Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Hospitals, Satellite: Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.

*  Patent US20030022625 - Hybrid satellite communications system - Google Patents
The hybrid satellite communications system includes a satellite system and a terrestrial communications system. The satellite ... satellite cellular communications via MSS satellites, and radio communications via terrestrial cellular systems. ... Moreover, the present invention is capable of using the present communications infrastructures dedicated to the satellite ... satellite in a frequency band between 12.2 GHz and 12.9 GHz, while the second set of signals are relayed by a Mobile Satellite ...
*  Sino Satellite Communications - Wikipedia
It provided satellite communications through a pair of communications satellites in geostationary orbit. Their two satellites ... Sino Satellite Communications became a subsidiary of China Satellite Communications, with all the satellites were under the ... China Satellite Communications. 2 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2017. "中星6A" (in Chinese). China Satellite Communications. 2 ... "China Direct Broadcast Satellite Co., Ltd.") was formed with another state-owned company China Satellite Communications, which ...
*  China Satellite Communications - Wikipedia
APT Satellite Holdings (51.77%) China Satellite Communications (Hong Kong) (100%) Sino Satellite Communications former China ... However, it also acquired Sino Satellite Communications from CASC as a subsidiary. In 2017, China Satellite Communications was ... the company was known as China Satellite Communications Corporation. China Satellite Communications Corporation was formed ... APT Satellite Holdings, a listed company that was jointly-controlled by China Satellite Communications and China Great Wall ...
*  Transponder (satellite communications) - Wikipedia
A communications satellite's transponder is the series of interconnected units that form a communications channel between the ... It is mainly used in satellite communication to transfer the received signals. A transponder is typically composed of: an input ... Most communication satellites are radio relay stations in orbit and carry dozens of transponders, each with a bandwidth of tens ... Satellite Communications (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw Hill. p. 587. ISBN 0-07-138285-2. Space Network Users Guide. "Commercial ...
*  Satellite Communications Systems Multimedia - Bitpipe
This is also known as Satellites Systems, Satellite Systems. Free detailed reports on Satellite Communications Systems are also ... Satellite Communications Systems White Papers , Satellite Communications Systems Multimedia , Satellite Communications Systems ... TOPICS: Communications Hardware , Communications Networks , Communications Software , Communications Systems , Video Cameras , ... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS DEFINITION (continued): System (GPS).Miniaturized satellites are often placed in low earth ...
*  Satellite Communications for the Nonspecialist | (2004) | Chartrand | Publications | Spie
Part 6: Satellite Communications Systems / 331. 21. Satellite Communications Providers and Competitors / 333. 21.1 Satellite ... Satellite Operations: Housekeeping and Communications / 226. 14.1 Satellite operations / 226. 14.1.1 Tracking / 226. 14.1.2 ... New Skies Satellite / 344. PanAmSat / 345. SES / 345. 21.5 Using communications via satellite / 345 ... 22.3 Satellite industry trends / 357. 22.4 The future of communications via satellite / 358. Appendices ...
*  Defense Satellite Communications System - Wikipedia
Communication Satellites 1958-1988. El Segundo: Aerospace Corp. p. 285. Martin, Donald H. (2000). Communication Satellites. ... The Defense Satellite Communications System (DSCS) provides the United States with military communications to support globally ... Since the first launch, DSCS has been the "workhorse" of military satellite communications. All DSCS III satellites have ... and renamed to Initial Defense Satellite Communication System (IDSCS). A total of 34 IDSCS satellites were built, with 8 lost ...
*  Russian Satellite Communications Company - Wikipedia
... or Russian Satellite Communications Company is the main state operator of communications satellites. It is the Russian operator ... The RSCC, an arm of the Ministry of Communications and Mass Media, is the leading Russian satellite communications operator. ... Federal State Unitary Enterprise «Satellite Communications» (Russian: ФГУП «Космическая связь») ... As the national satellite operator RSCC meets the important state tasks on providing mobile presidential and governmental ...
*  Al Yah Satellite Communications - Wikipedia
