*  Food, Food Allergies, and Nutrition sub-cluster 19
Loss of acute satiety response to cholecystokinin in pregnant rats. Ladyman Sharon R - - 2011 ... Satiety peptides may help to provide evidence for biological mechanisms behind these differences. The aim of this paper was to ... The site of intestinal fat delivery affects satiety and may affect food intake in humans. Animal data suggest that the length ... This article reviews the role of cholecystokinin (CCK), a satiety-producing hormone, in the regulation of binge eating in those ...
*  The Impact of the Bellagio Report on Healthy Agriculture, Healthy Nutrition, Healthy People: Scientific and Policy Aspects and...
Purnell JQ, Fair DA: Fructose ingestion and cerebral, metabolic, and satiety responses. JAMA 2013;309:85-86. External Resources ... Habitual diets rich in dark-green vegetables are associated with an increased response to ω-3 fatty acid supplementation in ...
*  Frontiers | Individual differences in approach-avoidance aptitude: some clues from research on Parkinson's disease | Frontiers...
... sham feeding on a binge schedule releases accumbens dopamine repeatedly and eliminates the acetylcholine satiety response. ... It modulated behavior by inhibiting appetitive responses and increasing arousal in order to improve attention to salient and ... in approach-avoidance responses. This finding suggests that the motivational behavioral systems of these subjects are more ... whereas acetylcholine would mainly enhance behavioral inhibition and aversive responses (Mark et al., 1995; Avena et al., 2006 ...
*  Frontiers | Adolescent Maturational Transitions in the Prefrontal Cortex and Dopamine Signaling as a Risk Factor for the...
... sham feeding on a binge schedule releases accumbens dopamine repeatedly and eliminates the acetylcholine satiety response. ... This task requires animals to withhold a food-procuring response over a set period of time, before the response will be ... can be measured by an acoustic startle response. Typically, the reduction of the startle response amplitude to an intense ... leading to an exaggeration of emotional responses. In rats and mice, emotional responses can be measured by fear conditioning ...
*  EJPAU 2014. Moharib S. , Shehata M. , Salama A. , Hegazi M. EFFECT OF FRUCTOOLIGOSACCHARIDES IN <i>CYNARA SCOLYMUS</i> AND <i...
Effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides on satiety responses in healthy men and women. Appetite, 56, 128-134. ... Responses to this article, comments are invited and should be submitted within three months of the publication of the article. ... Correlated response in partitioned maternal effects to selection for early postnatal growth rate in mice Proceedings of the 6th ... Gastrointestinal adaptation in response to soluble non-available polysaccharides in the rat. Br. J. Nutr., 55, 497-505. ...
*  DGAC Meeting Summary, January 28-29, 2004
She presented a recent study that measured glycemic response and satiety response in subjects who ate several types of breads. ... Nicklas noted that most studies on fiber and satiety have focused on adults. She asked how the lack of fiber affects satiety ... such as satiety, insulin response, or post-prandial blood glucose concentrations. She noted that these are two different ... the issue of satiety at that time. Dr. Appel expressed concern about the lack of evidence-based studies regarding satiety and ...
*  Study Shows World-Wide Obesity - WillTaft.com
Toxins slow down the satiety response time (the time it takes you to feel full) ...
*  How To Stop Feeling Hungry All The Time - mindbodygreen
What to do about it: Initial studies suggest the direct interaction of CCK and dietary protein contributes to satiety response ... Eat protein at every meal, especially breakfast, to promote satiety. Eat a lot of fiber, as it has the mass to physically ... What to do about it: Balanced blood sugar increases PYY response and production. Protein-based meals increase PYY ... When things go wrong: Chronic inflammation reduces GLP-1 production, which negatively affects satiety signaling (making you ...
*  Baskin, Denis | Department of Biological Structure
Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and ... Recent work has focused on the interaction of leptin with the satiety action of peptides such as CCK and GLP-1 produced in the ... These gut peptides signal to the brainstem via the vagus nerve and regulate meal size by causing satiety, thereby resulting in ... In the presence of leptin, these satiety signals to the brain are more effective, resulting in smaller meals. We have used ...
*  Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents...
Satiety Response; Single-Blind Method; Thylakoids; Time Factors; Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Main Research Area: Medical ... These effects indicate that thylakoids may intensify signals of satiety. This study therefore suggests that the dietary ...
*  Resistant Starch and Satiety - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Satiety response using visual analogue scales [ Time Frame: 0 minutes postprandially ]. Satiety response was measured using ... Satiety response using VAS [ Time Frame: 15 minutes postprandially ]. Satiety response was measured using subjective ... Satiety response using VAS [ Time Frame: 30 minutes postprandially ]. Satiety response was measured using subjective ... Satiety response using VAS [ Time Frame: 45 minutes postprandially ]. Satiety response was measured using subjective ...
*  Hyperlipid: 03/01/2016 - 04/01/2016
The effects of potatoes and other carbohydrate side dishes consumed with meat on food intake, glycemia and satiety response in ... before satiety kicks in. I expect satiety to rise as blood nutrients rise. Not sequestering them in to adipocytes seems the ... That's a LOT less calories! Potatoes seem to have some sort of magical satiety property. If you believe in magic. Table 1 gives ... In these lower fat preparations it takes three or four teaspoons of butter to generate satiety vs just under 6 teaspoons of ...
*  Plus it
