Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Sarcoma, Ewing: A malignant tumor of the bone which always arises in the medullary tissue, occurring more often in cylindrical bones. The tumor occurs usually before the age of 20, about twice as frequently in males as in females.Sarcoma, Synovial: A malignant neoplasm arising from tenosynovial tissue of the joints and in synovial cells of tendons and bursae. The legs are the most common site, but the tumor can occur in the abdominal wall and other trunk muscles. There are two recognized types: the monophasic (characterized by sheaths of monotonous spindle cells) and the biphasic (characterized by slit-like spaces or clefts within the tumor, lined by cuboidal or tall columnar epithelial cells). These sarcomas occur most commonly in the second and fourth decades of life. (From Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1363)Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Avian Sarcoma Viruses: Group of alpharetroviruses (ALPHARETROVIRUS) producing sarcomata and other tumors in chickens and other fowl and also in pigeons, ducks, and RATS.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Sarcoma 180Sarcoma Viruses, Murine: A group of replication-defective viruses, in the genus GAMMARETROVIRUS, which are capable of transforming cells, but which replicate and produce tumors only in the presence of Murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE).Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Sarcoma, Avian: Connective tissue tumors, affecting primarily fowl, that are usually caused by avian sarcoma viruses.Histiocytic Sarcoma: Malignant neoplasms composed of MACROPHAGES or DENDRITIC CELLS. Most histiocytic sarcomas present as localized tumor masses without a leukemic phase. Though the biological behavior of these neoplasms resemble lymphomas, their cell lineage is histiocytic not lymphoid.Sarcoma, Myeloid: An extramedullary tumor of immature MYELOID CELLS or MYELOBLASTS. Granulocytic sarcoma usually occurs with or follows the onset of ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal: A highly malignant subset of neoplasms arising from the endometrial stroma. Tumors in this group infiltrate the stroma with a wide range of atypia cells and numerous mitoses. They are capable of widespread metastases (NEOPLASM METASTASIS).Sarcoma, Clear Cell: A sarcoma of young, often female, adults of the lower extremities and acral regions, intimately bound to tendons as circumscribed but unencapsulated melanin-bearing tumors of neuroectodermal origin. An ultrastructural finding simulates flattened and curved barrel staves, corresponding to the internal structures of premelanosomes. There is a 45-60% mortality in clear cell sarcoma. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Sarcoma, YoshidaKirsten murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) capable of transforming mouse lymphoid cells and producing erythroid leukemia after superinfection with murine leukemia viruses (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE). It has also been found to transform cultured human fibroblasts, rat liver epithelial cells, and rat adrenocortical cells.Moloney murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective murine sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) isolated from a rhabdomyosarcoma by Moloney in 1966.Sarcoma Viruses, Feline: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS isolated from fibrosarcoma in cats. The viruses are actually recombinant feline leukemia viruses (FeLV) where part of the genome has been replaced by cellular oncogenes. It is unique to individuals and not transmitted naturally to other cats. FeSVs are replication defective and require FeLV to reproduce.Rous sarcoma virus: A species of replication-competent oncogene-containing virus in the genus ALPHARETROVIRUS. It is the original source of the src oncogene (V-SRC GENES) and causes sarcoma in chickens.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Sarcoma, Alveolar Soft Part: A variety of rare sarcoma having a reticulated fibrous stroma enclosing groups of sarcoma cells, which resemble epithelial cells and are enclosed in alveoli walled with connective tissue. It is a rare tumor, usually occurring between 15 and 35 years of age. It appears in the muscles of the extremities in adults and most commonly in the head and neck regions of children. Though slow-growing, it commonly metastasizes to the lungs, brain, bones, and lymph nodes. (DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1365)Leiomyosarcoma: A sarcoma containing large spindle cells of smooth muscle. Although it rarely occurs in soft tissue, it is common in the viscera. It is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract and uterus. The median age of patients is 60 years. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1865)RNA-Binding Protein EWS: A ubiquitous hnRNP protein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Translocations that result in the formation of fusion proteins containing parts of RNA-binding protein EWS may play a role in neoplastic processes such as EWING SARCOMA.