Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Appetite: Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Nematocyst: A double-walled capsule found in jellyfish and other CNIDARIA whose functions include prey capture, defense, locomotion, and attachment. Nematocysts contain toxic CNIDARIAN VENOMS which are injected into the victim via a barbed tubule.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Fetishism (Psychiatric): A condition in which inanimate objects are utilized as a preferred or exclusive method of stimulating erotic arousal.Thirst: A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Appetite Regulation: Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.Gastric Emptying: The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Cholecystokinin: A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.Dexfenfluramine: The S-isomer of FENFLURAMINE. It is a serotonin agonist and is used as an anorectic. Unlike fenfluramine, it does not possess any catecholamine agonist activity.Paraphilias: Disorders that include recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering of oneself or partners, or children or other nonconsenting partners. (from DSM-IV, 1994)Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Pedophilia: A sexual disorder occurring in a person 16 years or older and that is recurrent with intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a prepubescent child (generally age 13 or younger). (from APA, DSM-IV, 1994).Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Area Postrema: A small, rounded eminence on each side of the FOURTH VENTRICLE, which receives nerve fibers from the SOLITARY NUCLEUS; SPINAL CORD; and adjacent areas of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA. The area postrema lies outside the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and its functions include acting as an emetic chemoreceptor.Postprandial Period: The time frame after a meal or FOOD INTAKE.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Peptide YY: A 36-amino acid peptide produced by the L cells of the distal small intestine and colon. Peptide YY inhibits gastric and pancreatic secretion.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Vagus Nerve: The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Rhombencephalon: The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.PyrrolidinesDrinking: The consumption of liquids.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Anorexia: The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.Intubation, Gastrointestinal: The insertion of a tube into the stomach, intestines, or other portion of the gastrointestinal tract to allow for the passage of food products, etc.Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m: A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Receptors, Opioid, kappa: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Kappa opioid receptors bind dynorphins with a higher affinity than endorphins which are themselves preferred to enkephalins.Sea Anemones: The order Actiniaria, in the class ANTHOZOA, comprised of large, solitary polyps. All species are carnivorous.Gastrointestinal Motility: The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Duodenum: The shortest and widest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE adjacent to the PYLORUS of the STOMACH. It is named for having the length equal to about the width of 12 fingers.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.

*  Brevet US7121283 - Satiation devices and methods - Google Brevets

Satiation devices and methods. US20120004590 *. 19 sept. 2011. 5 janv. 2012. Barosense, Inc. Satiation pouches and methods of ... shows a first embodiment of a satiation device 100 utilizing principles of the present invention. Satiation device 100 includes ... Another embodiment of a satiation device is illustrated in FIG. 20. . This satiation device includes a duodenal absorption ... An alternative form of a satiation device 120 may be configured, as shown in FIG. 6. , to have an antral tube 10 b that is ...
google.fr/patents/US7121283

*  21 Degrees of Satiation | Armageddon On Toast

21 Degrees of Satiation. by John Murphy , Cigars and Drinkin , 0 comments ...
armageddonontoast.com/21-degrees-of-satiation/

*  Neural integration of satiation and food reward: role of GLP-1 and orexin pathways.

... ... This review describes research on neural pathways that appear to be involved in both, integrating gastrointestinal satiation ... mechanism through which cues that predict rewarding food may act to increase motivation for food and also to suppress satiation ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/neural-integration-of-satiation-and-food-reward-role-of-glp1-and-orexin-pathways-799321.html

*  Patent US7981162 - Satiation devices and methods - Google Patents

Satiation devices and methods. US20040143342 *. Jan 16, 2003. Jul 22, 2004. Stack Richard S.. Satiation pouches and methods of ... Satiation devices and methods. US20120004590 *. Sep 19, 2011. Jan 5, 2012. Barosense, Inc. Satiation pouches and methods of use ... a satiation pouch 212 may include a safety leash 216 that will retain the pouch 212 within the proximal region of the stomach ... shows a delivery system 22 of a type that may be used to implant the pouch 12 as well as any of the other satiation devices ...
google.com/patents/US7981162?dq=No. 6,411,949&ei=AUR7T-LGJqSr0AHy2aSiBg

*  The relationship between food reward and satiation revisited.