... analysis of feeding behavior in this mutant can test the importance of CCK in regulating short-term satiety responses and long- ... CCK (10 pM) produced an oscillatory Ca2+ response similar to the response observed in wild-type cells. Carbachol (10 μM) evoked ... 1989) Pancreatic response in rats and mice to trypsin inhibitors from soy and potato after short- and long-term dietary ... Pancreatic hypertrophy in response to a high-protein diet.A: total pancreatic protein was significantly greater in both wild- ...
*  ReprintArticles-Paradise] The Whey to Weight Loss
... satiety response to whey and emphasize the importance of considering the impact of protein type on the appetite response to a ... satiety response to whey and emphasize the importance of considering the impact of protein type on the appetite response to a ... Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J ... Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects. Am J ...
*  Chocolate Milk with Sucrose and Stevia Preference by Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women
Effects of Short-Chain Fructooligosaccharides on Satiety Responses in Healthy Men and Women. Appetite, 56, 128-134. http://dx. ... 2010) Effectsof Stevia, Aspartame, and Sucrose on Food Intake, Satiety, and Postprandial Glucose and Insulin Levels. Appetite, ...
*  Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake
... more intense cocoa flavour than milk chocolate and this stronger sensory signal may lead to a stronger sensory satiety response ... Mean satiety, hunger, prospective consumption and fullness VAS scores (±s.e.m.) during the two test days, n=16. The chocolate ... Molecular forms, responses to feeding, and relationship to gallbladder contraction. J Clin Invest. 1985;75:1144-1152. [PMC free ... Several single-meal studies with high-protein diets (25 E% or more) have shown increased satiety from protein.16 As far as we ...
*  JCI - Hypothalamic inflammation in obesity and metabolic disease
Leptin action in the forebrain regulates the hindbrain response to satiety signals. J Clin Invest. 2005;115(3):703-710.. View ... which process the response to satiety signals and contribute to adaptive feeding behavior (ref. 28 and Figure 1). ... Tanycytes are specialized glial cells that play a crucial role in the transport of and response to leptin (112, 114). These ... Evidence for a novel functional role of astrocytes in the acute homeostatic response to high-fat diet intake in mice. Mol Metab ...
*  Plus it
... suggesting that activation of NTS neurons is required to initiate the satiety response to CCK. We have previously shown that ... In this context, it is important to know that we only examined the response of the NTS in OLETF rats to CCK. It is possible ... 1994) Fos protein expression in the nucleus of the solitary tract in response to intestinal nutrients in awake rats. Brain Res ... In Sprague-Dawley rats, c-Fos mRNA and protein expression in the NTS in response to CCK were suppressed to basal levels by ...
*  Glucocorticoid Signaling in the Arcuate Nucleus Modulates Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity | Diabetes
Hypophagia induced by glucocorticoid deficiency is associated with an increased activation of satiety-related responses. J Appl ... Regulation of Lipolytic Response and Energy Balance by Melanocortin 2 Receptor Accessory Protein (MRAP) in Adipocytes ... the data on the counterregulatory response clearly indicate that the HPA axis may control different aspects of peripheral ... and corticotropin-releasing factor receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus are important for the counterregulatory response ...
*  Purdue University - IFT.org
... human cephalic phase responses, hunger, satiety, cravings. Weaver, C.M., F & N Professor, Ph.D., Florida State University (1978 ... Bioactive food components that affect the fat cell biology such as cell differentiation, inflammatory response and metabolism; ... Carbohydrates and health - manipulation of starch and other glycemic carbohydrates for slowly digestible/low glycemic response ... or resistant character, and collaborative studies to understand human enzyme digestion and physiological response; dietary ...
*  Eating Disorders | CURRENT Diagnosis & Treatment Pediatrics, 23e | AccessPediatrics | McGraw-Hill Medical
Patients with BN or BED appear to have a blunted serotonin response to eating and satiety. With a decreased satiety response, ... Cholecystokinin is decreased in BN, perhaps contributing to the lack of postingestion satiety that perpetuates a binge. Ghrelin ... Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) tends to equilibrate satiety regulation. An alteration in ...
*  Books - Medicine - Terkko Navigator
Satiety Response, Vaccinium myrtillus, biologiset merkkiaineet, hiilihydraatit, insuliini, insuliiniresistenssi, kala, kalat, ...
*  PPT - Dietary Fiber Ingredients PowerPoint Presentation - ID:6715590
Increase the production of satiety and glycemic response hormones. *Increase sensitivity to insulin ... Fiber affects the carbohydrate impact on glycemic response, so must be taken into account with meal planning. ... Fiber and fluids at each meal and snack to improve satiety without excess calories ... by different hormonal response, the satiating capacity of a fruit-based and a β-glucan-enriched beverage. Food Funct. 2012;3:67 ...
*  mobile monitoring | SweetWater Health
So far, we've learned that artificial sweeteners may blunt people's satiety response, but that if they come in the form of diet ... This leads to increased intake of calories and a blunted satiety response to overeating, leading to increased accumulation of ...
*  Weight Loss | SweetWater Health
So far, we've learned that artificial sweeteners may blunt people's satiety response, but that if they come in the form of diet ... This leads to increased intake of calories and a blunted satiety response to overeating, leading to increased accumulation of ... Inflammation is the body's response to infection or injury, and it serves a useful purpose when there is an infection to fight ... Stress hormones cause inflammation in the body that short-circuits the body's insulin response, causing two problems:. *Fat ...