Al Yah Satellite Communications, AlYahsat is a satellite communications company wholly owned subsidiary of Mubadala Development ... "Al Yah Satellite Communications Company (Yahsat)". Mubadala Development Company PJSC. Retrieved 26 July 2013. "Arianespace to ... In August 2008, Yahsat signed a 15-year lease agreement with the UAE Armed Forces to provide secure satellite communications in ... The first satellite was launched from the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana on 22 April 2011. A second satellite (Al ...
*  Arab Satellite Communications Organization - Wikipedia
The Arab Satellite Communications Organisation (often abbreviated as Arabsat) is a communications satellite operator in the ... The Arabsat satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched from 1985 through 2011. Some of the ... The foundation of Arab Satellite Communications Organisation (Arabsat) dates from the late 1960s. In 1967, information ... It is a satellite with three-axis stabilized Spacebus 100 spacecraft with two deployable solar array wings, making it almost 68 ...
*  Air Force Satellite Communications - Wikipedia
AFSATCOM operations used leased transponders off United States Navy Fleet Satellite Communications (FLTSATCOM) satellites for ... The United States military's Air Force Satellite Communications (AFSATCOM) is a network of ground and space systems to allow ... Minimum Essential Emergency Communications Network (MEECN) Survivable Low Frequency Communications System (SLFCS) Primary ... rapid dissemination of communications to a worldwide audience. AFSATCOM's creation was during the height of the Cold War to ...
*  Transformational Satellite Communications System - Wikipedia
The Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) aimed to provide the Department of Defense (DoD) with high data ... The Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT) program was a United States Department of Defense (DOD) program ... The TSAT program was planned as a five satellite constellation (a sixth satellite was planned as a spare to ensure mission ... rate Military Satellite Communications (MILSATCOM) and Internet-like services as defined in the Transformational Communications ...
*  Fleet Satellite Communications System - Wikipedia
FLTSATCOM (also FLTSAT) was a satellite communication system of the U.S. Navy which was used for UHF radio communications ... The satellites were manufactured by TRW. The solar arrays of the satellites had a span of over 13.2 m. A special characteristic ... In the late 1990s, FLTSATCOM satellites were gradually replaced by the UFO satellites. FLTSAT flights 7 and 8 continue to ... The first seven satellites had a launch mass of 1884 kg and the remaining two were 2310 kg, with the additional mass due to the ...
*  Patent US20050260947 - Satellite communications systems and methods using radiotelephone location ... - Google Patents
... communications system includes a selector that is configured to select a subset of a plurality of spatially diverse satellite ... The respective spatially diverse satellite signals may include respective signals corresponding to respective antenna elements ... detect a return-link transmission from the radioterminal responsive to the selected subset of the spatially diverse satellite ... of a satellite. The selector and the signal processor may be ground based. ...,+leroy
*  Military Satellite Communications Systems Wing - Wikipedia
... and WGS satellites currently on-orbit. Ultimately, CCS-C will control over 26 military communications satellites across four ... The Military Satellite Communications Systems Wing (MCSW) is a United States Air Force organization headquartered at Los ... MCSW has five groups and one squadron which deliver three primary Satellite Communications (SATCOM) product lines: The ... The group provides operations and sustainment support to the on-orbit Milstar Communications satellite constellation. In ...
*  Australian Defence Satellite Communications Station - Wikipedia
... a narrow-band networked satellite constellation for Ultra-High-Frequency satellite communications enabling secure all-weather ... Indian and Pakistani regional satellites and international communications satellites (INTELSATs and COMSATs), throughout the ... Interception of satellite communications Ing Manuel Cereijo, 29 May 2006 The Cuban American National Federation archived ... The station has four satellite tracking dishes which intercept communications from Russian, Chinese, Japanese, ...
*  Patent US7831202 - Satellite communications systems and methods using substantially co-located ... - Google Patents