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Herpesvirus 8, Human: A species in the genus RHADINOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, isolated from patients with AIDS-related and "classical" Kaposi sarcoma.Alpharetrovirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE with type C morphology, that causes malignant and other diseases in wild birds and domestic fowl.Cell Transformation, Viral: An inheritable change in cells manifested by changes in cell division and growth and alterations in cell surface properties. It is induced by infection with a transforming virus.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-fli-1: A member of the c-ets family of transcription factors that is preferentially expressed in cells of hematopoietic lineages and vascular endothelial cells. It was originally identified as a protein that provides a retroviral integration site for integration of FRIEND MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS.Harvey murine sarcoma virus: A replication-defective mouse sarcoma virus (SARCOMA VIRUSES, MURINE) first described by J.J. Harvey in 1964.Gammaretrovirus: A genus of RETROVIRIDAE comprising endogenous sequences in mammals, related RETICULOENDOTHELIOSIS VIRUSES, AVIAN, and a reptilian virus. Many species contain oncogenes and cause leukemias and sarcomas.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous: The most commonly diagnosed soft tissue sarcoma. It is a neoplasm with a fibrohistiocytic appearance found chiefly in later adult life, with peak incidence in the 7th decade.Liposarcoma: A malignant tumor derived from primitive or embryonal lipoblastic cells. It may be composed of well-differentiated fat cells or may be dedifferentiated: myxoid (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID), round-celled, or pleomorphic, usually in association with a rich network of capillaries. Recurrences are common and dedifferentiated liposarcomas metastasize to the lungs or serosal surfaces. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Oncogene Proteins, Fusion: The GENETIC TRANSLATION products of the fusion between an ONCOGENE and another gene. The latter may be of viral or cellular origin.Sarcoma 37Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous: A benign tumor composed, wholly or in part, of cells with the morphologic characteristics of HISTIOCYTES and with various fibroblastic components. Fibrous histiocytomas can occur anywhere in the body. When they occur in the skin, they are called dermatofibromas or sclerosing hemangiomas. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p1747)Sarcoma, Small Cell: A sarcoma characterized by the presence of small cells, cells measuring 9-14 micrometers with a faint or indistinct rim of cytoplasm and an oval-to-elongated nucleus with relatively dense chromatin. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Langerhans Cell Sarcoma: Rare malignant neoplasm of dendritic LANGERHANS CELLS exhibiting atypical cytology, frequent mitoses, and aggressive clinical behavior. They can be distinguished from other histiocytic and dendritic proliferations by immunohistochemical and ultrastructure studies. Cytologically benign proliferations of Langerhans cells are called LANGERHANS CELL HISTIOCYTOSIS.Vascular Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the vasculature system, such as ARTERIES and VEINS. They are differentiated from neoplasms of vascular tissue (NEOPLASMS, VASCULAR TISSUE), such as ANGIOFIBROMA or HEMANGIOMA.Retroperitoneal NeoplasmsChick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Follicular: Sarcoma of FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS most often found in the lymph nodes. This rare neoplasm occurs predominately in adults.Helper Viruses: Viruses which enable defective viruses to replicate or to form a protein coat by complementing the missing gene function of the defective (satellite) virus. Helper and satellite may be of the same or different genus.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Avian leukosis virus: The type species of ALPHARETROVIRUS producing latent or manifest lymphoid leukosis in fowl.Hemangiosarcoma: A rare malignant neoplasm characterized by rapidly proliferating, extensively infiltrating, anaplastic cells derived from blood vessels and lining irregular blood-filled or lumpy spaces. (Stedman, 25th ed)Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Fibrosarcoma: A sarcoma derived from deep fibrous tissue, characterized by bundles of immature proliferating fibroblasts with variable collagen formation, which tends to invade locally and metastasize by the bloodstream. (Stedman, 25th ed)Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive, Peripheral: A group of highly cellular primitive round cell neoplasms which occur extracranially in soft tissue and bone and are derived from embryonal neural crest cells. These tumors occur primarily in children and adolescents and share a number of characteristics with EWING SARCOMA.Moloney murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) arising during the propagation of S37 mouse sarcoma, and causing lymphoid leukemia in mice. It also infects rats and newborn hamsters. It is apparently transmitted to embryos in utero and to newborns through mother's milk.