The postingestive satiating action of food is often viewed as producing a positive affective state that rewards eating. However, in an early test of this idea, Van Vort and Smith [Physiol. Behav. 30 (1983) 279] reported that rats did not learn to pre
biomedsearch.com/nih/relationship-between-food-reward-satiation/15234596.html

*  Sick of the same old thing? U of Minnesota researcher finds satiation solution | EurekAlert! Science News

... may have found a cure for your satiation blues. ... U of Minnesota researcher finds satiation solution Satiation is ... Satiation, the process of consuming products and experiences to the point where they are less enjoyable, is a big problem for ... "The solution to satiation is to take the time to appreciate all the variety you have," said Redden. "The recommendation is ... In the past, time and variety have been seen as the only ways to cure satiation. In their new article forthcoming in the ...
https://eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-05/uom-sot051909.php

*  English Dictionary Definition For Satiation

A Free English Dictionary
spellcheck.co.uk/dictionary/display.php?word=Satiation&action=view&id=134873

*  Satiation Hashag Satiation Black Hand Printed T shirt | Fruugo

an Ideal gift for anyone interested in satiation Sizes are Small 35 - 37', Medium 38 - 40', Large 40 - 41', XL 44 - 46', XXL 47 ... Heavy Cotton Fruit of the Loom Satiation tshirt in BlackThe printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt ... Satiation Hashag Satiation Black Hand Printed T shirt has been added to your basket ... Satiation tshirt in Black. The printing wont fade or crack even when tumble dried so your shirt will stay as soft and silky for ...
https://fruugoaustralia.com/satiation-hashag-satiation-black-hand-printed-t-shirt/p-3849919-8573028

*  Visdico - WoW

Bracers of Satiation. *Item Level 655. *Binds when picked up. * Mail Wrists ...
https://worldofwarcraft.com/en-us/character/dalaran/visdico

*  Is Hummus Bad for Weight Loss? | LIVESTRONG.COM

Hummus and Satiation. The chickpeas in hummus have satiating qualities that can help curb hunger and cause you to possibly eat ...
livestrong.com/article/444519-is-hummus-bad-for-weight-loss/

*  Maya (BSG 2003) - Works | Archive of Our Own

Satiation by Jennifer-Oksana (JenniferOksana) Fandoms: Battlestar Galactica (2003) * Explicit. * No Archive Warnings Apply ...
archiveofourown.org/tags/Maya

*  Justin Wolfers

Subjective Well‐Being and Income: Is There Any Evidence of Satiation?. Betsey Stevenson and Justin Wolfers ...
https://brookings.edu/browse/?start=1&sort=ContentDate&topic=Growth through Innovation&expert=Justin Wolfers

*  IPA (India Pale Ale) | Southern Tier Brewing Company | BeerAdvocate

Semantic satiation.. Overall a very drinkable, modest IPA that I would consider offering not-so-hop-heads if I don't finish the ...
https://beeradvocate.com/beer/profile/3818/9088/?ba=callmeclemens

*  Conversion Calculator - Android app on AppBrain

Satiation 3.. When you would like to know the currency exchange rate for 15 EUR in USD.. 1. Please input "15", then tap the ... Satiation 3.. When you would like to know the currency exchange rate for 15 EUR in USD.. 1. Please input "15", then tap the ...
appbrain.com/app/conversion-calculator/dentaku.en.taka84104

*  Satisfaction guaranteed: How certain foods help you feel full - CNN.com

Satiation is a physiological process.'. All of this information yields a plate containing a small amount of fat, a lean source ...
cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/diet.fitness/01/26/CL.satisfaction.guaranteed/index.html

*  Infants in Poverty Show Different Physiological...

Ever experienced 'semantic satiation'? Odds are that you have. In her latest post on 'Inside Anorexia,' Lauren Parkes suggests ...
scoop.it/t/mom-psych/p/3997262600/2013/02/20/infants-in-poverty-show-different-physiological-vulnerabilities-to-the-caregiving-environment

*  The Aging Brain Is More Malleable Than Previous...

Ever experienced 'semantic satiation'? Odds are that you have. In her latest post on 'Inside Anorexia,' Lauren Parkes suggests ...
scoop.it/t/mom-psych/p/2305664131/2012/08/02/the-aging-brain-is-more-malleable-than-previously-believed

*  X Marks the Spot (And sometimes a few other thi...

Ever experienced 'semantic satiation'? Odds are that you have. In her latest post on 'Inside Anorexia,' Lauren Parkes suggests ...
scoop.it/t/mom-psych/p/3261782293/2012/11/08/x-marks-the-spot-and-sometimes-a-few-other-things-in-the-process

*  Cognitive behaviour therapy improves quality of...