The auxiliary satellite is spaced apart from the primary satellite, and configured to receive the second portion of the ... a primary satellite, and an auxiliary satellite. The feeder link antennas are substantially co-located relative to one another ... The primary satellite is configured to receive information over a plurality of return service links from radioterminals, to ... information from the primary satellite via the at least one inter-satellite link, and to communicate the second portion of the ...
*  X Band Satellite Communication - Wikipedia
Satellite communications Military communications Artificial satellite "ITU Radio Regulations 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 18 June ... Like other Satellite Communications X band satellite communication systems comprise the following segments Satellite space ... X band or SHF Satellite Communication is widely used by military forces for beyond line of sight communications. X band is used ... Syracuse III (système de radiocommunications utilisant un satellite) is the military satellite communication system of the ...
*  25S Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer - Wikipedia
The Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer course is divided into three sections: Common Core is a 15-week basic ... Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer or 25 Sierra is a Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) in the United ... Soldiers will also will be taught theory of satellite communications at both STEP (Strategic Tactical Entry Point) and Tactical ... The Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainers have the responsibility of maintaining, processing and ...
*  Regional African Satellite Communication Organization - Wikipedia
"Arianespace to launch pan-African satellite Rascom 1". Satellite Today. 27 October 2008. "Transfer of the pan African satellite ... The Regional African Satellite Communication Organization (RASCOM) will provide telecommunication services, direct TV broadcast ... "RASCOM-QAF1 satellite injected in final geostationary orbit". Thales Alenia Space. "Newly launched satellite beset by major ... RASCOM-QAF1 is the first satellite entirely dedicated to the African continent. Thales Alenia Space built the satellite in the ...
*  Spacenet ION Makes Rapid Deploy Satellite Communications Easier With Self-Contained Transportable VSAT Solution - Redorbit
Spacenet ION Makes Rapid Deploy Satellite Communications Easier With Self-Contained Transportable VSAT Solution. by Sam Savage ... The self-contained and ruggedized field kit enables rapid deployment of complete converged communications via satellite (VSAT) ... response mobile units in need of communications for shorter durations and employs a push button auto-acquire satellite antenna ... offers peace of mind by being provided by one of the most established companies in mission critical satellite communications." ...
*  Analysis of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 satellite communications - Wikipedia
A few deductions can also be made from the satellite communications. The first deduction that can be made from the satellite ... Normal communications from Flight 370 were last made at 1:07 MYT and the datalink between the aircraft and satellite ... Aeronautical satellite communication (SATCOM) systems are used to transmit messages from the aircraft cockpit as well as ... The analysis of communications between Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 and Inmarsat's satellite telecommunication network provide ...
*  Communications satellite - Wikipedia
"Satellites - Communication Satellites". Retrieved 2016-02-10. "Military Satellite Communications ... Satellite Glossary] SatMagazine SatNews The future of communication satellite business Communications satellites short history ... A direct broadcast satellite is a communications satellite that transmits to small DBS satellite dishes (usually 18 to 24 ... Commercialization of space List of communication satellite companies List of communications satellite firsts NewSpace ...
*  Communications Satellite Is Launched Into Orbit - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel
A communications satellite that will serve PBS, Fox, cable TV companies and The Associated Press was hoisted into orbit ... CAPE CANAVERAL - A communications satellite that will serve PBS, Fox, cable TV companies and The Associated Press was hoisted ... The satellite was safely in orbit a half-hour later. The GE Americom satellite, the third in a series of four, is expected to ...
*  Proton M rocket launches Intelsat communication satellite - RT In motion
Proton M rocket launches Intelsat communication satellite COURTESY: RT's RUPTLY video agency, NO RE-UPLOAD, NO REUSE - FOR ... An upgraded Proton-M carrier rocket launched an Intelsat 31/DLA-2 communications satellite from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in ... The Intelsat satellite will provide direct-to-home television broadcasts to Central America, South America and the Caribbean. ...