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.RNA-Binding Protein FUS: A multifunctional heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that may play a role in homologous DNA pairing and recombination. The N-terminal portion of protein is a potent transcriptional activator, while the C terminus is required for RNA binding. The name FUS refers to the fact that genetic recombination events result in fusion oncogene proteins (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION) that contain the N-terminal region of this protein. These fusion proteins have been found in myxoid liposarcoma (LIPOSARCOMA, MYXOID) and acute myeloid leukemia.Dendritic Cell Sarcoma, Interdigitating: A rare sarcoma of INTERDIGITATING CELLS found in the lymph nodes and non-lymphoid organs. They exhibit a variable immunophenotype and lack Birbeck granules.Retroviridae Proteins: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Oncogenic Viruses: Viruses that produce tumors.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Neuroectodermal Tumors: Malignant neoplasms arising in the neuroectoderm, the portion of the ectoderm of the early embryo that gives rise to the central and peripheral nervous systems, including some glial cells.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Mesna: A sulfhydryl compound used to prevent urothelial toxicity by inactivating metabolites from ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, such as IFOSFAMIDE or CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE.Hemangioendothelioma: A neoplasm derived from blood vessels, characterized by numerous prominent endothelial cells that occur singly, in aggregates, and as the lining of congeries of vascular tubes or channels. Hemangioendotheliomas are relatively rare and are of intermediate malignancy (between benign hemangiomas and conventional angiosarcomas). They affect men and women about equally and rarely develop in childhood. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Translocation, Genetic: A type of chromosome aberration characterized by CHROMOSOME BREAKAGE and transfer of the broken-off portion to another location, often to a different chromosome.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Liposarcoma, Myxoid: A liposarcoma containing myxomatous tissue. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion: Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant: Distinctive neoplastic disorders of histiocytes. Included are malignant neoplasms of MACROPHAGES and DENDRITIC CELLS.Neoplasms, Connective Tissue: Neoplasms composed of connective tissue, including elastic, mucous, reticular, osseous, and cartilaginous tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in connective tissue.Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive: A group of malignant tumors of the nervous system that feature primitive cells with elements of neuronal and/or glial differentiation. Use of this term is limited by some authors to central nervous system tumors and others include neoplasms of similar origin which arise extracranially (i.e., NEUROECTODERMAL TUMORS, PRIMITIVE, PERIPHERAL). This term is also occasionally used as a synonym for MEDULLOBLASTOMA. In general, these tumors arise in the first decade of life and tend to be highly malignant. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2059)Uterine Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Epsilonretrovirus: A genus in the family RETROVIRIDAE infecting fish. Species include Walleye dermal sarcoma virus, Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 1, and Walleye epidermal hyperplasia virus 2.Quail: Common name for two distinct groups of BIRDS in the order GALLIFORMES: the New World or American quails of the family Odontophoridae and the Old World quails in the genus COTURNIX, family Phasianidae.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Femoral NeoplasmsMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mesenchymoma: A mixed mesenchymal tumor composed of two or more mesodermal cellular elements not commonly associated, not counting fibrous tissue as one of the elements. Mesenchymomas are widely distributed in the body and about 75% are malignant. (Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1866)Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Abdominal NeoplasmsRadiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from peripheral nerve tissue. This includes NEUROFIBROMAS; SCHWANNOMAS; GRANULAR CELL TUMORS; and malignant peripheral NERVE SHEATH NEOPLASMS. (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp1750-1)Epithelioid Cells: Characteristic cells of granulomatous hypersensitivity. They appear as large, flattened cells with increased endoplasmic reticulum. They are believed to be activated macrophages that have differentiated as a result of prolonged antigenic stimulation. Further differentiation or fusion of epithelioid cells is thought to produce multinucleated giant cells (GIANT CELLS).RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 188.8.131.52.