Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
beta-Carotene | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural MedicineMicrowave cooking increases glucose, insulin and C-peptide responses and lowers satiety and beta carotene levels versus raw ...
Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Evolution not Revolution: Nutrition and ObesityEffect of Cold Storage and Reheating of Parboiled Rice on Postprandial Glycaemic Response, Satiety, Palatability and Chewed ...
Longitudinal examination of homebound older adults who experience heightened food insufficiency: effect of diabetes status and...15483639 - Palatability and glucose, insulin and satiety responses of chickpea flour and extruded .... 25253519 - Daily ... 19761889 - Glycemic response of mashed potato containing high-viscocity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose.. 23503789 - Antimicrobial ...
American Journal of Gastroenterology Supplements - Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota as a Novel Treatment Strategy for...20). These data suggest that the adaptive immune response may attenuate the innate immune response to normal gut microbiota. ... two hormones involved in satiety. ... IgA response to symbiotic bacteria as a mediator of gut ... For example, bacteria-specific IgA responses are observed when germ-free mice are colonized with members of the normal gut ... 31). FODMAPs may induce GI symptoms in patients with pre-existing visceral hypersensitivity or abnormal motility responses by ...
Plus it... induced changes of postprandial peptide YY and ghrelin responses are not associated with acute alterations of satiety. Br J ... hormonal response, and satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 60: 544-551, 1994. ... Brennan CS. Dietary fibre, glycaemic response, diabetes. Mol ... Cani PD, Neyrinck AM, Maton N, Delzenne NM. Oligofructose promotes satiety in rats fed a high-fat diet: involvement of glucagon ... HEK-293 cells were transfected with 0.4 μg of DNA using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The dose-response study ...
Ideal Diet for Weight Loss and Satiety by Eleanor Kurtus - Succeed with Nutritional Excellence: School for ChampionsAs the stretching occurs, a neural response is sent to the brain via the mechanoreceptors to signal that it is becoming full. ... An effective diet promotes satiety while supplying optimum level of nutrients. The feeling of satiety comes from multiple ... ideal_diet_for_weight_loss_and_satiety.htm. Please include it as a link on your website or as a reference in your report, ... Satiety. Digestion begins in the mouth. As food is chewed, saliva-consisting of water, mucus, enzymes and antibacterial agents- ...
Paleo vs plant - a comprehensive response to an ongoing debate... hunger and satiety, how we respond to exercise, sleep patterns, eating behaviour (for example snacking) and responsiveness to ... In response to my question about the Tim Noakes diet, she said: 'Noakes started off saying that everyone was different, but he ... Our genetics, combined with our environment, affect our susceptibly to gaining weight, as well as our individual response to ... improved satiety and increased energy. However, as time went on, numerous cons were also realised, including: toxicity, ...
Altered Neural Circuitry May Lead to Anorexia and BulimiaFor patients with anorexia who have an overly active satiety signal in response to palatable foods, the researchers suggest ... The UC San Diego study used functional MRI to test this neurocircuitry by measuring the brain response to sweet tastes in 28 ... Medications may also be found that enhance the reward response to food, or decrease inhibition to food consumption in the ... enhancing insula activity in individuals with anorexia or dampening the exaggerated or unstable response to food in those with ...
Dr. Pam's Response to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans - Vegsource.comThe key to satiety is eating fiber-rich foods that fill the stomach from a volume standpoint, and that have enough calorie ... This is not a result of inadequate calcium intake, but the body's response to metabolic acidosis. Researchers from Yale ... Eating chicken and cheese until satiety is achieved requires the consumption of over 3000 calories. ...
The NOURISH randomised control trial: Positive feeding practices and food preferences in early childhood - a primary prevention...Self regulation of intake in response to internal hunger and satiety cues is innate in infancy, but easily overridden by social ... there is no evidence that physical activity would influence food preferences or maternal response to hunger or satiety cues and ... We will make up to three attempts to telephone those who fail to return a response within two weeks. Appointments for ... Neophobia, the rejection of novel foods, is a normal adaptive response, but is readily modified by experience, particularly ...
Sensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensation
(1/363) Effect of nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on short-term appetite and food intake in humans.
Animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may be a physiological regulator of appetite; NO synthase (NOS) inhibition suppresses food intake in rats, mice, and chickens. It is not known whether NO has any effect on appetite in humans. We have used NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) and NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), both competitive, nonselective inhibitors of NOS, in two separate studies to evaluate the role of NO in the short-term regulation of appetite in humans. In study I, 13 men (18-25 yr) underwent paired studies, in randomized, double-blind fashion, after an overnight fast. L-NMMA (4 mg. kg-1. h-1) or saline (0.9%) was infused intravenously at a rate of 40 ml/h for 1.5 h. In study II, eight men (18-26 yr) underwent three randomized, double-blind studies after an overnight fast. L-NAME (75 or 180 micrograms . kg-1. h-1) or saline (0.9%) was infused intravenously at a rate of 20 ml/h for 120 min. Hunger and fullness were measured using visual analog scales; blood pressure and heart rate were monitored, and 30 min before the end of the infusion, subjects were offered a cold buffet meal. Total caloric intake and the macronutrient composition of the meal were determined. Both L-NMMA (P = 0.052) and L-NAME (P < 0.05; both doses) decreased heart rate, L-NMMA increased diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.01), and L-NAME increased systolic blood pressure (P = 0.052). Neither drug had any effect on caloric intake or sensations of hunger or fullness. Despite having significant effects on cardiovascular function in the doses used, neither L-NMMA nor L-NAME had any effect on feeding, suggesting that NO does not affect short-term appetite or food intake in humans. (+info)
(2/363) Reduced sensitivity to the satiation effect of intestinal oleate in rats adapted to high-fat diet.
When rats are maintained on high-fat diets, digestive processes adapt to provide for more efficient digestion and absorption of this nutrient. Furthermore, rats fed high-fat diets tend to consume more calories and gain more weight than rats on a low-fat diet. We hypothesized that, in addition to adaptation of digestive processes, high-fat maintenance diets might result in reduction of sensitivity to the satiating effects of fat digestion products, which inhibit food intake by activating sensory fibers in the small intestine. To test this hypothesis we measured food intake after intestinal infusion of oleic acid or the oligosaccharide maltotriose in rats maintained on a low-fat diet or one of three high-fat diets. We found that rats fed high-fat diets exhibited diminished sensitivity to satiation by intestinal infusion of oleic acid. Sensitivity to the satiation effect of intestinal maltotriose infusion did not differ between groups maintained on the various diets. Reduced sensitivity to oleate infusion was specifically dependent on fat content of the diet and was not influenced by the dietary fiber or carbohydrate content. These results indicate that diets high in fat reduce the ability of fat to inhibit further food intake. Such changes in sensitivity to intestinal fats might contribute to the increased food intake and obesity that occur with high-fat diet regimens. (+info)
(3/363) Blood glucose patterns and appetite in time-blinded humans: carbohydrate versus fat.
We assessed the extent to which a possible synchronization between transient blood glucose declines and spontaneous meal initiation would lend support to the interpretation of a preload study with isoenergetic (1 MJ) isovolumetric high-fat or simple carbohydrate (CHO) preload drinks. Ten men (18-30 yr) fasted overnight and then were time blinded and made aware that they could request meals anytime. At first meal requests, volunteers consumed a preload; ad libitum meals were offered at subsequent requests. Postabsorptively, transient declines in blood glucose were associated with meal requests (chi(2) = 8.29). Subsequent meal requests occurred during "dynamic declines" in blood glucose after the peak induced by drink consumption (100%). These meal requests took twice as long to occur after high-fat than after CHO preloads (fat = 126 +/- 21, CHO = 65 +/- 15 min), consistent with differences in interpolated 65-min satiety scores (fat = 38 +/- 8.2, CHO = 16 +/- 4). Postprandially, transient blood glucose declines were associated with meal requests (chi(2) = 4.30). Spontaneous meal initiations were synchronized with transient and dynamic blood glucose declines. Synchronization of intermeal interval and dynamic declines related to higher satiating efficiency from high-fat preloads than from simple CHO preloads. (+info)
(4/363) Dopaminergic correlates of sensory-specific satiety in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of the rat.
Changes in dopamine (DA) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of rats were monitored using in vivo microdialysis during sensory-specific satiety experiments. Rats consumed significant amounts of a palatable food during an initial meal but ate little when the same food was available as a second meal. In contrast, rats given a different palatable food ate a significant quantity during the second meal. DA efflux in both brain regions reflected this difference in food intake, indicating that DA activity is influenced by changes in the deprivation state of animals and sensory incentive properties of food. Given the proposed role of DA in motivated behaviors, these findings suggest that DA efflux may signal the relative incentive salience of foods and thus is a determinant of the pattern of food consumption observed in sensory-specific satiety. (+info)
(5/363) Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women.
