No data available that match "Salix"
No data available that match "Salix"
(1/67) Xylem ray parenchyma cells in boreal hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures by deep supercooling that is accompanied by incomplete desiccation.
It has been accepted that xylem ray parenchyma cells (XRPCs) in hardwood species respond to subfreezing temperatures either by deep supercooling or by extracellular freezing. Present study by cryo-scanning electron microscopy examined the freezing responses of XRPCs in five boreal hardwoods: Salix sachalinensis Fr. Schmit, Populus sieboldii Miq., Betula platyphylla Sukat. var japonica Hara, Betula pubescens Ehrh., and red osier dogwood (Cornus sericea), in which XRPCs have been reported to respond by extracellular freezing. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy observations revealed that slow cooling of xylem to -80 degrees C resulted in intracellular freezing in the majority of XRPCs in S. sachalinensis, an indication that these XRPCs had been deep supercooled. In contrast, in the majority of XRPCs in P. sieboldii, B. platyphylla, B. pubescens, and red osier dogwood, slow cooling to -80 degrees C produced slight cytorrhysis without clear evidence of intracellular freezing, suggesting that these XRPCs might respond by extracellular freezing. In these XRPCs exhibited putative extracellular freezing; however, deep etching revealed the apparent formation of intracellular ice crystals in restricted local areas. To confirm the occurrence of intracellular freezing, we rewarmed these XRPCs after cooling and observed very large intracellular ice crystals as a result of the recrystallization. Thus, the XRPCs in all the boreal hardwoods that we examined responded by deep supercooling that was accompanied with incomplete desiccation. From these results, it seems possible that limitations to the deep-supercooling ability of XRPCs might be a limiting factor for adaptation of hardwoods to cold climates. (+info)
(2/67) Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and estimation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba x Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids.
Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex includes closely related dioecious polyploid species, which are obligate outcrossers. Natural populations of these willows and their hybrids are represented by a mixture of highly heterozygous genotypes sharing a common gene pool. Since nothing is known about their genomic constitution, tetraploidy (2n=4x=76) in willow species makes basic and applied genetic studies difficult. We have used a two-way pseudotestcross strategy and single-dose markers (SDMs) to construct the first linkage maps for both pistillate and staminate willows. A total of 242 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and 50 selective amplifications of microsatellite polymorphic loci (SAMPL) markers, which showed 1:1 segregation in the F(1) mapping populations, were used in linkage analysis. In S. alba, 73 maternal and 48 paternal SDMs were mapped to 19 and 16 linkage groups covering 708 and 339 cM, respectively. In S. fragilis, 13 maternal and 33 paternal SDMs were mapped in six and 14 linkage groups covering 98 and 321 cM, respectively. For most cosegregation groups, a comparable number of markers linked in coupling and repulsion was identified. This finding suggests that most of chromosomes pair preferentially as occurs in allotetraploid species exhibiting disomic inheritance. The detection of 10 pairs of marker alleles from single parents showing codominant inheritance strengthens this hypothesis. The fact that, of the 1122 marker loci identified in the two male and female parents, the vast majority (77.5%) were polymorphic and as few as 22.5% were shared between parental species highlight that S. alba and S. fragilis genotypes are differentiated. The highly difference between S. alba- and S. fragilis-specific markers found in both parental combinations (on average, 65.3 vs 34.7%, respectively) supports the (phylogenetic) hypothesis that S. fragilis is derived from S. alba-like progenitors. (+info)
(3/67) The development of two flanking SCAR markers linked to a sex determination locus in Salix viminalis L.
Most studies of sex determination systems in plants involve dioecious annuals that have known sex chromosomes. Despite the absence of such structures in the majority of dioecious plants, gender seems to be under relatively strict genetic control in some species. Genetic markers linked to a female sex-determination locus in Salix viminalis L. have been discovered through bulked segregant analysis of three full-sib families using approximately 1,000 arbitrary primers. Two RAPD markers that were present in the common female parent as well as in predominantly female progeny of these families were subsequently sequenced and converted to sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. The two SCAR markers are correlated with gender in the three full-sib families and are present in 96.4% of the female progeny and 2.2% of the males, providing evidence of linkage to a putative female-specific locus associated with gender determination in S. viminalis. Estimates of recombination suggest that the two markers are flanking a putative sex determination locus, SDL-II, in certain families of S. viminalis. (+info)
(4/67) Merging nitrogen management and renewable energy needs.