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Heart Neoplasms: Tumors in any part of the heart. They include primary cardiac tumors and metastatic tumors to the heart. Their interference with normal cardiac functions can cause a wide variety of symptoms including HEART FAILURE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; or EMBOLISM.DioxolesTomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Thoracic NeoplasmsGene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal: A form of RHABDOMYOSARCOMA arising primarily in the head and neck, especially the orbit, of children below the age of 10. The cells are smaller than those of other rhabdomyosarcomas and are of two basic cell types: spindle cells and round cells. This cancer is highly sensitive to chemotherapy and has a high cure rate with multi-modality therapy. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2188)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetrahydroisoquinolines: A group of ISOQUINOLINES in which the nitrogen containing ring is protonated. They derive from the non-enzymatic Pictet-Spengler condensation of CATECHOLAMINES with ALDEHYDES.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia: Large benign, hyperplastic lymph nodes. The more common hyaline vascular subtype is characterized by small hyaline vascular follicles and interfollicular capillary proliferations. Plasma cells are often present and represent another subtype with the plasma cells containing IgM and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Ewing v. Goldstein: Ewing v. Goldstein (Cal.Synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint: Synovial sarcoma, X breakpoint (SSX) refers to a group of genes rearranged in synovial sarcoma.Kaposi's sarcomaDorte Juul Jensen: Dorte Juul Jensen is a senior scientist and head of the Center for Fundamental Research: Metal Structures in Four Dimensions and Materials Research Division, Risø DTU National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde, Denmark. Risø operates under the auspices of the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, researching a wide range of technologies and training Ph.Osteolipochondroma: Osteolipochondroma (osteo, bone, lipos, fat, + chondros, cartilage, oma, tumor) is a cartilaginous tumor containing fatty and bony tissue.Histiocytic sarcoma: Histiocytic sarcoma is a tumor derived from histiocytes. The tumor is often positive for CD163 and can appear in the thyroid.Myeloid sarcomaEndometrial stromal sarcoma: Endometrial stromal sarcoma is a malignant subtype of endometrial stromal tumor arising from the stroma (connective tissue) of the endometrium rather than the glands. There are three grades for endometrial stromal tumors, as follows.Clear-cell sarcoma: Clear-cell sarcoma (formerly known as malignant melanoma of the soft parts) is a rare form of cancer called sarcoma. It is known to occur mainly in the soft tissues and dermis.Yutaka YoshidaKirsten Bomblies: Kirsten Bomblies is an American biological researcher and the Thomas D. Cabot Associate Professor of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology at Harvard University.Retroviral matrix protein: Retroviral matrix proteins are components of envelope-associated capsids of retroviruses. These proteins line the inner surface of viral envelopes and are associated with viral membranes.IscR stability element: The IscR stability element is a conserved secondary structure found in the intergenic regions of iscRSUA polycistronic mRNA. This secondary structure prevents the degradation of the iscR mRNA.Bone tumorAlveolar soft part sarcomaLeiomyosarcomaOsteosarcomaKaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirusHarvey mannequin: Harvey was one of the earliest medical simulators available for training of health care professionals. Harvey was created in 1968 by Dr.RhabdomyosarcomaAngiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma, abbreviated AFH, is a rarely metastasizing tumour that affects children and young adults.LiposarcomaEML4-ALK positive lung cancer: EML4-ALK positive lung cancer is a medical term that refers to a primary malignant lung tumor whose cells contain a characteristic abnormal configuration of DNA wherein the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene is fused to the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene. This abnormal gene fusion leads to the production of a protein (EML4-ALK) that appears, in many cases, to promote and maintain the malignant behavior of the cancer cells.Atypical fibroxanthoma: Atypical fibroxanthoma of the skin is a low-grade malignancy related to malignant fibrous histiocytoma, which it resembles histologically.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Desmoplastic small-round-cell tumorLangerhans cell sarcoma: Langerhans cell sarcoma is a form of malignant histiocytosis. It should not be confused with Langerhans cell histiocytosis, which is cytologically benign.Follicular dendritic cell sarcomaHemangiosarcomaMedulloepitheliomaGammaretrovirus core encapsidation signalMyxoid chondrosarcoma: Myxoid chondrosarcoma is a type of sarcoma.