Landsat 4Satellite DNA: Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres, and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin.History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Satellite (biology): A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper or master virus for its replication. When a satellite encodes the coat protein in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated it is referred to as a satellite virus.Satellite glial cellMaster of Advanced Studies in Interaction Design (MAIND), SUPSIRobotic spacecraft: 250px|right|thumb|An artist's interpretation of the [[MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury]]Glossary of communication disorders: This is a glossary of medical terms related to communications disorders such as blindness and deafness.Key word signing: Key word signing is a technique of Simultaneous Communication whereby the communication partner of the user will use both natural speech and also produce signs for the words that carry the most important information.Windsor, J.Dyssemia: Dyssemia is a difficulty with receptive and/or expressive nonverbal communication. The word comes from the Greek roots dys (difficulty) and semia (signal).Foreign branding: Foreign branding is an advertising and marketing term describing the implied cachet or superiority of products and services with foreign or foreign-sounding names.Regeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.

(1/180) Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate.

This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy.  (+info)

(2/180) Distributing digital imaging and communications in medicine data and optimizing access over satellite networks.

To improve radiology access to full uncompressed Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets, we evaluated satellite access to a DICOM server. Radiologists' home computers were connected by satellite to a Medweb DICOM server (Medweb, San Francisco, CA). A 10.2-kb data set containing a 19-image head computed tomography (CT) scan was transferred using DirecPC (Hughes Electronics Corp, Arlington, VA) at three different times of the day; 6 AM, 3 PM, and 8 PM. The average transfer time for all 19 images from the DICOM server was 4 minutes and 17 seconds (257 seconds). The slowest transfer rate of 670 seconds (121 kbps) was obtained at 8 PM. The best transfer rate of 2 minutes, 54 seconds (467 kbps) was obtained at 6 AM. The full 16-bit DICOM images were viewed with bone, brain, and soft tissue windows. The Medweb plug-in viewer loaded the first image within 30 seconds of selecting the case for satellite transfer. In conclusion, satellite internet transfer of radiology studies is suitable for timely review of full DICOM data sets and can expand the range of teleradiology consultation.  (+info)

(3/180) Application of the advanced communications technology satellite to teleradiology and real-time compressed ultrasound video telemedicine.

The authors have investigated the application of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. In this experiment, bidirectional 128, 256, and 384 kbps satellite links were established between the ACTS/AMT, the ACTS in geosynchronous orbit, and the downlink terrestrial terminal at JPL. A terrestrial Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) link was established from JPL to the University of Washington Department of Radiology to complete the bidirectional connection. Ultrasound video imagery was compressed in real-time using video codecs adhering to the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation H.261. A 16 kbps in-band audio channel was used throughout. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three transmission bandwidths (128, 256, and 384 kbps). The central question involved determination of the bandwidth requirements to provide sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for the remote visualization of fine- and low-contrast objects. The 384 kbps bandwidth resulted in only slight tiling artifact and fuzziness owing to the quantizer step size; however, these motion artifacts were rapidly resolved in time at this bandwidth. These experiments have demonstrated that real-time compressed ultrasound video imagery can be transmitted over multiple ISDN line bandwidth links with sufficient temporal, contrast, and spatial resolution for clinical diagnosis of multiple disease and pathology states to provide subspecialty consultation and educational at a distance.  (+info)

(4/180) Predicting malaria infection in Gambian children from satellite data and bed net use surveys: the importance of spatial correlation in the interpretation of results.

In line with the renewed World Health Organization Global Malaria Control Strategy, we have advocated the use of satellite imagery by control services to provide environmental information for malaria stratification, monitoring, and early warning. To achieve this operationally, appropriate methodologies must be developed for integrating environmental and epidemiologic data into models that can be used by decision-makers for improved resource allocation. Using methodologies developed for the Famine Early Warning Systems and spatial statistics, we show a significant association between age related malaria infection in Gambian children and the amount of seasonal environmental greenness as measured using the normalized difference vegetation index derived from satellite data. The resulting model is used to predict changes in malaria prevalence rates in children resulting from different bed net control scenarios.  (+info)

(5/180) Estimates of gene flow among Anopheles maculatus populations in Thailand using microsatellite analysis.

