Satellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.DNA, Satellite: Highly repetitive DNA sequences found in HETEROCHROMATIN, mainly near centromeres. They are composed of simple sequences (very short) (see MINISATELLITE REPEATS) repeated in tandem many times to form large blocks of sequence. Additionally, following the accumulation of mutations, these blocks of repeats have been repeated in tandem themselves. The degree of repetition is on the order of 1000 to 10 million at each locus. Loci are few, usually one or two per chromosome. They were called satellites since in density gradients, they often sediment as distinct, satellite bands separate from the bulk of genomic DNA owing to a distinct BASE COMPOSITION.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)Satellite Viruses: Defective viruses which can multiply only by association with a helper virus which complements the defective gene. Satellite viruses may be associated with certain plant viruses, animal viruses, or bacteriophages. They differ from satellite RNA; (RNA, SATELLITE) in that satellite viruses encode their own coat protein.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Satellite Imagery: Composition of images of EARTH or other planets from data collected during SPACE FLIGHT by remote sensing instruments onboard SPACECRAFT. The satellite sensor systems measure and record absorbed, emitted, or reflected energy across the spectra, as well as global position and time.Hospitals, Satellite: Those hospitals which are extensions of a main hospital and are wholly or partly administered by that hospital.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Cucumber Mosaic Virus Satellite: A satellite RNA (not a satellite virus) which has several types. Different cucumoviruses can act as helper viruses for different types.Nonverbal Communication: Transmission of emotions, ideas, and attitudes between individuals in ways other than the spoken language.Communication Barriers: Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.
Landsat 4Satellite DNA: Satellite DNA consists of very large arrays of tandemly repeating, non-coding DNA. Satellite DNA is the main component of functional centromeres, and form the main structural constituent of heterochromatin.History of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.Satellite (biology): A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper or master virus for its replication. When a satellite encodes the coat protein in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated it is referred to as a satellite virus.Satellite glial cellMaster of Advanced Studies in Interaction Design (MAIND), SUPSIRobotic spacecraft: 250px|right|thumb|An artist's interpretation of the [[MESSENGER spacecraft at Mercury]]Glossary of communication disorders: This is a glossary of medical terms related to communications disorders such as blindness and deafness.Key word signing: Key word signing is a technique of Simultaneous Communication whereby the communication partner of the user will use both natural speech and also produce signs for the words that carry the most important information.Windsor, J.Dyssemia: Dyssemia is a difficulty with receptive and/or expressive nonverbal communication. The word comes from the Greek roots dys (difficulty) and semia (signal).Foreign branding: Foreign branding is an advertising and marketing term describing the implied cachet or superiority of products and services with foreign or foreign-sounding names.Regeneration (biology): In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage. Every species is capable of regeneration, from bacteria to humans.
(1/180) Deriving meteorological variables across Africa for the study and control of vector-borne disease: a comparison of remote sensing and spatial interpolation of climate.
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the utility of remote sensing (RS) using meteorological satellites sensors and spatial interpolation (SI) of data from meteorological stations, for the prediction of spatial variation in monthly climate across continental Africa in 1990. Information from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and atmospheric moisture. Cold cloud duration (CCD) data derived from the High Resolution Radiometer (HRR) on-board the European Meteorological Satellite programme's (EUMETSAT) Meteosat satellite series were also used as a RS proxy measurement of rainfall. Temperature, atmospheric moisture and rainfall surfaces were independently derived from SI of measurements from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) member stations of Africa. These meteorological station data were then used to test the accuracy of each methodology, so that the appropriateness of the two techniques for epidemiological research could be compared. SI was a more accurate predictor of temperature, whereas RS provided a better surrogate for rainfall; both were equally accurate at predicting atmospheric moisture. The implications of these results for mapping short and long-term climate change and hence their potential for the study and control of disease vectors are considered. Taking into account logistic and analytical problems, there were no clear conclusions regarding the optimality of either technique, but there was considerable potential for synergy. (+info)
(2/180) Distributing digital imaging and communications in medicine data and optimizing access over satellite networks.
To improve radiology access to full uncompressed Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data sets, we evaluated satellite access to a DICOM server. Radiologists' home computers were connected by satellite to a Medweb DICOM server (Medweb, San Francisco, CA). A 10.2-kb data set containing a 19-image head computed tomography (CT) scan was transferred using DirecPC (Hughes Electronics Corp, Arlington, VA) at three different times of the day; 6 AM, 3 PM, and 8 PM. The average transfer time for all 19 images from the DICOM server was 4 minutes and 17 seconds (257 seconds). The slowest transfer rate of 670 seconds (121 kbps) was obtained at 8 PM. The best transfer rate of 2 minutes, 54 seconds (467 kbps) was obtained at 6 AM. The full 16-bit DICOM images were viewed with bone, brain, and soft tissue windows. The Medweb plug-in viewer loaded the first image within 30 seconds of selecting the case for satellite transfer. In conclusion, satellite internet transfer of radiology studies is suitable for timely review of full DICOM data sets and can expand the range of teleradiology consultation. (+info)
(3/180) Application of the advanced communications technology satellite to teleradiology and real-time compressed ultrasound video telemedicine.