(1/363) Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on short-term appetite and food intake in humans.

Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may be a physiological regulator of appetite; NO synthase (NOS) inhibition suppresses food intake in rats, mice, and chickens. It is not known whether NO has any effect on appetite in humans. We have used NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), both competitive, nonselective inhibitors of NOS, in two separate studies to evaluate the role of NO in the short-term regulation of appetite in humans. In study I, 13 men (18-25 yr) underwent paired studies, in randomized, double-blind fashion, after an overnight fast. L-NMMA (4 mg. kg-1. h-1) or saline (0.9%) was infused intravenously at a rate of 40 ml/h for 1.5 h. In study II, eight men (18-26 yr) underwent three randomized, double-blind studies after an overnight fast. L-NAME (75 or 180 micrograms . kg-1. h-1) or saline (0.9%) was infused intravenously at a rate of 20 ml/h for 120 min. Hunger and fullness were measured using visual analog scales; blood pressure and heart rate were monitored, and 30 min before the end of the infusion, subjects were offered a cold buffet meal. Total caloric intake and the macronutrient composition of the meal were determined. Both L-NMMA (P = 0.052) and L-NAME (P < 0.05; both doses) decreased heart rate, L-NMMA increased diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), and L-NAME increased systolic blood pressure (P = 0.052). Neither drug had any effect on caloric intake or sensations of hunger or fullness. Despite having significant effects on cardiovascular function in the doses used, neither L-NMMA nor L-NAME had any effect on feeding, suggesting that NO does not affect short-term appetite or food intake in humans.  (+info)

(2/363) Reduced sensitivity to the satiation effect of intestinal oleate in rats adapted to high-fat diet.