We report an analysis of seven microsatellite loci in eight populations of Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes dispersed over a distance of approximately 1,100 km in Thailand. A wide spectrum of genetic variability, with mean heterozygosities ranging from 0.738 to 0.847 were found. Based on microsatellite analysis, geographic populations of An. maculatus can be grouped into two clusters; one includes upper and lower northern populations that extend from approximately 11 degrees to 16 degrees north latitude, and the other (southern populations) extends south from about 7 degrees to 6 degrees north latitude. Wright's F(ST) and Slatkins's R(ST) for all seven microsatellite loci indicated low estimates of differentiation among all populations (mean values of F(ST) and R(ST) = 0.0406 and 0.051, respectively, corresponding to the Nm values of 5.91 and 4.65, respectively), and suggested that gene flow occurs among populations. However, there is some restriction of gene flow between the northern and southern populations. Geographic barriers could be limiting factors for greater gene flow between populations.  (+info)

(6/180) Spatial and temporal patterns of imported malaria cases and local transmission in Trinidad.

Over a 30-year period (1968-1997) 213 malaria cases in Trinidad were investigated by the Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Health. Using a global positional system and a geographic information system, we mapped the precise location of all reported malaria cases, and associated them with breeding habitats of anopheline vectors. The majority of the cases (138, 63%) were individual imported cases around the big port cities. Plasmodium falciparum was the most common parasite, and Africa the most common source of imported cases. Two clusters of cases occurred: an introduced P. vivax outbreak associated with Anopheles aquasalis in 1990-1991, and an autochtonous focus of P. malariae associated with An. bellator and An. homunculus in 1994-1995. Application of a space-time statistic showed a significant clustering of P. malariae cases, and, to a lesser extent of P. vivax cases, but not of P. falciparum cases. Based on potential for occurrence of local transmission, we are developing risk maps to determine surveillance priorities, outbreak potential, and necessary degree and spatial range of control activities following case detections.  (+info)

(7/180) Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement.

It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked.  (+info)

(8/180) Farming from a new perspective: remote sensing comes down to earth.

Farmers strive to increase the yield of their fields by adding nutrients and water to the land, and using pesticides to control insects and disease. In addition to bountiful harvests, the results of their endeavors may include elevated amounts of fertilizers in surface waters and aquifers and potential risk to themselves and their neighbors from exposure to pesticides. Precision agriculture is the use of modern information technologies such as geographic information systems, the global positioning system, and remote sensing from the air to reduce the environmental effects of these chemicals while enhancing the productivity of farming. By combining crop yield maps with soil survey maps and remote sensing output, farmers can identify areas that need more or less fertilizer, water, or pesticide.  (+info)