Ever experienced 'semantic satiation'? Odds are that you have. In her latest post on 'Inside Anorexia,' Lauren Parkes suggests ...
scoop.it/t/mom-psych/p/3495278199/2012/11/27/cognitive-behaviour-therapy-improves-quality-of-life-in-children-with-asthma-and-anxiety

*  Brain study provides new insight into why haste...

Ever experienced 'semantic satiation'? Odds are that you have. In her latest post on 'Inside Anorexia,' Lauren Parkes suggests ...
scoop.it/t/mom-psych/p/3253226754/2012/11/08/brain-study-provides-new-insight-into-why-haste-makes-waste

Sensory-specific satiety: Sensory-specific satiety is a sensory hedonic phenomenon that refers to the declining satisfaction generated by the consumption of a certain type of food, and the consequent renewal in appetite resulting from the exposure to a new flavor or food.Raynor H, Epstein L.Specific appetite: Specific appetite, also known as specific hunger, is a drive to eat foods with specific flavors or other characteristics.PRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Hunger (motivational state): Hunger is a sensationTransvestic fetishism: Transvestic fetishism is a psychiatric diagnosis applied to those who are thought to have an excessive sexual or erotic interest in cross-dressing; this interest is often expressed in autoerotic behavior. It differs from cross-dressing for entertainment or other purposes that do not involve sexual arousal, and is categorized as a paraphilia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association.Songhwa milsuLaminaria digitata: Laminaria digitata is a large brown alga in the family Laminariaceae, also known by the common name Oarweed. It is found in the sublittoral zone of the northern Atlantic Ocean.List of puddings: This list includes both sweet and savoury puddings that conform to one of two definitions:CholecystokininLevofenfluramine: Levofenfluramine (INN), or (−)-3-trifluoromethyl-N-ethylamphetamine, also known as (−)-fenfluramine or (R)-fenfluramine, is a drug of the amphetamine family that, itself (i.e.Stigmatic-eligibilic paraphilia: Stigmatic-eligibilic paraphilias are desires whose objects "become eligible" to be desired because of, rather than despite, a stigma which they bear. The manifold manifestations of these paraphilias cover the broadest range of physical, intimate and social circumstance.Aphelandra: Aphelandra is a genus of about 170 species of flowering plants in the family Acanthaceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas.Stomach diseaseBanquet Foods: Banquet Foods is a subsidiary of ConAgra Foods that sells various food products, including frozen pre-made entrées, meals, and desserts.Hebephilia: Hebephilia is the strong and persistent adult sexual interest in pubescent (early adolescent) individuals, typically ages 11–14 (see the Tanner stage). It differs from ephebophilia, which is the strong and persistent sexual interest to those in later adolescence, approximately 15–19 years old, and differs from pedophilia, which is the primary or exclusive sexual attraction to prepubescent children.Information hypothesis of conditioned reinforcementPre-locus coeruleus: Pre-locus coeruleus is a small nucleus in the brainstem. This small cluster of neurons also is referred to by the abbreviation "pre-LC".Solitary nucleus: In the human brain, the solitary nucleus (nucleus of the solitary tract, nucleus solitarius, nucleus tractus solitarii, NTS) is a series of nuclei (clusters of nerve cell bodies) forming a vertical column of grey matter embedded in the medulla oblongata. Through the center of the NTS runs the solitary tract, a white bundle of nerve fibers, including fibers from the facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves, that [the NTS.Artificial butter flavoring: Artificial butter flavoring may contain diacetyl, acetylpropionyl, or acetoin, three natural compounds in butter that contribute to its characteristic flavor. Because of this, manufacturers of margarines or similar oil-based products typically add diacetyl, acetylpropionyl and acetoin (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to make the final product butter-flavored, because it would otherwise be relatively tasteless.DevazepideTiflorexFormicationGlucagon-like peptide-2: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a 33 amino acid peptide with the sequence HADGSFSDEMNTILDNLAARDFINWLIQTKITD (see Proteinogenic amino acid) in humans. GLP-2 is created by specific post-translational proteolytic cleavage of proglucagon in a process that also liberates the related glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1).Taste: Taste, gustatory perception, or gustationAdjectival form: [is the sensory impression of food] or other substances on the tongue and is one of the [[sense|five traditional senses.Cephalic phase: The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs even before food enters the stomach, especially while it is being eaten. It results from the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food, and the greater the appetite, the more intense is the stimulation.Olson's Extinction: Olson's Extinction was a mass extinction that occurred in the Early Guadalupian of the Permian period and which predated the Permian–Triassic extinction event.Rhombomere: In the vertebrate embryo, a rhombomere is a transiently divided segment of the developing neural tube, within the hindbrain region (a neuromere) in the area that will eventually become the rhombencephalon. The rhombomeres appear as a series of slightly constricted swellings in the neural tube, caudal to the cephalic flexure.PyrrolidineList of countries by food energy intake: Food consumption refers to the amount of food available for human consumption as estimated by the FAO Food Balance Sheets. However the actual food consumption may be lower than the quantity shown as food availability depending on the magnitude of wastage and losses of food in the household, e.Sodium pertechnetateDimethylacetamideReward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Sports drink: Sports drinks are beverages whose stated purpose is to help athletes replace water, electrolytes, and energy after training or competition, though their efficacy for that purpose has been questioned, particularly after exercise which is only moderate.SpiradolineAnthopleurin: Anthopleurin is a toxin from the venom of the sea anemones Anthopleura xanthogrammica and Anthopleura elegantissima. These anemones use anthopleurin as a pheromone to quickly withdraw their tentacles in the presence of predators.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Classification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Nepean Hospital