The authors have investigated the application of the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to teleradiology and telemedicine using the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL)-developed ACTS Mobile Terminal (AMT) uplink. In this experiment, bidirectional 128, 256, and 384 kbps satellite links were established between the ACTS/AMT, the ACTS in geosynchronous orbit, and the downlink terrestrial terminal at JPL. A terrestrial Integrated Digital Services Network (ISDN) link was established from JPL to the University of Washington Department of Radiology to complete the bidirectional connection. Ultrasound video imagery was compressed in real-time using video codecs adhering to the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) Recommendation H.261. A 16 kbps in-band audio channel was used throughout. A five-point Likert scale was used to evaluate the quality of the compressed ultrasound imagery at the three transmission bandwidths (128, 256, and 384 kbps). The central question involved determination of the bandwidth requirements to provide sufficient spatial and contrast resolution for the remote visualization of fine- and low-contrast objects. The 384 kbps bandwidth resulted in only slight tiling artifact and fuzziness owing to the quantizer step size; however, these motion artifacts were rapidly resolved in time at this bandwidth. These experiments have demonstrated that real-time compressed ultrasound video imagery can be transmitted over multiple ISDN line bandwidth links with sufficient temporal, contrast, and spatial resolution for clinical diagnosis of multiple disease and pathology states to provide subspecialty consultation and educational at a distance. (+info)
(4/180) Predicting malaria infection in Gambian children from satellite data and bed net use surveys: the importance of spatial correlation in the interpretation of results.
In line with the renewed World Health Organization Global Malaria Control Strategy, we have advocated the use of satellite imagery by control services to provide environmental information for malaria stratification, monitoring, and early warning. To achieve this operationally, appropriate methodologies must be developed for integrating environmental and epidemiologic data into models that can be used by decision-makers for improved resource allocation. Using methodologies developed for the Famine Early Warning Systems and spatial statistics, we show a significant association between age related malaria infection in Gambian children and the amount of seasonal environmental greenness as measured using the normalized difference vegetation index derived from satellite data. The resulting model is used to predict changes in malaria prevalence rates in children resulting from different bed net control scenarios. (+info)
(5/180) Estimates of gene flow among Anopheles maculatus populations in Thailand using microsatellite analysis.
We report an analysis of seven microsatellite loci in eight populations of Anopheles maculatus mosquitoes dispersed over a distance of approximately 1,100 km in Thailand. A wide spectrum of genetic variability, with mean heterozygosities ranging from 0.738 to 0.847 were found. Based on microsatellite analysis, geographic populations of An. maculatus can be grouped into two clusters; one includes upper and lower northern populations that extend from approximately 11 degrees to 16 degrees north latitude, and the other (southern populations) extends south from about 7 degrees to 6 degrees north latitude. Wright's F(ST) and Slatkins's R(ST) for all seven microsatellite loci indicated low estimates of differentiation among all populations (mean values of F(ST) and R(ST) = 0.0406 and 0.051, respectively, corresponding to the Nm values of 5.91 and 4.65, respectively), and suggested that gene flow occurs among populations. However, there is some restriction of gene flow between the northern and southern populations. Geographic barriers could be limiting factors for greater gene flow between populations. (+info)
(6/180) Spatial and temporal patterns of imported malaria cases and local transmission in Trinidad.
Over a 30-year period (1968-1997) 213 malaria cases in Trinidad were investigated by the Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Health. Using a global positional system and a geographic information system, we mapped the precise location of all reported malaria cases, and associated them with breeding habitats of anopheline vectors. The majority of the cases (138, 63%) were individual imported cases around the big port cities. Plasmodium falciparum was the most common parasite, and Africa the most common source of imported cases. Two clusters of cases occurred: an introduced P. vivax outbreak associated with Anopheles aquasalis in 1990-1991, and an autochtonous focus of P. malariae associated with An. bellator and An. homunculus in 1994-1995. Application of a space-time statistic showed a significant clustering of P. malariae cases, and, to a lesser extent of P. vivax cases, but not of P. falciparum cases. Based on potential for occurrence of local transmission, we are developing risk maps to determine surveillance priorities, outbreak potential, and necessary degree and spatial range of control activities following case detections. (+info)
(7/180) Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement.
It has long been known that cholera outbreaks can be initiated when Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes cholera, is present in drinking water in sufficient numbers to constitute an infective dose, if ingested by humans. Outbreaks associated with drinking or bathing in unpurified river or brackish water may directly or indirectly depend on such conditions as water temperature, nutrient concentration, and plankton production that may be favorable for growth and reproduction of the bacterium. Although these environmental parameters have routinely been measured by using water samples collected aboard research ships, the available data sets are sparse and infrequent. Furthermore, shipboard data acquisition is both expensive and time-consuming. Interpolation to regional scales can also be problematic. Although the bacterium, V. cholerae, cannot be sensed directly, remotely sensed data can be used to infer its presence. In the study reported here, satellite data were used to monitor the timing and spread of cholera. Public domain remote sensing data for the Bay of Bengal were compared directly with cholera case data collected in Bangladesh from 1992-1995. The remote sensing data included sea surface temperature and sea surface height. It was discovered that sea surface temperature shows an annual cycle similar to the cholera case data. Sea surface height may be an indicator of incursion of plankton-laden water inland, e.g., tidal rivers, because it was also found to be correlated with cholera outbreaks. The extensive studies accomplished during the past 25 years, confirming the hypothesis that V. cholerae is autochthonous to the aquatic environment and is a commensal of zooplankton, i.e., copepods, when combined with the findings of the satellite data analyses, provide strong evidence that cholera epidemics are climate-linked. (+info)
(8/180) Farming from a new perspective: remote sensing comes down to earth.
Farmers strive to increase the yield of their fields by adding nutrients and water to the land, and using pesticides to control insects and disease. In addition to bountiful harvests, the results of their endeavors may include elevated amounts of fertilizers in surface waters and aquifers and potential risk to themselves and their neighbors from exposure to pesticides. Precision agriculture is the use of modern information technologies such as geographic information systems, the global positioning system, and remote sensing from the air to reduce the environmental effects of these chemicals while enhancing the productivity of farming. By combining crop yield maps with soil survey maps and remote sensing output, farmers can identify areas that need more or less fertilizer, water, or pesticide. (+info)