BACKGROUND: Previous research showed that decreasing the energy density (kJ/g) of foods by adding water to them can lead to reductions in energy intake. Few studies have examined how water consumed as a beverage affects food intake. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of water, both served with a food and incorporated into a food, on satiety. DESIGN: In a within-subjects design, 24 lean women consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in our laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Subjects received 1 of 3 isoenergetic (1128 kJ) preloads 17 min before lunch on 3 d and no preload on 1 d. The preloads consisted of 1) chicken rice casserole, 2) chicken rice casserole served with a glass of water (356 g), and 3) chicken rice soup. The soup contained the same ingredients (type and amount) as the casserole that was served with water. RESULTS: Decreasing the energy density of and increasing the volume of the preload by adding water to it significantly increased fullness and reduced hunger and subsequent energy intake at lunch. The equivalent amount of water served as a beverage with a food did not affect satiety. Energy intake at lunch was 1209 +/- 125 kJ after the soup compared with 1657 +/- 148 and 1639 +/- 148 kJ after the casserole with and without water, respectively. Subjects did not compensate at dinner for this reduction in lunch intake. CONCLUSION: Consuming foods with a high water content more effectively reduced subsequent energy intake than did drinking water with food. (+info)
(6/363) Effect of brain stem NMDA-receptor blockade by MK-801 on behavioral and fos responses to vagal satiety signals.
To test the possible role of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors in the transmission of gastrointestinal satiety signals at the level of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), we assessed the effect of fourth ventricular infusion of the noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 on short-term sucrose intake and on gastric distension-induced Fos expression in the dorsal vagal complex of unanesthetized rats. MK-801, although not affecting initial rate of intake, significantly increased sucrose intake during the later phase of the meal (10-30 min, 8.9 +/- 1.0 vs. 2.9 +/- 0.8 ml, P < 0.01). In the medial subnucleus of the NTS, the area postrema, and the dorsal motor nucleus, MK-801 did not reduce gastric distension-induced Fos expression and itself did not significantly induce Fos expression. In the dorsomedial, commissural, and gelatinosus subnuclei, MK-801 in itself produced significant Fos expression and significantly reduced (-75%, P < 0.05) the ability of gastric distension to induce Fos expression, assuming an additive model with two separate populations of neurons activated by distension and the blocker. Although these results are consistent with NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission of vagal satiety signals in general, they lend limited support for such a role in the transmission of specific gastric distension signals. (+info)
(7/363) Decreased responsiveness to dietary fat in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats lacking CCK-A receptors.
Adult Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats lack functional cholecystokinin A (CCK-A) receptors, are diabetic, hyperphagic, and obese, and have patterns of ingestion consistent with a satiety deficit secondary to CCK insensitivity. Because dietary fat potently stimulates CCK release, we examined how dietary fat modulates feeding in adult male OLETF rats and their lean [Long-Evans Tokushima (LETO)] controls. High-fat feeding produced sustained overconsumption of high-fat diet (30% corn oil in powdered chow) over a 3-wk period in OLETF but not LETO rats. We then assessed the ability of gastric gavage (5 ml, 1-2 kcal/ml x 15 s) or duodenal preloads (1 kcal/ml, 0.44 ml/min x 10 min) of liquid carbohydrate (glucose), protein (peptone), or fat (Intralipid) to suppress subsequent 30-min 12.5% glucose intake in both strains. In OLETF rats, gastric and duodenal fat preloads were significantly less effective in suppressing subsequent intake than were equicaloric peptone or glucose. These results demonstrate that OLETF rats fail to compensate for fat calories and suggest that their hyperphagia and obesity may stem from a reduced ability to process nutrient-elicited gastrointestinal satiety signals. (+info)
(8/363) Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript in the rat vagus nerve: A putative mediator of cholecystokinin-induced satiety.
