in 2006 his own theory of Autism and Schizophrenia as opposites on a ...

*  Comprehensive behavioral study of mGluR3 knockout mice: implication in schizophrenia related endophenotypes | Molecular Brain |...

... which have been proposed as schizophrenia endophenotypes[27]. However, mGluR3 KO mice did not manifest other schizophrenia ... Javitt DC, Zukin SR: Recent advances in the phencyclidine model of schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 1991, 148: 1301-1308.PubMed ... Physiological roles of GRM3 in brain functions and its functional roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remain to be ... We found a positive association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in GRM3 and schizophrenia in the ...

*  Protein marker for schizophrenia risk ( A protein found in immune cells may ...)

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*  Acoustic startle response and sensorimotor gating in a genetic mouse model for the Y1 receptor - Garvan Institute of Medical...

... receptor expression has been found in the lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients. To clarify NPY's role in schizophrenia, we ... receptor expression has been found in the lymphocytes of schizophrenia patients. To clarify NPY's role in schizophrenia, we ... Importantly, Y(1) receptors may mediate some of the potential effects of NPY on schizophrenia, as decreased Y(1) ... Importantly, Y(1) receptors may mediate some of the potential effects of NPY on schizophrenia, as decreased Y(1) ...

*  Add-on Sodium Nitroprusside to Treatment as Usual in Schizophrenia - Full Text View -

Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders. Mental Disorders. Pharmaceutical Solutions. Nitroprusside ... Recent studies that investigated the role of NO in patients with schizophrenia found evidence that points to a disruption in NO ... Evidence suggests a possible implication of nitric oxide (NO) in schizophrenia. NO is a gas with unique chemistry and ... Add-on Sodium Nitroprusside to Treatment as Usual in Schizophrenia. This study has been completed. ...

*  Are You Crazy ! Take a Schizophrenia Test ?

What is Schizophrenia. History of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Tips. Schizophrenia Cause. Schizophrenia Test. ... Symptoms of Schizophrenia. Symptoms Schizophrenia. Types of Schizophrenia. Different Types of Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia ... Paranoid Schizophrenia. Catatonic Schizophrenia. Childhood Schizophrenia. Effects of Schizophrenia. Bipolar with Schizophrenia ... Pathophysiology of Schizophrenia. Prognosis of Schizophrenia. Treatment & Care. Famous People with Schizophrenia. Is There a ...

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Schizophrenia treatments include drug and psychosocial or support therapies, medications, coping guidelines for the family, and ... Schizophrenia. Overview Symptoms Causes Treatment Schizophrenia Guide Quiz FAQ Fact Sheet In-depth Look Support Groups Blog ... Schizophrenia, like all mental illness, is not a pure brain or genetic disorder. Therefore, treating schizophrenia with ... Schizophrenia usually first appears during a person's late teens or throughout their twenties. It affects more men than women ...

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... * 1. Schizophrenia * 2. What is Schizophrenia? ,ul,,ul,,li,Schizophrenia is a group of severe brain disorders in ... 3. Schizophrenia Types * 4. Paranoid Schizophrenia ,ul,,li,Is characterized by delusions and auditory hallucinations but ... 8. Residual Schizophrenia ,ul,,li,Residual Schizophrenia characterized by a past history of at least one episode of ... 7. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia ,ul,,li,Undifferentiated Schizophrenia characterized by some symptoms seen in all of the ...