When rats are maintained on high-fat diets, digestive processes adapt to provide for more efficient digestion and absorption of this nutrient. Furthermore, rats fed high-fat diets tend to consume more calories and gain more weight than rats on a low-fat diet. We hypothesized that, in addition to adaptation of digestive processes, high-fat maintenance diets might result in reduction of sensitivity to the satiating effects of fat digestion products, which inhibit food intake by activating sensory fibers in the small intestine. To test this hypothesis we measured food intake after intestinal infusion of oleic acid or the oligosaccharide maltotriose in rats maintained on a low-fat diet or one of three high-fat diets. We found that rats fed high-fat diets exhibited diminished sensitivity to satiation by intestinal infusion of oleic acid. Sensitivity to the satiation effect of intestinal maltotriose infusion did not differ between groups maintained on the various diets. Reduced sensitivity to oleate infusion was specifically dependent on fat content of the diet and was not influenced by the dietary fiber or carbohydrate content. These results indicate that diets high in fat reduce the ability of fat to inhibit further food intake. Such changes in sensitivity to intestinal fats might contribute to the increased food intake and obesity that occur with high-fat diet regimens.  (+info)

(3/363) Blood glucose patterns and appetite in time-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat.

We assessed the extent to which a possible synchronization between transient blood glucose declines and spontaneous meal initiation would lend support to the interpretation of a preload study with isoenergetic (1 MJ) isovolumetric high-fat or simple carbohydrate (CHO) preload drinks. Ten men (18-30 yr) fasted overnight and then were time blinded and made aware that they could request meals anytime. At first meal requests, volunteers consumed a preload; ad libitum meals were offered at subsequent requests. Postabsorptively, transient declines in blood glucose were associated with meal requests (chi(2) = 8.29). Subsequent meal requests occurred during "dynamic declines" in blood glucose after the peak induced by drink consumption (100%). These meal requests took twice as long to occur after high-fat than after CHO preloads (fat = 126 +/- 21, CHO = 65 +/- 15 min), consistent with differences in interpolated 65-min satiety scores (fat = 38 +/- 8.2, CHO = 16 +/- 4). Postprandially, transient blood glucose declines were associated with meal requests (chi(2) = 4.30). Spontaneous meal initiations were synchronized with transient and dynamic blood glucose declines. Synchronization of intermeal interval and dynamic declines related to higher satiating efficiency from high-fat preloads than from simple CHO preloads.  (+info)

(4/363) Dopaminergic correlates of sensory-specific satiety in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of the rat.

Changes in dopamine (DA) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats were monitored using in vivo microdialysis during sensory-specific satiety experiments. Rats consumed significant amounts of a palatable food during an initial meal but ate little when the same food was available as a second meal. In contrast, rats given a different palatable food ate a significant quantity during the second meal. DA efflux in both brain regions reflected this difference in food intake, indicating that DA activity is influenced by changes in the deprivation state of animals and sensory incentive properties of food. Given the proposed role of DA in motivated behaviors, these findings suggest that DA efflux may signal the relative incentive salience of foods and thus is a determinant of the pattern of food consumption observed in sensory-specific satiety.  (+info)

(5/363) Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women.

BACKGROUND: Previous research showed that decreasing the energy density (kJ/g) of foods by adding water to them can lead to reductions in energy intake. Few studies have examined how water consumed as a beverage affects food intake. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of water, both served with a food and incorporated into a food, on satiety. DESIGN: In a within-subjects design, 24 lean women consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Subjects received 1 of 3 isoenergetic (1128 kJ) preloads 17 min before lunch on 3 d and no preload on 1 d. The preloads consisted of 1) chicken rice casserole, 2) chicken rice casserole served with a glass of water (356 g), and 3) chicken rice soup. The soup contained the same ingredients (type and amount) as the casserole that was served with water. RESULTS: Decreasing the energy density of and increasing the volume of the preload by adding water to it significantly increased fullness and reduced hunger and subsequent energy intake at lunch. The equivalent amount of water served as a beverage with a food did not affect satiety. Energy intake at lunch was 1209 +/- 125 kJ after the soup compared with 1657 +/- 148 and 1639 +/- 148 kJ after the casserole with and without water, respectively. Subjects did not compensate at dinner for this reduction in lunch intake. CONCLUSION: Consuming foods with a high water content more effectively reduced subsequent energy intake than did drinking water with food.  (+info)

(6/363) Effect of brain stem NMDA-receptor blockade by MK-801 on behavioral and fos responses to vagal satiety signals.