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is widely expressed in the central nervous system. Recent studies have pointed to a role for CART-derived peptides in inhibiting feeding behavior. Although these actions have generally been attributed to hypothalamic CART, it remains to be determined whether additional CART pathways exist that link signals from the gastrointestinal tract to the central control of food intake. In the present study, we have investigated the presence of CART in the rat vagus nerve and nodose ganglion. In the viscerosensory nodose ganglion, half of the neuron profiles expressed CART and its predicted peptide, as determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. CART expression was markedly attenuated after vagotomy, but no modulation was observed after food restriction or high-fat regimes. A large proportion of CART-labeled neuron profiles also expressed cholecystokinin A receptor mRNA. CART-peptide-like immunoreactivity was transported in the vagus nerve and found in a dense fiber plexus in the nucleus tractus solitarii. Studies on CART in the spinal somatosensory system revealed strong immunostaining of the dorsal horn but only a small number of stained cell bodies in dorsal root ganglia. The present results suggest that CART-derived peptides are present in vagal afferent neurons sensitive to cholecystokinin, suggesting that the role of these peptides in feeding may be explained partly by mediating postprandial satiety effects of cholecystokinin. (+info)
- At the time, various pros were linked to the low-carb revolution, including: fat loss, insulin and lipid stabilisation, improved satiety and increased energy. (naturalmedicine.co.za)
- The study presented here looked at the effect of fibre fermentability on physiological satiety-related metabolites and voluntary food intake in dogs. (allaboutfeed.net)
- The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether an increase in dietary fibre fermentability prolongs the duration of postprandial satiety as measured by VFI and physiological satiety metabolites when included in the diets of dogs. (allaboutfeed.net)
- Food restriction and limiting the choices and amounts of food often results in lack of satiety, or a state of hunger and wanting more. (school-for-champions.com)
- Genetics is not just about how we burn up fat, it's a number of factors: it affects things like taste, appetite, hunger and satiety, how we respond to exercise, sleep patterns, eating behaviour (for example snacking) and responsiveness to different macronutrients. (naturalmedicine.co.za)
- Depending on type and inclusion level, dietary fibre may increase and maintain satiety and postpone the onset of hunger. (allaboutfeed.net)
- Dietary fibre may aid in the mitigation and prevention of obesity as it may increase and maintain satiety and prevent the feeling of hunger in the dogs. (allaboutfeed.net)
- These two hormones are also naturally secreted in response to meal ingestion, but they degrade rapidly after endogenous secretion or exogenous injection ( 3 , 5 , 31 , 38 , 43 ). (physiology.org)
- Fibre fermentability yielding short chain fatty acids (SCFA) may affect satiety through its actions on the production and secretion of gastrointestinal satiety hormones. (allaboutfeed.net)
- What affects satiety? (school-for-champions.com)
- Research has shown that the volume of food affects satiety. (school-for-champions.com)
- Early feeding practices determine infant exposure to food (type, amount, frequency) and include responses (eg coercion) to infant feeding behaviour (eg. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Medications may also be found that enhance the reward response to food, or decrease inhibition to food consumption in the brain's reward circuitry. (mdtmag.com)
- Eating chicken and cheese until satiety is achieved requires the consumption of over 3000 calories. (vegsource.com)
- Our genetics, combined with our environment, affect our susceptibly to gaining weight, as well as our individual response to various dietary interventions. (naturalmedicine.co.za)
- Several studies in the past have evaluated the effect of dietary fibre on satiety in dogs. (allaboutfeed.net)
- Several physical and chemical properties of dietary fibres may influence the duration of postprandial satiety. (allaboutfeed.net)
- Understanding the anatomical basics about satiety, as described above, helps us to understand the type of food plan that should be used for weight loss and maintenance. (school-for-champions.com)
- Restricting food and food choices often leads to a lack of satiety and results in a rebound effect, where the individual eats more and gains back weight. (school-for-champions.com)
- It may be possible to modulate the experience by, for example, enhancing insula activity in individuals with anorexia or dampening the exaggerated or unstable response to food in those with bulimia," said Kaye. (mdtmag.com)
- Studies indicate that healthy subjects can use real-time fMRI, biofeedback or mindfulness training to alter the brain's response to food stimuli. (mdtmag.com)
- For patients with anorexia who have an overly active satiety signal in response to palatable foods, the researchers suggest bland or even slightly aversive foods might prevent the brain's overstimulation. (mdtmag.com)
- The key to satiety is eating fiber-rich foods that fill the stomach from a volume standpoint, and that have enough calorie density to satisfy the nutrient receptors. (vegsource.com)
- Relative to a cohort of 14 women who had never suffered from either disorder, those recovered from anorexia had significantly diminished, and those recovered from bulimia, significantly elevated responses to the taste of sucrose in the right anterior insula. (mdtmag.com)
- Calcium imaging revealed no modulatory effect on odor-evoked responses of the Drosophila antennal lobe by two populations of inhibitory local interneurons. (mpg.de)
- In response to my question about the Tim Noakes diet, she said: 'Noakes started off saying that everyone was different, but he now believes that most people, especially those who struggle to lose weight, are carb resistant. (naturalmedicine.co.za)
- There is still little information available regarding the potency of various fermentable fibres to affect the satiety in dogs. (allaboutfeed.net)
- As the stretching occurs, a neural response is sent to the brain via the mechanoreceptors to signal that it is becoming full. (school-for-champions.com)
- The UC San Diego study used functional MRI to test this neurocircuitry by measuring the brain response to sweet tastes in 28 women who had recovered from either anorexia or bulimia. (mdtmag.com)
- PYY can cross the blood-brain barrier and act on the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, stimulating neurons that create a sensation of satiety and inhibiting neurons that stimulate feeding behaviour10. (allaboutfeed.net)