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.DoxorubicinAdult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome: Adult-onset immunodeficiency syndrome is a provisional name for a newly diagnosed immunodeficiency illness. The name is proposed in the first public study to identify the syndrome.Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma: Low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) is a rare type of low grade sarcoma first described by Harry Evans in 1987. It is characterized by a long and indolent clinical course and the possibility of local recurrence or distant metastases in a subset of patients.Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.MesnaIntravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia: Intravascular papillary endothelial hyperplasia (also known as "Masson's hemangio-endotheliome vegetant intravasculaire," "Masson's lesion," "Masson's pseudoangiosarcoma," "Masson's tumor," and "Papillary endothelial hyperplasia") may mimic angiosarcoma, with lesions that are red or purplish 5-mm to 5-cm papules and deep nodules on the head, neck, or upper extremities.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Oncogene: An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.Wilbur, Beth, editor.Gross examinationDefective interfering particle: In virology, defective interfering particles (DIPs), also known as defective interfering viruses, are spontaneously generated virus mutants in which a critical portion of the particle's genome has been lost due to defective replication. DIPs are derived from and associated with their parent virus, and particles are classed as DIPs if they are rendered non-infectious due to at least one essential gene of the virus being lost or severely damaged as a result of the defection.Dermal fibroblast: Dermal fibroblasts are cells within the dermis layer of skin which are responsible for generating connective tissue and allowing the skin to recover from injury. Using organelles (particularly the rough endoplasmic reticulum), dermal fibroblasts generate and maintain the connective tissue which unites separate cell layers.Myxoid liposarcoma: A myxoid liposarcoma is a malignant adipose tissue neoplasmMyxoid/round cell liposarcoma of myxoid appearance histologically.Isolated hepatic perfusion: Isolated hepatic perfusion is a procedure in which a catheter is placed into the artery that provides blood to the liver; another catheter is placed into the vein that takes blood away from the liver. This temporarily separates the liver's blood supply from blood circulating throughout the rest of the body and allows high doses of anticancer drugs to be directed to the liver only.Connective tissue neoplasm: A connective tissue neoplasm|connective tissue tumor is a neoplasm arising from the tissues of the connective tissue. (Not all tumors in the connective tissue are of the connective tissue.Epsilonretrovirus: An epsilonretrovirus is a waterborn genus of the retroviridae family. It infects fish.Limb-sparing techniques: Limb-sparing techniques, also known as limb-saving or limb-salvage techniques, are performed in order to give patients an alternative to amputation. There are many different types of limb-sparing techniques, including arthrodesis, arthroplasty, alloprosthetic composite, endoprosthetic reconstruction,prosthetic implants, and rotationplasty.Coles PhillipsAntileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Fibrocartilaginous mesenchymoma of bone
(1/85) Granulocytic sarcoma in MLL-positive infant acute myelogenous leukemia: fluorescence in situ hybridization study of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia for detecting MLL rearrangement.
Granulocytic sarcoma is considered to be rare and its frequent occurrence is associated with specific genetic changes such as t(8;21). To investigate an association between MLL (mixed lineage leukemia or myeloid-lymphoid leukemia) rearrangement and granulocytic sarcoma, we applied fluorescence in situ hybridization for detection of the 11q23/MLL rearrangements on the bone marrow cells of 40 patients with childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Nine (22.5%) of 40 patients exhibited MLL rearrangements. Three (33.3%) of these nine patients had granulocytic sarcoma and were younger than 12 months of age. Of these three patients one presented as granulocytic sarcoma of both testes with cerebrospinal fluid involvement, the second case presented in the form of an abdominal mass, and the third as a periorbital granulocytic sarcoma. On the other hand, no granulocytic sarcomas were found among MLL-negative patients. It is likely that MLL-positive infant AML may predispose granulocytic sarcoma. Regarding the findings of our study and those of other reports, we would guess that the incidence of granulocytic sarcoma in pediatric MLL-positive AML may be equal to or greater than the 18 to 24% described in AML with t(8;21). Further investigations designed to identify 11q23/MLL abnormalities of leukemic cells or extramedullary tumor may be helpful for the precise diagnosis of granulocytic sarcoma. (+info)
(2/85) Nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for orbital granulocytic sarcoma associated with t(8;21)(q22;q22) in acute myeloid leukemia.