To test the possible role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the transmission of gastrointestinal satiety signals at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), we assessed the effect of fourth ventricular infusion of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on short-term sucrose intake and on gastric distension-induced Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex of unanesthetized rats. MK-801, although not affecting initial rate of intake, significantly increased sucrose intake during the later phase of the meal (10-30 min, 8.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.8 ml, P < 0.01). In the medial subnucleus of the NTS, the area postrema, and the dorsal motor nucleus, MK-801 did not reduce gastric distension-induced Fos expression and itself did not significantly induce Fos expression. In the dorsomedial, commissural, and gelatinosus subnuclei, MK-801 in itself produced significant Fos expression and significantly reduced (-75%, P < 0.05) the ability of gastric distension to induce Fos expression, assuming an additive model with two separate populations of neurons activated by distension and the blocker. Although these results are consistent with NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission of vagal satiety signals in general, they lend limited support for such a role in the transmission of specific gastric distension signals.  (+info)

(7/363) Decreased responsiveness to dietary fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats lacking CCK-A receptors.

Adult Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats lack functional cholecystokinin A (CCK-A) receptors, are diabetic, hyperphagic, and obese, and have patterns of ingestion consistent with a satiety deficit secondary to CCK insensitivity. Because dietary fat potently stimulates CCK release, we examined how dietary fat modulates feeding in adult male OLETF rats and their lean [Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO)] controls. High-fat feeding produced sustained overconsumption of high-fat diet (30% corn oil in powdered chow) over a 3-wk period in OLETF but not LETO rats. We then assessed the ability of gastric gavage (5 ml, 1-2 kcal/ml x 15 s) or duodenal preloads (1 kcal/ml, 0.44 ml/min x 10 min) of liquid carbohydrate (glucose), protein (peptone), or fat (Intralipid) to suppress subsequent 30-min 12.5% glucose intake in both strains. In OLETF rats, gastric and duodenal fat preloads were significantly less effective in suppressing subsequent intake than were equicaloric peptone or glucose. These results demonstrate that OLETF rats fail to compensate for fat calories and suggest that their hyperphagia and obesity may stem from a reduced ability to process nutrient-elicited gastrointestinal satiety signals.  (+info)

(8/363) Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the rat vagus nerve: A putative mediator of cholecystokinin-induced satiety.

Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Recent studies have pointed to a role for CART-derived peptides in inhibiting feeding behavior. Although these actions have generally been attributed to hypothalamic CART, it remains to be determined whether additional CART pathways exist that link signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the central control of food intake. In the present study, we have investigated the presence of CART in the rat vagus nerve and nodose ganglion. In the viscerosensory nodose ganglion, half of the neuron profiles expressed CART and its predicted peptide, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. CART expression was markedly attenuated after vagotomy, but no modulation was observed after food restriction or high-fat regimes. A large proportion of CART-labeled neuron profiles also expressed cholecystokinin A receptor mRNA. CART-peptide-like immunoreactivity was transported in the vagus nerve and found in a dense fiber plexus in the nucleus tractus solitarii. Studies on CART in the spinal somatosensory system revealed strong immunostaining of the dorsal horn but only a small number of stained cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia. The present results suggest that CART-derived peptides are present in vagal afferent neurons sensitive to cholecystokinin, suggesting that the role of these peptides in feeding may be explained partly by mediating postprandial satiety effects of cholecystokinin.  (+info)