Religion and schizophrenia: == Background ==Paranoid anxiety: Paranoid anxiety is a term used in object relations theory, particularity in discussions about the Paranoid-schizoid and depressive positions. The term was frequently used by Melanie Klein, especially to refer to a pre-depressive and persecutory sense of anxiety characterised by the psychological splitting of objects.Atypical antipsychotic: The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilisers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions. Some atypical antipsychotics have received regulatory approval (e.DSM-IV Codes (alphabetical): __FORCETOC__Logorrhea (psychology): In psychology, logorrhea or logorrhoea (from Ancient Greek λόγος logos "word" and ῥέω rheo "to flow") is a communication disorder, expressed by excessive wordiness with minor or sometimes incoherent talkativeness. Logorrhea is sometimes classified as a mental illness, resulting in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders including aphasia, localized cortical lesions in the thalamus, mania, or most typically in catatonic schizophrenia.Schizotypy: In psychology, schizotypy is a theory stating that there is a continuum of personality characteristics and experiences ranging from normal dissociative, imaginative states to more extreme states related to psychosis and in particular, schizophrenia. This is in contrast to a categorical view of psychosis, where psychosis is considered to be a particular (usually pathological) state, that someone either has, or has not.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Bipolar disorderRisperidoneDesmethylclozapine: N-Desmethylclozapine (NDMC), or norclozapine, is a major active metabolite of the atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Unlike clozapine, it possesses intrinsic activity at the D2/D3 receptors, and acts as a weak partial agonist at these sites similarly to aripiprazole and bifeprunox.Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: The Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) is rating scale which a clinician or researcher may use to measure psychiatric symptoms such as depression, anxiety, hallucinations and unusual behaviour.Overall JE, Gorham DR (1962).DelusionPeduncular hallucinosis: Peduncular hallucinosis (PH), or Lhermitte's peduncular hallucinosis, is a rare neurological disorder that causes vivid visual hallucinations that typically occur in dark environments, and last for several minutes. Unlike some other kinds of hallucinations, the hallucinations that patients with PH experience are very realistic, and often involve people and environments that are familiar to the affected individuals.Psychotic depression: Psychotic depression, also known as depressive psychosis, is a major depressive episode that is accompanied by psychotic symptoms.Hales E and Yudofsky JA, eds, The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Psychiatry, Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Reduplicative paramnesia: Reduplicative paramnesia is the delusional belief that a place or location has been duplicated, existing in two or more places simultaneously, or that it has been 'relocated' to another site. It is one of the delusional misidentification syndromes and, although rare, is most commonly associated with acquired brain injury, particularly simultaneous damage to the right cerebral hemisphere and to both frontal lobes.HyperintensityHaloperidolNested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.SonepiprazoleBenzodiazepine misuse: The non-medical use of Benzodiazepine drugs (called misuse or abuse in public health journals) is the use of benzodiazepines without a prescription, often for recreational purposes, which poses risks of dependence, withdrawal and other long-term effects. Benzodiazepines are one of the more common prescription drugs used recreationally.Middle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Patent encumbrance of large automotive NiMH batteriesGary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Brodmann area 38: Brodmann area 38, also BA38 or temporopolar area 38 (H), is part of the temporal cortex in the human brain. BA 38 is at the anterior end of the temporal lobe, known as the temporal pole.Dibenzothiazepine: Dibenzothiazepines are chemical compounds which are derivatives of thiazepine with two benzene rings.Image fusion: In computer vision, Multisensor Image fusion is the process of combining relevant information from two or more images into a single image.Haghighat, M.The Art of Negative Thinking: The Art of Negative Thinking (Norwegian: Kunsten å tenke negativt) is a 2006 Norwegian black comedy film directed and written by Bård Breien. The storyline revolves around a man (played by Fridtjov Såheim) who is adjusting to life in a wheelchair, and the socializing group he is made to join.Cingulate sulcus: The cingulate sulcus is a sulcus (brain fold) on the medial wall of the cerebral cortex. The frontal and parietal lobes are separated from the cingulate gyrus by the cingulate sulcus.Substance-induced psychosisAuditory event: Auditory events describe the subjective perception, when listening to a certain sound situation. This term was introduced by Jens Blauert (Ruhr-University Bochum) in 1966, in order to distinguish clearly between the physical sound field and the auditory perception of the sound.SchizophreniaTBR1: T-box, brain, 1 is a transcription factor protein important in vertebrate embryo development. It is encoded by the TBR1 gene.Hemispatial neglectMemory clinic: A memory clinic is a dedicated medical clinic specialising in the assessment and diagnosis of memory disorders. Memory clinics were first seen in the UK in the 1980s, mainly in academic research centres.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Fritz Heider: Fritz Heider (February 19, 1896 – January 2, 1988)American Psychologist., "Fritz Heider (1896 - 1988)".Jimmie AngelEgo (religion)FluphenazineCerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.WGAViewer: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.Methylazoxymethanol acetateAgonal respiration: Agonal respiration, gasping respiration or agonal breathing is an abnormal pattern of breathing and brainstem reflex characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and myoclonus. Possible causes include cerebral ischemia, extreme hypoxia or even anoxia.Dopamine receptorEmotional responsivity: Emotional responsivity refers to the ability to acknowledge an affective stimuli by exhibiting emotion. Any response, whether it is appropriate or not, would showcase the presence of this phenomena.Amusia: Amusia is a musical disorder that appears mainly as a defect in processing pitch, but it also encompasses musical memory and recognition.Pearce, J.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Genetics of social behavior: The genetics of social behavior is an area of research that attempts to address the question of the role that genes play in modulating the neural circuits in the brain which influence social behavior. Model genetic species, such as D.I Do You: "I Do You" is a song by the American sibling group, The Jets. It was written by Stephen Bray (who is perhaps best known for his frequent collaborations with Madonna during the 1980s) and Linda Mallah.Paranoia Network: The Paranoia Network, founded in November 2003, is a self-help user-run organisation in Sheffield, England, for people who have paranoid or delusional beliefs.Place cellDavid Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Levodopa-induced dyskinesia: Levodopa-induced dyskinesia is a form of dyskinesia associated with levodopa used to treat Parkinson's disease. It often involves hyperkinetic movements, including chorea, dystonia, and athetosis.Mental disorderPaternal age effect: The paternal age effect is the statistical relationship between paternal age at conception and biological effects on the child. Such effects can relate to birthweight, congenital disorders, life expectancy, and psychological outcomes.Anhedonia: Anhedonia ( ; Greek: ἀν- an-, "without" and ἡδονή hēdonē, "pleasure") is defined as the inability to experience pleasure from activities usually found enjoyable, e.g.Florida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation: Florida Division of Vocational Rehabilitation is a federal-state program in the U.S.