(1/442) Correlation of regional cerebral blood flow and change of plasma sodium concentration during genesis and satiation of thirst.

Positron emission tomography studies were conducted during genesis of moderate thirst by rapid i.v. infusion of hypertonic saline (0.51 M) and after satiation of thirst by drinking water. The correlation of regional cerebral blood flow with the change in the plasma Na concentration showed a significant group of cerebral activations in the anterior cingulate region and also a site in the middle temporal gyrus and in the periaqueductal gray. Strongest deactivations occurred in the parahippocampal and frontal gyri. The data are consistent with an important role of the anterior cingulate in the genesis of thirst.  (+info)

(2/442) Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects.

BACKGROUND: Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal. RESULTS: Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch).  (+info)

(3/442) A rapid feedback signal is not always necessary for termination of a drinking bout.

When a pig is deprived of drinking water, a deficit of body water develops that is corrected when the pig drinks to satiation. If food is available during the deprivation, the stimulus to drinking is plasma hyperosmolality. Because of the delay in correction of plasma hyperosmolality as ingested water is slowly absorbed, it has been thought that a rapid inhibitory signal from the digestive tract is necessary to prevent overdrinking. This concept was tested by measuring changes in plasma osmolality before and during drinking after such deprivation and also after infusion of hypertonic saline. As drinking began, there was a rapid fall of plasma osmolality to levels insufficient to drive drinking by the time drinking ended. This fall of plasma hyperosmolality to subthreshold levels while the pig is drinking seems to make a rapid inhibitory control signal from the digestive tract unnecessary to terminate the drinking bout under these conditions.  (+info)

(4/442) Neuroanatomical correlates of hunger and satiation in humans using positron emission tomography.

The central role of the hypothalamus in the origination and/or processing of feeding-related stimuli may be modulated by the activity of other functional areas of the brain including the insular cortex (involved in enteroceptive monitoring) and the prefrontal cortex (involved in the inhibition of inappropriate response tendencies). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), a marker of neuronal activity, was measured in 11 healthy, normal-weight men by using positron emission tomography in a state of hunger (after 36-h fast) and a state of satiation (after a liquid meal). Hunger was associated with significantly increased rCBF in the vicinity of the hypothalamus and insular cortex and in additional paralimbic and limbic areas (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and parahippocampal and hippocampal formation), thalamus, caudate, precuneus, putamen, and cerebellum. Satiation was associated with increased rCBF in the vicinity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and inferior parietal lobule. Changes in plasma insulin concentrations in response to the meal were negatively correlated with changes in rCBF in the insular and orbitofrontal cortex. Changes in plasma free fatty acid concentrations in response to the meal were negatively correlated with changes in rCBF in the anterior cingulate and positively correlated with changes in rCBF in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In conclusion, these findings raise the possibility that several regions of the brain participate in the regulation of hunger and satiation and that insulin and free fatty acids may be metabolic modulators of postprandial brain neuronal events. Although exploratory, the present study provides a foundation for investigating the human brain regions and cognitive operations that respond to nutritional stimuli.  (+info)

(5/442) Glucagon-like peptide-1 promotes satiety and reduces food intake in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

Glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone of the enteroinsular axis. Recent experimental evidence in animals and healthy subjects suggests that GLP-1 has a role in controlling appetite and energy intake in humans. We have therefore examined in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study in 12 patients with diabetes type 2 the effect of intravenously infused GLP-1 on appetite sensations and energy intake. On 2 days, either saline or GLP-1 (1.5 pmol. kg-1. min-1) was given throughout the experiment. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite sensations; furthermore, food and fluid intake of a test meal were recorded, and blood was sampled for analysis of plasma glucose and hormone levels. GLP-1 infusion enhanced satiety and fullness compared with placebo (P = 0.028 for fullness and P = 0.026 for hunger feelings). Energy intake was reduced by 27% by GLP-1 (P = 0.034) compared with saline. The results demonstrate a marked effect of GLP-1 on appetite by showing enhanced satiety and reduced energy intake in patients with diabetes type 2.  (+info)

(6/442) Central leptin modulates behavioral and neural responsivity to CCK.

The mechanisms through which leptin, the protein product of the ob gene, affects food intake remain to be determined. To assess whether the actions of leptin depend on modulation of within-meal satiety signals, we measured the effect of third ventricular leptin administration on the satiety actions of CCK. Leptin (10 micrograms) administered 1 h before 30-min access to a liquid diet had no effect on intake when administered alone, but doses of 3.5 or 10 micrograms dose dependently increased the suppression of intake produced by 1 nmol/kg CCK. Examination of patterns of c-Fos activation induced by 3.5 micrograms leptin and 1 nmol/kg CCK revealed that the combination produced significant c-Fos activation within the area postrema and the caudal and medial nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) compared with either leptin or CCK treatments alone. The leptin-CCK combination also resulted in increased c-Fos activation within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus above that produced by leptin alone. These data suggest that the actions of leptin in food intake are mediated through its ability to modulate responsivity to within-meal satiety signals.  (+info)

(7/442) Hyperglycemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects.

OBJECTIVE: The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, postprandial hunger, and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 years) underwent concurrent measurements of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger, and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycemia (approximately 4 mmol/l) and twice during hyperglycemia (approximately 15 mmol/l). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labeled solid meal. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was slower (P < 0.0001) during hyperglycemia when compared with euglycemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. During hyperglycemia, erythromycin reduced the lag phase (77.8 +/- 12.6 vs. 20.3 +/- 7.3 min; P < 0.05) but had no effect on the postlag emptying rate (0.32 +/- 0.077% per min vs. 0.24% per min). Hunger decreased (P < 0.001) and fullness increased (P < 0.001) after the meal. Postprandial hunger was less during hyperglycemia after saline infusion (P < 0.05) but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin during both hyperglycemia and euglycemia (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: At a blood glucose concentration of approximately 15 mmol/l, 1) gastric emptying of a solid meal is slower, when compared with euglycemia, even after administration of erythromycin; 2) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated; and 3) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced.  (+info)

(8/442) The role of apolipoprotein A-IV in food intake regulation.

Apolipoprotein (apo) A-IV is a glycoprotein synthesized by the human intestine. In rodents, both the small intestine and the liver secrete apo A-IV; the small intestine, however, is by far the major organ responsible for the circulating apo A-IV. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is markedly stimulated by fat absorption and appears not to be mediated by the uptake or reesterification of fatty acids to form triglycerides. Rather, it is the formation of chylomicrons that acts as a signal for the induction of intestinal apo A-IV synthesis. Intestinal apo A-IV synthesis is also enhanced by a factor from the ileum and that factor is probably peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY). The inhibition of food intake by apo A-IV is probably mediated centrally. The stimulation of intestinal synthesis and secretion of apo A-IV by lipid absorption are rapid; thus, apo A-IV likely plays a role in the short-term regulation of food intake. Other evidence suggests that apo A-IV may also be involved in the long-term regulation of food intake and body weight. Chronic ingestion of a high fat diet blunts the intestinal apo A-IV response to lipid feeding and may explain why the chronic ingestion of a high fat diet predisposes both animals and humans to obesity.  (+info)



food reward


  • The relationship between food reward and satiation revisited. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Neural integration of satiation and food reward: role of GLP-1 and orexin pathways. (omicsonline.org)
  • This review describes research on neural pathways that appear to be involved in both, integrating gastrointestinal satiation signaling with food reward. (omicsonline.org)