We report a nonmyeloablative allogeneic bone marrow transplant (allo-BMT) from an HLA-matched unrelated donor in a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), M2 with t(8;21)(q22;q22) and the presence of orbital granulocytic sarcoma (GS), who had residual tumor after conventional chemotherapy. The course of BMT was well tolerated, with no major procedure-related toxicity. The residual orbital GS regressed completely 4 months after BMT. She is currently 19 months post BMT, disease-free. To our knowledge, this is the first reported pediatric patient with AML, GS and t(8;21)(q22;q22) who received a nonmyeloablative allo-BMT. (+info)
(3/85) Comparison in treatments of nonleukemic granulocytic sarcoma: report of two cases and a review of 72 cases in the literature.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to reveal the clinical characteristics of nonleukemic granulocytic sarcoma (GS) and an association between the therapeutic regimens and the nonleukemic period. METHOD: Clinical records of 2 patients reported here and 72 patients gathered using a literature search on Medline from other institutions were analyzed. The patients consisted of 57 patients who preceded acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia (ANLL) and 17 patients who did not develop ANLL. These patients were divided into 3 groups by therapeutic regimens; Group I included 12 patients who received only biopsy or surgical resection of the tumor, Group II was 20 patients who received local irradiation for the tumor, and Group III consisted of 42 patients who received systemic chemotherapy. The nonleukemic periods between these groups were compared. In Group III, the period in the patients who were treated with chemotherapy given to ANLL was compared with that in the patients who received chemotherapy used for malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (MLPDs). RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (47%) initially were misdiagnosed, and the disease was most often malignant lymphoma. Preferential sites of GS were the small intestine, mediastinum, epidural site, uterus, and ovary, which often are difficult for the detection and diagnosis in addition to the skin and lymph nodes known commonly. The nonleukemic period after the diagnosis of GS was significantly longer in Group III than in the other groups (median, 12 months in Group III vs. 3 and 6 months in Groups I and II, respectively). The aggressive chemotherapy given to ANLL led to a longer nonleukemic period than the chemotherapy used for MLPDs. CONCLUSIONS: To reduce the risk of subsequent ANLL in patients with nonleukemic GS, it is important that accurate histologic diagnosis is established initially for GS and that all isolated cases of GS, even those that appear to be cured by resection or irradiation of the tumor, are treated with intensive chemotherapy similar to that used to treat ANLL during the nonleukemic period as soon as possible. (+info)
(4/85) Isolated extramedullary relapse in the pleural fluid of a patient with acute myeloid leukemia following allogeneic BMT.
We report an unusual case of AML, in which the patient showed extramedullary relapse in the pleural fluid and the skin without bone marrow recurrence even 3 years after allogeneic BMT. On examination of the pleural effusion and the skin, which relapsed 31 months and 40 months, respectively, after BMT, we found that most of cells were as the XY-type recipient by quantitative X/Y FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization). However, 100% of the bone marrow cells remained XX-type donor cells. In the present case, we believe that the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) response in the extramedullary site was not so effective as that in the bone marrow, where it remains effective. (+info)
(5/85) Granulocytic sarcoma of the temporal bone.
We report an unusual case of granulocytic sarcoma involving the temporal bone. The occurrence of this tumor usually heralds acute myelogenous leukemia or the onset of the blastic phase of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Recognition of this rare entity is important, because early aggressive chemotherapy can cause regression of the tumor, as in our case, and thus improve patient longevity. (+info)
(6/85) Myeloid sarcoma of both kidneys, the brain, and multiple bones in a nonleukemic child.
A myeloid sarcoma (MS) is an extramedullary tumor consisting of primitive granulocytic precursor cells. Although most such tumors have been reported in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia, MS is rarely recognized as an isolated tumor without any evidence of leukemia. However, in such cases, the initial diagnosis of MS can be difficult, so initial misdiagnosis rates of up to 75% have been reported. This report describes an unusual case of MS in a 3-year 5-month-old girl presenting as bilateral renal enlargements, and brain masses, with multiple bone involvements, but no hematological abnormalities. (+info)
(7/85) Isolated extramedullary relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia as a uterine granulocytic sarcoma in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.
We report an unusual case of acute myelogenous leukemia in a patient who showed an extramedullary relapse in her uterus, without bone marrow recurrence, two years after an allogeneic bone marrow transplant. She complained of irregular vaginal spotting, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a uterine mass. A biopsy revealed a massive infiltration of immature myeloid cells. A variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) based on an examination of peripheral blood cells showed full donor chimerism. After receiving chemotherapy, her uterine mass had completely resolved. She has remained in complete remission for more than 6 months. This case suggests that physicians should be aware of the possibility of a uterine relapse in female bone marrow transplant recipients with acute myelogenous leukemia. (+info)
(8/85) Isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma manifesting as extra- and intracranial masses--case report.
A 30-year-old female presented with a rare case of isolated recurrence of granulocytic sarcoma manifesting as extra- and intracranial masses 16 months after successful treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia (M-2). She presented with a swelling located on her forehead that had appeared just after hitting her forehead, and never diminished in size. The mass was elastic hard and not freely mobile. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated enhanced masses in the right frontal extra- and intracranial region with no bone destruction. There was no evidence of relapse in the bone marrow. Needle aspiration biopsy of the subscalpal mass was performed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed AML1/MTG8 fusion gene associated with t(8; 21). Two courses of systemic chemotherapy with high-dose cytarabine and total neural axis irradiation resulted in complete remission. (+info)