(1/7917) Improving social interaction in chronic psychotic using discriminated avoidance ("nagging"): experimental analysis and generalization.

Three social-interaction behaviors of a withdrawn chronic schizophrenic were increased using a discriminated avoidance ("nagging") procedure. The three behaviors were: (a) voice volume loud enough so that two-thirds of his speech was intellibible at a distance of 3m; (b) duration of speech of at least 15 sec; (c) placement of hands and elbows on the armrests of the chair in which he was sitting. "Nagging" consisted of verbal prompts to improve performance when the behaviors did not meet their criteria. A combined withdrawal and multiple-baseline design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the procedure, and the contingency was sequentially applied to each of the three behaviors in each of four different interactions to determine the degree of stimulus and response generalization. Results indicated that the contingency was the effective element in increasing the patient's appropriate performance, and that there was a high degree of stimulus generalization and a moderate degree of response generalization. After the patient's discharge from the hospital, the durability of improvement across time and setting was determined in followup sessions conducted at a day treatment center and at a residential care home. Volume and duration generalized well to the new settings, while arm placement extinguished immediately.  (+info)

(2/7917) Effects of family history and place and season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia.

BACKGROUND: Although a family history of schizophrenia is the best-established risk factor for schizophrenia, environmental factors such as the place and season of birth may also be important. METHODS: Using data from the Civil Registration System in Denmark, we established a population-based cohort of 1.75 million persons whose mothers were Danish women born between 1935 and 1978. We linked this cohort to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and identified 2669 cases of schizophrenia among cohort members and additional cases among their parents. RESULTS: The respective relative risks of schizophrenia for persons with a mother, father, or sibling who had schizophrenia were 9.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 7.24 to 11.96), 7.20 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.10 to 10.16), and 6.99 (95 percent confidence interval, 5.38 to 9.09), as compared with persons with no affected parents or siblings. The risk of schizophrenia was associated with the degree of urbanization of the place of birth (relative risk for the capital vs. rural areas, 2.40; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.13 to 2.70). The risk was also significantly associated with the season of birth; it was highest for births in February and March and lowest for births in August and September. The population attributable risk was 5.5 percent for a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling, 34.6 percent for urban place of birth, and 10.5 percent for the season of birth. CONCLUSIONS: Although a history of schizophrenia in a parent or sibling is associated with the highest relative risk of having the disease, the place and season of birth account for many more cases on a population basis.  (+info)

(3/7917) Search for retroviral related DNA polymorphisms using RAPD PCR in schizophrenia.

Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is widely used to detect polymorphisms in many organisms. Individual (or strain) specific amplified bands are generated with single or pairs of primers in PCR reactions and can serve as genetic markers. We have used this method to generate a large number of reproducible bands with single primers, random and retroviral related, on 92 human DNA samples. Theoretically, RAPD PCR presents a logical approach for assessing variability among individuals. We used ten retroviral related primers (12, 20 and 22 bp) and eight random primers (10 bp) to assess individual differences in the context of testing the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. Three pairs of discordant monozygotic twins, four pairs of discordant full sibs and 53 schizophrenic individuals with 25 of their unrelated matched controls were analyzed. Ten of these primers resulted in a total of approx. 850 amplified bands (65-110 bands per primer). Almost all of these bands were identical among each individual analyzed. However, the results are inconclusive with respect to the retroviral hypothesis for schizophrenia. The general lack of RAPD polymorphism in this study may argue for mechanisms other than rearrangements such as inversions, associated with the evolution of the human genome.  (+info)

(4/7917) The size and fibre composition of the corpus callosum with respect to gender and schizophrenia: a post-mortem study.

In this study the cross-sectional area (in n = 14 female controls, 15 male controls, 11 female patients with schizophrenia, 15 male patients with schizophrenia) and fibre composition (in n = 11 female controls, 10 male controls, 10 female patients with schizophrenia, 10 male patients with schizophrenia) of the corpus callosum in post-mortem control and schizophrenic brains was examined. A gender x diagnosis interaction (P = 0.005) was seen in the density of axons in all regions of the corpus callosum except the posterior midbody and splenium. Amongst controls, females had greater density than males; in patients with schizophrenia this difference was reversed. A reduction in the total number of fibres in all regions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum was observed in female schizophrenic patients (P = 0.006; when controlling for brain weight, P = 0.053). A trend towards a reduced cross-sectional area of the corpus callosum was seen in schizophrenia (P = 0.098); however, this is likely to be no more than a reflection of an overall reduction in brain size. With age, all subregions of the corpus callosum except the rostrum showed a significant reduction in cross-sectional area (P = 0.018) and total fibre number (P = 0.002). These findings suggest that in schizophrenia there is a subtle and gender-dependent alteration in the forebrain commissures that may relate to the deviations in asymmetry seen in other studies, but the precise anatomical explanation remains obscure.  (+info)

(5/7917) The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.

Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.  (+info)

(6/7917) The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia.

Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.  (+info)

(7/7917) No correlation between A(-1438)G polymorphism in 5-HT2A receptor gene promoter and the density of frontal cortical 5-HT2A receptors in schizophrenia.

The A(-1438)G promoter polymorphism of the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2a receptor (5-HT2AR) gene and its influence on the cortical density of 5-HT2AR was studied using brain tissue donated at autopsy from 58 schizophrenic and 64 non-schizophrenic subjects. A linkage between genotypes for the A(-1438)G and a T102C polymorphic site identified in a previous study was observed. Our data suggest no association of the A(-1438)G polymorphism with schizophrenia and no effect of the promoter genotype upon 5-HT2AR densities in either the schizophrenic or non-schizophrenic groups.  (+info)

(8/7917) Differential effects of mental stress on plasma homovanillic acid in schizophrenia and normal controls.