  • appetite
  • Several decades ago, researchers found CCK largely responsible for the feeling of fullness or satiety experienced after a meal and partially controls appetite, at least in the short term. (mail-archive.com)
  • Appealing foods can stimulate appetite even when hunger is absent, although appetite can be greatly reduced by satiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dopamine acts primarily through the reward centers of the brain, whereas serononin primarily acts through effects on neuropeptide Y (NPY)/agouti-related peptide (AgRP) [stimulate appetite] and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) [induce satiety] neurons located in the arcuate nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurobiological state factors (e.g., appetite and satiety states, stress level, drug states such as intoxication and withdrawal, etc.), and particularly the motivational state of an animal, strongly affect the amount of appetitive motivational salience (i.e., incentive salience) that a reward cue confers to an associated rewarding stimulus via Pavlovian-instrumental transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each of these peptides is packaged in large dense-core vesicles that are released from the cells by exocytosis in response to appropriate stimulation: α-MSH produced by neurons in the arcuate nucleus has important roles in the regulation of appetite (POMC neuron stimulation results in satiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • peptide
  • Along with other hormones, such as pancreatic glucagon, bombesin, glucagon-like peptide-1, amide (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP)., CCK is released by ingested food from the gastrointestinal tract and mediates satiety after meals. (mail-archive.com)
  • As a peptide hormone, CCK mediates satiety by acting on the CCK receptors distributed widely throughout the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • Chronic CNS oxytocin signaling preferentially induces fat loss in high-fat diet-fed rats by enhancing satiety responses and increasing lipid utilization. (washington.edu)
  • For the first time, a drug of abuse served as an operant reinforcer and rats self-administered morphine to satiety in stereotyped response patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium chloride and sucrose elicited the largest response in the rat gustatory cortex in rats, whereas citric acid causes only a moderate increase in activity in a single neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • operant
  • In relation to rewarding stimuli, specific PIT occurs when a CS is associated with a specific rewarding stimulus through classical conditioning and subsequent exposure to the CS enhances an operant response that is directed toward the same reward with which it was paired (i.e., it promotes approach behavior). (wikipedia.org)
  • General PIT occurs when a CS is paired with one reward and it enhances an operant response that is directed toward a different rewarding stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specific PIT with an aversive stimulus occurs when a CS is paired with an aversive stimulus and subsequent exposure to the CS enhances an operant response that is directed away from the aversive stimulus with which it was paired (i.e., it promotes escape and avoidance behavior). (wikipedia.org)
  • stimuli
  • It modulated behavior by inhibiting appetitive responses and increasing arousal in order to improve attention to salient and relevant stimuli, e.g., potentially harmful stimuli, in the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • The predominant activity of one of the two above systems was considered to lead to greater or even exclusive expression of behavioral moduli related to approach or, alternatively, to avoidance aptitudes, thus determining an individual's stable dispositional response mode to external stimuli. (frontiersin.org)
  • The most important role of head factors in satiety is that taste and odor can serve as stimuli that permit learning about caloric contents of different foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • Hess, J.R., Birkett, A.M., Thomas, W. and Slavin, J.L. (2011) Effects of Short-Chain Fructooligosaccharides on Satiety Responses in Healthy Men and Women. (scirp.org)
  • This is an important element of creating a disease model of drug addiction in humans because response-independent drug administration is associated with increased toxicity and different neurobiological, neurochemical and behavioral effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • The saturation in consumption may be caused by the time to handle the prey or satiety effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neurokinin A has many excitatory effects on mammalian nervous systems and is also influential on the mammalian inflammatory and pain responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • In an earlier study the investigators found that a muffin containing resistant starch was more effective than other fibers in altering satiety. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to determine if 2 resistant starches consumed in muffins alter satiety and whether a mixture of resistant starches is more effective than either alone in enhancing satiety. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • weight
  • Because CCK may function as a satiety factor, we also tracked normal body weight gain in the CCK-deficient mice. (physiology.org)
  • role
  • In juvenile red deer (Cervus elaphus), the preorbital gland appears to play a role in the response to stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • foods
  • If the same standard is used then the expected satiety of different foods can be quantified and compared directly. (wikipedia.org)
  • exposure
  • Inflammatory responses within the central nervous system (CNS) are often the result of traumatic injury or exposure to infectious agents. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • Dr. Hentges noted that his presentation would focus on comments received in response to a notice of proposed changes to the Pyramid that appeared in the Federal Register last September. (health.gov)