The ARBRE (ARable Biomass Renewable Energy) project, the first large-scale wood-fueled electricity generating plant in the U.K., represents a significant development in realising British and European policy objectives on renewable energy. The plant is fueled by a mix of wood from short rotation coppice (SRC) and forest residues. Where feasible, composted/conditioned sewage sludge is applied to coppice sites to increase yields and improve soil structure. In the Yorkshire Water region, typical total N:P:K composition of composted/conditioned sludge is 2.9:3.8:0.3, respectively. Sludge application is calculated on the basis of total nitrogen (N) content to achieve 750 kg N ha(-1), for 3 years" requirement. Willow coppice forms a dense, widely spaced, root network, which, with its long growing season, makes it an effective user of nutrients. This, in combination with willow"s use as a nonfood, nonfodder crop, makes it an attractive route for the recycling of sewage sludge in the absence of sea disposal, banned under the EC Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (UWWTD). Further work is required on the nutritional requirements of SRC in order to understand better the quantities of sludge that can be applied to SRC without having a detrimental impact on the environment. This paper suggests the source of N rerouting under the UWWTD and suggests the likely expansion of SRC as an alternative recycling pathway. (+info)
(5/67) Effects of willow hybridisation and simulated browsing on the development and survival of the leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae.
BACKGROUND: Interspecific hybridisation is common between many plant species and causes rapid changes in a variety of plant characters. This may pose problems for herbivores because changes in recognition characters may be poorly correlated with changes in quality characters. Many studies have examined different systems of hybrids and herbivores in attempts to understand the role of hybridisation in the evolution of plant resistance. The results from different systems are variable. Studies of hybrids between Salix caprea (L., Salicaceae) and S. repens show that they are intermediate between the two parental species in most resistance characters. However, a plants herbivore resistance depends also on its biotic and abiotic environment. Important biotic factors that may influence plant growth and plant chemistry include the interactions between different herbivores that occur through their exploitation of common host plants. Although the effects on plants of previous herbivory are likely to be strongly affected by environmental conditions, they are also species-specific. Damage may therefore have different effects on hybrids than on their parental species, and this could influence the performance of herbivores on pure and hybrid species of plants. To evaluate the effects of hybridisation on insect performance, the development and survival rates of Phratora vitellinae (L. 1758, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae on pure S. repens, pure S. caprea and Fl hybrids of the two species was monitored. Further, to examine the effect of herbivorous mammals on the performance of the larvae, plants were damaged to simulate winter foraging by voles or spring leaf stripping by moose. RESULTS: The results show that development rates were highest on S. repens and equally low on S. caprea and the Fl hybrid. In addition, development of the plants treated to simulate mammalian herbivore damage was slower than that of corresponding controls. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this experiment suggest that P. vitellinae has a higher development rate, and thus probably higher performance, on species with high concentrations of phenolic glucosides. Therefore, it would be of adaptive benefit for P. vitellinae females to have an ovipositional preference for S. repens, compared to S. caprea and intermediate preference for Fl hybrids. The faster development observed on S. repens supports the hypothesis that P. vitellinae obtains additional adaptive benefits from phenolic glucosides beyond protection against predators. Therefore, it is important to consider further factors, such as damage caused by other herbivores, when studying this hybrid complex. (+info)
(6/67) The effect of willow leaf extracts on human leukemic cells in vitro.
The young developing leaves of willow (Salix safsaf, Salicaceae) trees have antileukemic activity. After a 24-h incubation in vitro, the crude water extracts of the leaves killed a majority of the blasts of acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 73.8%). (+info)
(7/67) Species pattern and genetic diversity of Trichoderma in a mid-European, primeval floodplain-forest.
We investigated the occurrence and genetic diversity of Trichoderma in the river Danube national park, a primeval, riparian forest area located south-east of Vienna (Austria) which represents one of the last cases of an original European river-floodplain landscape. Forty-six strains were isolated and identified at the species level by analysis of morphological characters, by sequence analysis of their internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS 1 and 2) of the rDNA cluster and--in some cases--a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1alpha (tef1) gene, and RAPD-analysis. Twenty-one strains were positively identified as T. harzianum, thirteen as T. rossicum, four as T. cerinum, two as T. hamatum, and one each as T. atroviride and T. koningii: four strains yielded two different ITS1 and 2 as well as tef1 sequence types, which were not alignable with any known species. Our studies show that they represent two new taxa of Trichoderma. (+info)
(8/67) Genetic mapping of sex-linked markers in Salix viminalis L.
A total of 88 selective primer combinations were screened using bulked males and females sampled from four families of Salix viminalis. A total of more than 1000 polymorphic fragments was obtained, of which only four cosegregated with sex. These four sex-linked markers were subsequently scored in individuals that were used for bulked sample preparation in additional individuals of the same families, and in individuals in other families. A pair of primers that amplified the sex-linked fragments was constructed from one of the sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fragments. In hybridization of Southern blot filters with the sex-linked DNA fragments, the band was present in females and absent in males, but the opposite pattern of band segregation (a band found in males and no band in females) was never observed in either the AFLP or RFLP experiments. Two of the sex-linked markers were placed on a linkage map. They both map at the same location in a linkage group comprising other markers not segregating with sex. Our data suggest that a single locus governs the sex determination and that nonrecombining sex chromosomes are absent in S. viminalis. A close association was found between skewed sex ratio and segregation distortion at this locus. (+info)