We previously reported that mental stress by Kraepelin's arithmetic test decreases plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels in psychiatrically normal healthy human subjects. The present study was undertaken to determine whether this pattern of changes in pHVA concentrations resulting from mental stress is altered in patients with schizophrenia. Fourteen male patients with schizophrenia including those under ongoing neuroleptic treatment and 14 normal male volunteers participated in the study. Following overnight fast and restricted physical activity, the subjects performed Kraepelin's arithmetic test for 30 minutes. Plasma samples were collected immediately before and after the test for measurement of pHVA levels. A significant diagnosis by Kraepelin's test effect was observed due to a decrease in pHVA levels by the Kraepelin test in control subjects but not in patients with schizophrenia. Changes in pHVA levels during the Kraepelin test positively correlated with pre-test pHVA levels in control subjects, while this correlation was not observed in patients with schizophrenia. These results may be further support for the presence of a dopamine-dependent restitutive system in the brain. The absence of response of pHVA levels to mental stress in patients with schizophrenia may indicate that the dopamine restitutive system in these patients is disrupted or already down-regulated, as previously predicted.  (+info)

catatonic schizophrenia

  • a physical condition usually associated with catatonic schizophrenia, characterized by suspension of sensation, muscular rigidity, fixity of posture, and often by loss of contact with environment. (
  • Can paranoid schizophrenia lead to catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • How do I know if I have catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • What are the key features of catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • What are some examples in symptoms in catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • What is the definition or description of: catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • Could someone with catatonic schizophrenia have clear-headed moments? (
  • How does one develop catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • How to know if I have catatonic schizophrenia? (
  • Is catatonic schizophrenia not schizophrenia anymore? (

paranoid schizophrenia

  • One of the most common and serious of all mental illnesses is paranoid schizophrenia. (
  • Someone with paranoid schizophrenia often believes others are out to get him. (
  • Paranoid schizophrenia is generally treated with anti-psychotic drugs and therapy, to varying degrees of success. (
  • A person suffering from paranoid schizophrenia often hears voices. (
  • One of the first symptoms of paranoid schizophrenia is social withdrawal. (


  • In contrast, in infantile autism and intractable schizophrenia, abnormal behavioral signs and symptoms may wax and wane with fluctuating FRalpha antibody titers over time accompanied by cycling changes in CSF folate, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) and neurotransmitter metabolites ranging between low and normal levels. (
  • What Are the Early Symptoms of Schizophrenia? (
  • Early detection and treatment of childhood schizophrenia is crucial to managing symptoms effectively. (
  • Medications are an integral part of treating childhood schizophrenia and are used to manage symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and changes to motivation and emotion. (
  • Family therapy can be helpful to educate members of the family about childhood schizophrenia, how to cope, and what to do if symptoms intensify. (


  • Once your child has received a diagnosis of schizophrenia, it's important to begin treatment right away. (
  • Schizophrenia can be a complicated diagnosis, which is why it is important to work with someone who has knowledge and experience in childhood disorders. (
  • Is catatonia and social withdrawal enough for a diagnosis for schizophrenia? (


  • Some people believe that schizotypal personality disorder is a mild form of schizophrenia. (
  • Treatment and management of delusional disorder is covered by NHS guidance for mental health disorders related to schizophrenia . (
  • Although delusions might be a symptom of more common disorders, such as schizophrenia , delusional disorder itself is rather rare. (
  • The fact that delusional disorder is more common in people who have family members with delusional disorder or schizophrenia suggests there might be a genetic factor involved. (



  • Therapy focuses on teaching coping skills and communication skills that often lack in children with schizophrenia. (


  • These include infantile-onset CFD syndrome, infantile autism with or without neurologic deficits, a spastic-ataxic syndrome and intractable epilepsy in young children expanding to refractory schizophrenia in adolescents, and finally treatment-resistant major depression in adults. (
  • When treating childhood schizophrenia, you'll work with many professionals invested in your child's treatment success, such as a psychiatrist, therapist, and community and school personnel. (
  • Schizophrenia needs to be treated long-term and careful approach may be necessary as treatment can be tricky. (
  • For several decades, typical antipsychotic drugs, exemplified by chlorpromazine, represented the only effective treatment for schizophrenia. (



  • One individual may have sx characteristic of more than one "type" of schizophrenia . (


  • Atypical antipsychotic drugs, which are distinguished from typical antipsychotic drugs by a lower incidence of extra-pyramidal side effects and less propensity to elevate serum prolactin levels (e.g., clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone), have become the most widely used treatments for schizophrenia, although their precise mechanism of action remains controversial. (