  • 2000
  • China Satellite Communications Corporation was formed circa 2000 by the merger of several satellite companies of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (zh)/ In 2009, China Satellite Communications Corporation, a state-owned enterprise that was supervised by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council directly, was dismantled and distributed to China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation and China Telecommunications Corporation respectively. (
  • aboard
  • However, some modern satellites use on-board processing, where the signal is demodulated, decoded, re-encoded and modulated aboard the satellite. (
  • Two satellites were launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in 1985 during the STS-51-J flight. (
  • A commercial satellite designed to broadcast hundreds of television channels across Europe and better link European surveillance satellites and the International Space Station to scientists on the ground took off Friday from Kazakhstan aboard a Proton rocket. (
  • Global Eagle Entertainment is aiming to provide airline passengers' travelling across North America with a connected in-flight experience far more like the one passengers enjoy on the ground, tripling the amount of High Throughput Satellite (HTS) capacity secured with SES Networks aboard the SES 15 satellite. (
  • 1981
  • Founded in 1981, Spacenet Inc. is one of the world's leading providers of high-performance satellite and hybrid terrestrial networking solutions for US based enterprise, government and small office/small business customers. (
  • Cape Canaveral
  • Belonging to AT&T as part of a multi-national agreement between AT&T, Bell Telephone Laboratories, NASA, the British General Post Office, and the French National PTT (Post Office) to develop satellite communications, it was launched by NASA from Cape Canaveral on July 10, 1962, in the first privately sponsored space launch. (
  • fleet
  • Flight 7 was launched out of sequence after a launch failure of a Delta mission carrying the GOES-G weather satellite grounded the entire US launch fleet weeks prior to the scheduled launch of F-6. (
  • User terminals are adapted to the requirements of the environment in which the operate The Skynet fleet of satellites are owned and operated by Airbus Defence & Space who hold a long term concession for beyond line of sight communications with the UK MOD. (
  • The anchor customer for the data relay network is the European Commission, which owns a fleet of Earth observation satellites with instruments to take regular pictures of the planet, measure atmospheric chemistry and ocean parameters, and track the retreat of polar ice sheets. (
  • plurality
  • The primary satellite is configured to receive information over a plurality of return service. (
  • The primary satellite is configured to receive information over a plurality of return service links from radioterminals, to communicate a first portion of the information over at least one return feeder link directly to a first one of the feeder link antennas, and to communicate a second portion of the information over at least one inter-satellite link. (
  • provide
  • In August 2008, Yahsat signed a 15-year lease agreement with the UAE Armed Forces to provide secure satellite communications in the UAE as Yahsat's first government customer. (
  • FLTSAT flights 7 and 8 continue to provide UHF communications. (
  • This is in contrast to satellites in commercial bands which typically provide fixed beams for areas of high density of users. (
  • The Regional African Satellite Communication Organization (RASCOM) will provide telecommunication services, direct TV broadcast services and Internet access in rural areas of Africa. (
  • On 2008-09-09 Thales Alenia Space announced it would supply RASCOMSTAR-QAF with a new satellite which will provide continuity of service for RASCOMSTAR-QAF customers. (
  • There had been no communication satellites launched and only some research had been conducted to provide moving for moving forward. (
  • Satellite Today 07-23- SpeakerBus has struck a deal with Thuraya to provide netted communications solutions to its customer base through a service branded Thuraya NettedComms, SpeakerBus announced July 22. (
  • terminals
  • As part of this contract, Yahsat will supply the ground terminals and gateway infrastructure for satellite network services. (
  • The user equipment or terminals for the DoD protected communication systems in the currently operational Milstar Command Post Terminal (CPT) and $3.2B Family of Advanced Beyond-Line-of-Sight Terminals (FAB-T) development program. (
  • Wideband communication terminals include the Ground Multi-band Terminal (GMT), the High Data Rate - Radio Frequency (HDR-RF) ground terminal program which is an evolutionary upgrade to the GMT, and the FAB-T Increment 2. (
  • systems
  • Moreover, the present invention is capable of using the present communications infrastructures dedicated to the satellite transmission of television via DBS satellites, satellite cellular communications via MSS satellites, and radio communications via terrestrial cellular systems. (
  • The program was managed by the Defense Communications Agency (DCA), now the Defense Information Systems Agency. (
  • Incorporated in January 2008 the company had an aim of developing, operating and using multi-purpose (Government and commercial) communications satellite systems for the Middle East, Africa, Europe and South-West Asia regions. (
  • The United States military's Air Force Satellite Communications (AFSATCOM) is a network of ground and space systems to allow rapid dissemination of communications to a worldwide audience. (
  • The new proposal calls for five satellites and ground stations providing message and data routing for US Army units, including vehicles in the new Future Combat Systems, with the launch of the first satellite projected for 2019. (
  • The Military Satellite Communications Systems Wing (MCSW) is a United States Air Force organization headquartered at Los Angeles Air Force Base, California. (
  • Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer or 25 Sierra is a Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) in the United States Army. (
  • The Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainers have the responsibility of maintaining, processing and troubleshooting satellite systems in both the Contiguous United States and overseas. (
  • The Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer course is approximately 28 weeks long (not including waiting time between classes), and soldiers in training will be classed into one of several phases during training. (
  • The Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer at Fort Gordon is Advanced Individual Training (AIT) and is administered by the 15th Regimental Signal Brigade, 551st Signal Battalion. (
  • The Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainer course is divided into three sections: Common Core is a 15-week basic electronic course central to satellite communication. (
  • JNN (Joint Network Node) is a 2-week course after graduating from Tactical that teaches qualified Satellite Communications Systems Operator/Maintainers the systems of the JNN and STT equipment. (
  • The United States Congress made it so that all companies registered by the FCC had nondiscriminatory access to the satellite systems. (
  • The President was to observe every aspect of the development and operation of the satellite systems. (
  • This board of directors is to control the public satellite systems. (
  • Europe's Sentinel 1 and Sentinel 2 satellites, fitted with radar and optical imaging systems, will send their imagery to users via the EDRS network. (
  • Thuraya NettedComms integrates different communication technologies into a single closed user group, bringing ThurayaIP, Thuraya handhelds, Public Switch Telephone Networks, GSM and radio systems together to serve government, military, homeland security, maritime, NGO, emergency services and disaster management sectors. (
  • General Atomics Aeronautical Systems (GA-ASI) successfully demonstrated its latest Automatic Takeoff and Landing Capability (ATLC) using a satellite communications data link for its MQ-9B SkyGuardian/SeaGuardian Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). (
  • This advanced satellite is an important part of NASA's critical communications relay network and will improve capacity and enhance bandwidth at the lowest cost,' said Craig Cooning, vice president and general manager of Boeing Space & Intelligence Systems. (
  • Surveillance
  • Once on-site, the package provides a full range of high performance communications services, including direct connection for up to 6 lines to the public switched telephone network (PSTN), broadband Internet access at speeds up to 3Mbps, and support for two-way video conferencing or surveillance -- all through a commercial grade satellite network. (
  • antennas
  • These technologies include but are not limited to: single and multi-access laser communications (to include wide field-of-view technology), Internet protocol based packet switching, bulk and packet encryption/decryption, battle command-on-the-move antennas, dynamic bandwidth and resource allocation techniques, and protected bandwidth efficient modulation. (
  • The auxiliary satellite is spaced apart from the primary satellite, and configured to receive the second portion of the information from the primary satellite via the at least one inter-satellite link, and to communicate the second portion of the information across at least one return feeder link to a second one of the feeder link antennas. (
  • radio
  • As the national satellite operator RSCC meets the important state tasks on providing mobile presidential and governmental communications, federal TV & Radio signal transmission over the territory of Russia and the most countries of the world. (
  • TSAT planned radio frequency (RF) and laser communications links to meet defense and intelligence community requirements for high data rate, protected communications. (
  • This characteristic led to a subculture of radio pirates in Brazil using modified ham radio equipment to use the satellites without authorization. (
  • Communications satellites use a wide range of radio and microwave frequencies. (
  • Launched by NASA, Echo 1 was a 30-metre (100 ft) aluminized PET film balloon that served as a passive reflector for radio communications. (
  • Since the satellite is so far above Earth, the radio signal is attenuated due to free-space path loss, so the signal received on Earth is very, very weak. (
  • telecommunications
  • However, in 2009 China Satellite Communications was assigned as a subsidiary of CASC by the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission of the State Council (excluding some assets that were assigned to China Telecommunications Corporation). (
  • Arabsat was created to deliver satellite-based, public and private telecommunications services to the Arab States, in accordance with International Standards. (
  • Philippine Communications Satellite Corporation (PHILCOMSAT) is a telecommunications company based in Makati, Metro Manila, Philippines. (
  • If we look at crises such as hurricanes, earthquakes, floods and fires that lead to disrupted telecommunications services we can see the edge of Thuraya NettedComms which has the ability to facilitate communications especially when what is needed instantaneously is a malleable solution that can integrate disparate communication technologies," Thuraya CCO Sven Rohte said in a statement. (
  • Spacebus
  • Sinosat-1 was built by Aérospatiale using a Spacebus 3000 satellite bus. (
  • citation needed] A contract for two Arabsat second-generation satellites was signed with Aérospatiale in April 1993, to build several additional comsats based on the Spacebus 3000A platform. (
  • payload
  • The communications payload included two 20-watt X band channels. (
  • Arabsat let a contract on 22 October 2003 for the manufacture and launch of the fourth generation of Arabsat satellites, based on the Astrium's Eurostar E2000+ platform and Alcatel Space payload. (
  • The first seven satellites had a launch mass of 1884 kg and the remaining two were 2310 kg, with the additional mass due to the EHF payload module. (
  • data
  • The achievable data rates will approach those achievable with Ku band, the exact values will depend on other link parameters (satellite power, link margin, modulation scheme, etc. (
  • During flight, the aircraft maintains a datalink with a satellite communication network for data and telephone calls. (
  • Three minutes after the aircraft left the range of radar coverage-at 2:25-the aircraft's satellite data unit (SDU) transmitted a log-on message, which investigators believe occurred as the SDU started after a power interruption. (
  • More than just a piece of hardware, Spacenet's ION provides a complete solution of field deployable equipment and high performance voice, video, and data communication services. (
  • The idea behind a communications satellite is simple: Send data up into space and beam it back down to another spot on the globe. (
  • transmit
  • This allows each station to transmit directly to the satellite, rather than paying for a whole transponder or using landlines to send it to an Earth station for multiplexing with other stations. (
  • rocket
  • It was launched by a Long March 3B carrier rocket from the Xichang Satellite Launch Centre at 09:20 GMT on 18 July 1998. (
  • frequencies
  • X band is below those frequencies which are severely affected by Rain Fade, therefore X band provides extremely good rain resilience unlike higher frequencies such as Ku or Ka which are also used for satellite communication. (
  • International
  • The station has four satellite tracking dishes which intercept communications from Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Indian and Pakistani regional satellites and international communications satellites (INTELSATs and COMSATs), throughout the Indian Ocean and South-East Asian regions. (
  • This linked the country to a worldwide communications satellite network.In June 21, 1969, the company was given a franchise through Republic Act No. 5514 to operate ground stations and other facilities for international satellite communications. (
  • TDRS-L is the fifth Boeing-built satellite to join the network that NASA uses in support of vital missions, including the International Space Station, studying Earth's changing climate and looking into deep space with the Hubble Telescope. (
  • provides
  • IBM Lotus Sametime software provides an easy-to-use unified communications and collaboration solution with the policy controls and security features your business requires. (
  • services
  • In August 2009 Yahsat entered into a partnership with European satellite operator SES to create a new company operating under the brand name YahLive offering Direct-to-Home (DTH) television capacity and services to more than two dozen countries in the Middle East, North Africa and South West Asian region. (
  • citation needed] Arabsat-1C the third satellite of the series, was launched by Ariane on 26 February 1992, as a stop-gap measure to maintain network services until the Arabsat second generation spacecraft became available. (
  • Spacenet Inc., one of the world's leading providers of advanced satellite networking services for US based enterprise and government customers, today introduced its new ION(TM) instant VSAT communications solution. (
  • Both ION products integrate with Spacenet's pre-packaged Connexstar and custom satellite services, and are available with full-time or part-time service plans. (
  • Boeing has been providing vital space communication services to NASA for more than four decades. (
  • deployment
  • The self-contained and ruggedized field kit enables rapid deployment of complete converged communications via satellite (VSAT) for emergency response teams and remote industrial operations such as oil rigs, mines, or construction sites. (
  • interference
  • This allows extremely high link availability, in some cases as high as 99.9% X band satellites typically have at least 4° separation between satellites, therefore there is less chance of adjacent satellite interference (ASI) and higher power density carriers allowed. (
  • Therefore
  • Therefore, X band satellites are able to support users in remote areas with little or no infrastructure and in mid ocean away from land and shipping lanes. (
  • The Colombian government sees satellite as a potentially cheaper (and therefore attractive) alternative to deploying hundreds of miles of fiber. (
  • 1967
  • In 1967, information ministers of Arab states developed a series of principles in relation to a satellite network, to create an integration of social and cultural activities among the Arab League countries. (
  • consortium
  • In July 2008, Yahsat approved a consortium of EADS Astrium and Thales Alenia to construct Yahsat's own satellites, manufacturing took 36 months to be completed in Europe. (
  • government organizations
  • Spacenet currently offers similar transportable communications solutions to a number of government organizations including a law enforcement agency, hospital association, department of transportation and port authority. (
  • Homeland Security
  • Seeking to avoid the communication breakdowns that occurred as a result of the September 11th terrorist attacks and the Hurricane Katrina disaster, the Department of Homeland Security is developing an emergency network that would let officials email one another even in the absence of a cellular infrastructure. (
  • This latter option is particularly attractive because some sats could offer transfer rates in excess of 100Mbps, and in fact a trial program is scheduled for this summer that will employ modified BlackBerries and Treos to send secure, satellite-based email between Homeland Security officials and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (