Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Hospitals, Rural: Hospitals located in a rural area.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Medically Underserved Area: A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.United States Office of Economic Opportunity: A division of the Executive Branch of the United States government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs relative to the provision of opportunities for economic advancement.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Grateful Med: A microcomputer-based software package providing a user-friendly interface to the MEDLARS system of the National Library of Medicine.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.IndiaAustralia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Sterilization, Involuntary: Reproductive sterilization without the consent of the patient.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Personnel Selection: The process of choosing employees for specific types of employment. The concept includes recruitment.Organizational Affiliation: Formal relationships established between otherwise independent organizations. These include affiliation agreements, interlocking boards, common controls, hospital medical school affiliations, etc.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Mobile Health Units: Movable or portable facilities in which diagnostic and therapeutic services are provided to the community.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Personnel Loyalty: Dedication or commitment shown by employees to organizations or institutions where they work.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.New MexicoPreceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Community Health Workers: Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Victoria: A state in southeastern Australia, the southernmost state. Its capital is Melbourne. It was discovered in 1770 by Captain Cook and first settled by immigrants from Tasmania. In 1851 it was separated from New South Wales as a separate colony. Self-government was introduced in 1851; it became a state in 1901. It was named for Queen Victoria in 1851. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1295 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, p574)Nurses: Professionals qualified by graduation from an accredited school of nursing and by passage of a national licensing examination to practice nursing. They provide services to patients requiring assistance in recovering or maintaining their physical or mental health.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Personnel Delegation: To entrust to the care or management of another, to transfer or to assign tasks within an organizational or administrative unit or structureNeeds Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.KentuckyWest VirginiaHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Appalachian Region: A geographical area of the United States with no definite boundaries but comprising northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, northwestern South Carolina, western North Carolina, eastern Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western Virginia, West Virginia, western Maryland, southwestern Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, and southern New York.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Education, Nursing, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform nurses of recent advances in their fields.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Volunteers: Persons who donate their services.Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Oceanic Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)New South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Libraries, MedicalDelivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Great BritainPolicy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United StatesUnited States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.

*  Rural Health Education and Services

... website. KU Medical Center - Wichita. ...
www2.kumc.edu/ruralhealth/jobs/

*  Virginia Rural Health Association - Weekly Update

Rural Summit. By Katherine Jane Hall - National Rural Health Association. On June 29, National Rural Health Association members ... The four health centers are [VRHA member] Eastern Shore Rural Health System, Incorporated in Onancock; Neighborhood Health in ... Health Information Exchange: A Strategy for Improving Access for Rural Veterans in the Maine Flex Rural Veterans Health Access ... October 18: Rural Health Telecommunication Consortium Kick-Off Meeting - Abingdon. October 18-19: Rural Health Coding & Billing ...
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*  Virginia Rural Health Association - Weekly Update

Chartbook on Rural Health Care. With rural populations as one of ten priorities for AHRQ research and quality measurement, the ... Scholarships, Loans, and Loan Repayment for Rural Health Professions. An overview from the Rural Assistance Center on available ... Ricardo Guzman - Chair of the Board, NACHC, Nancy Stern - CEO, Eastern Shore Rural Health, Gary Wiltz, MD - Immediate Past ... An Alliance for Rural Health request for funding was turned down by the Southwest Economic Development Committee of the ...
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*  Virginia Rural Health Association - Weekly Update

August 24-27: Arthritis, AgrAbility, and Rural Health Conference - Knoxville, TN. September 29-30: Rural Health Clinic ... Your Community's Health. From the Virginia Health Care Foundation. In December of 2014, the Virginia Center for Health ... Eastern Shore Rural Health System, Inc. & Rod Manifold - Central Virginia Health Services. VRHA Annual Conference. October 13 ... Virginia Rural Health Association. 2265 Kraft Drive. Blacksburg, VA 24060. US. Read the VerticalResponse marketing policy. ...
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*  Virginia Rural Health Association - Weekly Update

August 24-27: Arthritis, AgrAbility, and Rural Health Conference - Knoxville, TN. August 25: Reimbursement 101 for Rural Health ... Debbie Bruner, who heads the hospital and its rural health clinic, says they see patients who need mental health services every ... Daniel Derksen, the director of the University of Arizona's Center for Rural Health, was one of several health care experts ... September 8-10: National Rural Assembly - Washington, DC. September 29-30: Rural Health Clinic Conference - Kansas City, MO. ...
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*  Loan Repayment | Oregon Office of Rural Health | OHSU

Oregon Health & Science University OHSU is dedicated to improving the health and quality of life for all Oregonians through ... excellence, innovation and leadership in health care, education and research.. © 2001-2017 OHSU. OHSU is an equal opportunity ...
ohsu.edu/xd/outreach/oregon-rural-health/providers/loan-repayment/

*  ALLEGANY WESTERN STEUBEN RURAL HEALTH NETWORK | alleganywesternsteub

Support ALLEGANY WESTERN STEUBEN RURAL HEALTH NETWORK , Charity Online Fundraising on Crowdrise https://www.crowdrise.com/ ...
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*  Federal Register :: Rural Health Outreach Grant Program

Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (OASH), and the Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP), Health Resources and ... announce the availability of funds for Fiscal Year 1994 to support rural Minority Community Health Coalition... ...
https://federalregister.gov/documents/1994/03/15/94-5948/rural-health-outreach-grant-program

*  Comment Letter: Rural Health Care Support Mechanism

... proposed rule on the rural health care universal service support mechanism. ... network and other health care provider members, the American Hospital Association (AHA) welcomes the opportunity to respond to ... In fact, many rural hospitals and health systems own facilities that are located in rural areas miles from the main health care ... Experience with the rural health care universal service support mechanism indicates that many rural health care providers ...
aha.org/advocacy-issues/letter/2002/020701-cl-67fr34653.shtml

*  Volunteer in Rural Health Clinics in Belize

Lend a hand in Belizean rural heath clinics which serve the less affluent citizens of San Ignacio. Many of these clinics lack ... 1. Provide much needed support to rural health clinics in Belize.. 2. Experience the ecologically diverse and peaceful country ... Lend a hand in Belizean rural heath clinics which serve the less affluent citizens of San Ignacio. Many of these clinics lack ... Lend a hand in Belizean rural heath clinics which serve the less affluent citizens of San Ignacio. Many of these clinics lack ...
https://goabroad.com/providers/kaya-responsible-travel/programs/volunteer-in-rural-health-clinics-in-belize-128097

*  Obama Looks to Improve Rural Health | HealthLeaders Media

... the budget also includes many increases for rural health, according to the administration. ... Though the Obama administration's proposed 2010 rural health funding for the Health Resources and Services Administration was ... For example, health centers will receive $2 billion, and while some health centers are in urban areas, "most health centers are ... Though the Obama administration's proposed 2010 rural health funding for the Health Resources and Services Administration was ...
healthleadersmedia.com/community-rural/obama-looks-improve-rural-health

*  Rural Health NFP Scholarship Winners Announced | PBA

... the Royal Flying Doctor Service Victoria and Rural Health Workforce Australia, have announced the four recipients of its Give ... Rural Health NFP Scholarship Winners Announced Wednesday, 9th July 2014 at 1:44 pm Not for Profits, the Royal Flying Doctor ... Rural Health Workforce Australia CEO Greg Mundy said the scholarship recipients were fine role models for other country ... Tags : australia, Give them Wings scholarships, National, Not For Profits, Royal Flying Doctor Service Victoria, Rural Health ...
https://probonoaustralia.com.au/news/2014/07/rural-health-nfp-scholarship-winners-announced/

*  Departments, La Trobe Rural Health School, La Trobe University

Dentistry and Oral Health and Community and Allied Health. ... The School of Rural Health joins areas of Rural Nursing and ... La Trobe University > La Trobe Rural Health School > Departments. Departments. Community and Allied Health. Exercise Science ... Physiology , Social Work , Paramedicine , Physiotherapy , Public Health , Speech Pathology , Occupational Therapy. Dentistry ...
latrobe.edu.au/school-rural-health/departments

*  Supporting Rural Health Care: Program Provides Workshops, Site Visits - RWJF

... offered technical assistance to states and facilities participating in a federal program designed to keep struggling rural ... The Alpha Center for Health Planning, Inc., in Washington (now called the AcademyHealth) ... Supporting Rural Health Care: Program Provides Workshops, Site Visits. Technical assistance center for rural hospital models ... Health Care Reform in Rural Areas,' co-sponsored by RWJF and the Arkansas Department of Health and held in Little Rock, Ark. ...
https://rwjf.org/en/library/research/2002/03/supporting-rural-health-care.html

*  Nov. 17, 2011: National Rural Health Day | allnurses

Salute to rural nurses everywhere!:yeah: So, what's great about being rural? ... Today is the first-ever National Rural Health Day. ... 17, 2011: National Rural Health Day Please Take Our Nursing ... Today is the first-ever National Rural Health Day. Salute to rural nurses everywhere!. So, what's great about being rural? ...
allnurses.com/rural-nursing/nov-17-2011-642719.html

*  TASC | National Rural Health Resource Center

About Rural Health Innovations. Learn more about Rural Health Innovations, The Center's small business subsidiary. ... Allied Health Webinars. Find recordings and resources from recent technical assistance webinars for Rural Network Allied Health ... Health Information Technology Consulting. As the national knowledge center on rural electronic health record adoption, The ... RHI provides technical assistance (TA) to over 60 networks in the Development and Allied Health rural health network grant ...
https://ruralcenter.org/category/lexicon/tasc

*  Acumentra Beneficiary & Family Advisory Council Recruitment | Oregon Office of Rural Health | OHSU

Oregon Health & Science University OHSU is dedicated to improving the health and quality of life for all Oregonians through ... To guide their work on behalf of Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries, Acumentra Health is building a Beneficiary and Family ... excellence, innovation and leadership in health care, education and research.. © 2001-2017 OHSU. OHSU is an equal opportunity ... Oregon Office of Rural Health * Oregon Office of Rural Health * About * ORH Staff ...
ohsu.edu/xd/outreach/oregon-rural-health/about/news/acumentra-bfac.cfm

*  Rural Health Center in NY Rebuilds After Hurricane Irene | WAMC

Hurricane Irene severely damaged a family health facility in a rural area of Ulster County. Nearly two years later, the health ... Hurricane Irene severely damaged a family health facility in a rural area of Ulster County. Nearly two years later, the health ... Rural Health Center in NY Rebuilds After Hurricane Irene By Allison Dunne • Apr 8, 2013 ... Maverick Family Health has three physicians, two nurse practitioners and two physician assistants, and they celebrated their re ...
wamc.org/post/rural-health-center-ny-rebuilds-after-hurricane-irene

*  Workforce Services | National Rural Health Resource Center

About Rural Health Innovations. Learn more about Rural Health Innovations, The Center's small business subsidiary. ... The Center is also involved in identifying rural health needs and issues and assisting in rural health policy development. ... Rural communities are striving to save local health care resources and struggling to recruit and retain needed health care ... Allied Health Webinars. Find recordings and resources from recent technical assistance webinars for Rural Network Allied Health ...
https://ruralcenter.org/workforce

*  Rural Health Innovations | National Rural Health Resource Center

Rural Health Innovations enhances the health of rural communities by providing products and services with a focus on excellence ... About Rural Health Innovations. Learn more about Rural Health Innovations, The Center's small business subsidiary. ... Allied Health Webinars. Find recordings and resources from recent technical assistance webinars for Rural Network Allied Health ... Health Information Technology Consulting. As the national knowledge center on rural electronic health record adoption, The ...
https://ruralcenter.org/rhi

*  Sustainable Rural Health Care Delivery - Kurt Salmon

The Rural Health Care Gap. The rural health care delivery model is under intense pressure throughout the United States. ... Transforming the rural health care delivery model begins with this question: Do hospital systems manage only health care ... Access to quality health care resources is becoming increasingly difficult in many rural parts of the United States. Technology ... Rural health care delivery requires a comprehensive, sustainable approach that incorporates three distinct elements:. * Local ...
kurtsalmon.com/en-us/healthcare/vertical-insight/399/Sustainable-Rural-Health-Care-Delivery

*  Faculty Links - Centre for Rural Health - University of Tasmania, Australia

Rural Clinical School. The Rural Clinical School (RCS) is one of a network of 17 Rural Clinical Schools around Australia. The ... Authorised by the Director, Centre for Rural Health. 13 October, 2016. © University of Tasmania, Australia. ABN 30 764 374 782 ... Faculty of Health. The Faculty of Health offers a comprehensive range of undergraduate degrees and a range of postgraduate ... The Faculty continues to develop new and innovative courses to meet the ever developing careers in health sciences. ...
utas.edu.au/rural-health/quick-links/faculty-links

*  Extending HIV Care Beyond the Rural Health Center - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Extending HIV Care Beyond the Rural Health Center. This study has been completed. ... A model for extending antiretroviral care beyond the rural health centre. J Int AIDS Soc. 2009 Sep 29;12:22. doi: 10.1186/1758- ... Our central hypothesis, is that PLWAs can be effective members of the health care team and that their involvement in community- ... Task-shifting of antiretroviral delivery from health care workers to persons living with HIV/AIDS: clinical outcomes of a ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00371540?order=374

*  Broadband is THE critical rural health issue, the independents are told - Croakey

Broadband is THE critical rural health issue, the independents are told. The National Rural Health Alliance's annual dinner in ... Mind you, the rural urban divide is not the only example of health inequities, and it would be a shame to lose sight of some of ... As to rural health and broadband, yes, broadband in Australia is ridiculously slow, but do not expect the Internet to fix the ... The National Rural Health Alliance's annual dinner in Canberra last night was pumping (please see bottom of the post for ...
https://blogs.crikey.com.au/croakey/2010/08/31/broadband-is-the-critical-rural-health-issue-the-independents-are-told/

*  Health Services and Workforce | ruralhealth.org.au

In rural and, especially, remote areas such timely access is more difficult because of shortages of health professionals. ... Plenty of evidence is available about the sort of health services that work well for people who live in rural and even isolated ... But frequently these services can't be provided because of the maldistribution of health professionals. ... Being able to see a health professional can help a person to stay well and ensure that they receive appropriate care as early ...
nrha.ruralhealth.org.au/advocacy/health-services-and-workforce

Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectPublic Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Halfdan T. MahlerLifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Minati SenQ Services Corps (South Africa): The establishment of the 'Q' Services Corps as part of the South African Permanent Force was promulgated in the Government Gazette dated 10 November 1939.Typed copy of Proclamation 276 of 1939Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Northeast Community Health CentreBehavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.United States House Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity: The United States Veterans' Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Opportunity is one of the four subcommittees within the House Veterans' Affairs Committee.Huntington's Disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford: The Huntington’s disease Outreach Project for Education at Stanford (HOPES) is a student-run project at Stanford University dedicated to making scientific information about Huntington's disease (HD) more readily accessible to patients and the public. Initiated by Professor William H.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityAustralian National BL classMaternal Health Task ForceJohannes Alanus: Johannes Alanus (fl. late 14th or early 15th century) was an English composer.Jon Orloff: Jon Orloff (1942) is an American physicist, author and professor. He is the eldest son Monford Orloff and brother of pianist Carole Orloff and historian Chester Orloff.Becky JamesGreat Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Reggie Redbird: Reggie Redbird is the mascot for Illinois State University located in Normal, Illinois. Reggie is present at all home football games, women's' volleyball matches, men's basketball games, women's' basketball games, and appears at various other athletic events.Prison commissary: A prison commissary or canteen is a store within a correctional facility, from which inmates may purchase products such as hygiene items, snacks, writing instruments, etc. Spices, including those packaged with instant ramen noodles, are a popular item due to the often bland nature of prison food.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Standard evaluation frameworkSAMU Social: A SAMU Social is a municipal humanitarian emergency service in several cities in France and worldwide whose purpose is to provide care and medical ambulatory aid and nursing to homeless people and people in social distress. This is partially accomplished via mobile units which distribute food, hot drinks, blankets, etc.Advanced Telecommunication Modules Ltd: Advanced Telecommunication Modules Ltd (ATML) was set up in 1993 by Dr Hermann Hauser and Professor Andy Hopper as a spin-off from the Olivetti Research Laboratory in Cambridge.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.India–Rwanda relations: Indo-Rwandan relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Rwanda. India is represented in Rwanda through its Honorary Consulate in Kigali.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Albuquerque IsotopesLeiden International Medical Student ConferenceCommunity health agent: Community health agent (agente comunitário de saúde or ACS, in Portuguese language) is the title of a specific lay health care worker developed in Brazil by way of PACS (Program of Community Health Workers) in 1991 as part of the construction of the Brazilian Unified Health System established by Constitutional rule in 1988.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:FlexirentGeoScience Victoria: GeoScience Victoria, formerly the Geological Survey of Victoria is a government agency responsible for mapping the geology of Victoria, Australia.Richard Wells (nurse): Richard J. Wells CBE, RN, FRCN (1950–1993) was a British nurse, nursing adviser and health care administrator.Telecare: Telecare is the term for offering remote care of elderly and physically less able people, providing the care and reassurance needed to allow them to remain living in their own homes. The use of sensors may be part of a package which can provide support for people with illnesses such as dementia, or people at risk of falling.Delegation: Delegation is the assignment of responsibility or authority to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities, such as starting on proper tires during a wet race. It is one of the core concepts of management leadership.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.

(1/2509) Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

(2/2509) Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia.  (+info)

(3/2509) Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.

Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans.  (+info)

(4/2509) Prevalence of intestinal parasite infections with special reference to Entamoeba histolytica on the island of Bioko (Equatorial Guinea).

The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was assessed (1993 through 1995) among two different groups of persons on the island of Bioko, Equatorial Guinea. In the first group, parasitologic examinations were performed on stool specimens from a household-based sample of 557 dwellers from the rural area of the island. In the second group, 1,633 inpatients and outpatients at the General Hospital of Malabo (the capital of the country) were studied. All age groups were represented in both groups. The average prevalence of the most common protozoan and helminthic intestinal infections in rural and urban areas, respectively, was as follows: Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (14.9% and 32.7%, respectively), Giardia lamblia (7.2% and 8.6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (45.8% and 31.4%), and Trichuris trichiura (25.7% and 36.4%). Seventy-nine sera from patients with amebic liver abscess (suspected by ultrasonography) were studied by an immunohemagglutination assay, with 44 (56%) showing anti-E. histolytica titers > or = 1:32. Of these 79 sera, 71 were studied by an enzyme immunoassay, 86% of which were positive with titers > or = 1:64. This study showed that parasitic infections in Equatorial Guinea represent a major health problem.  (+info)

(5/2509) A case-control study of risk factors for Haemophilus influenzae type B disease in Navajo children.

To understand the potential risk factors and protective factors for invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, we conducted a case-control study among Navajo children less than two years of age resident on the Navajo Nation. We analyzed household interview data for 60 cases that occurred between August 1988 and February 1991, and for 116 controls matched by age, gender, and geographic location. The Hib vaccine recipients were excluded from the analyses. Conditional logistic regression models were fit to examine many variables relating to social and environmental conditions. Risk factors determined to be important were never breast fed (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52, 8.26), shared care with more than one child less than two years of age (OR = 2.32, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.96); wood heating (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 0.91, 5.05); rodents in the home (OR = 8.18, 95% CI = 0.83, 80.7); and any livestock near the home (OR = 2.18, 95% CI = 0.94, 5.04).  (+info)

(6/2509) Variation by body mass index and age in waist-to-hip ratio associations with glycemic status in an aboriginal population at risk for type 2 diabetes in British Columbia, Canada.

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether obesity and age modify or confound relations between abdominal adiposity and metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was assess the consistency of relations between abdominal adiposity and glycemic variables across discrete categories of obesity and age. DESIGN: We performed a stratified analysis of prevalence data from a rural screening initiative in British Columbia, Canada. Subjects were Salishan Indians, all healthy relatives of individuals with type 2 diabetes [n = 151; age: 18-80 y; body mass index (BMI, in kg/m2): 17.0-48.2]. We measured waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (2 categories); insulin, glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c), and 2-h glucose concentrations (2 categories); and BMI (4 categories). BMI and age-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: WHR-glycemic variable relations were not consistent across BMI and age strata. Risks associated with high WHR were: for persons with BMIs from 25 to 29, elevated insulin (OR: 6.71; 95% CI: 1.41, 34.11) and Hb A1c (OR: 16.23; 95% CI: 2.04, 101.73) concentrations; for persons aged 18-34 y, elevated insulin concentrations [OR: indeterminate (+infinity); 95% CI: 1.89, +infinity]; and, for persons aged 35-49 y, elevated Hb A1c (OR: +infinity; 95% CI: 3.17, +infinity) and 2-h glucose (OR: 9.15; 95% CI: 1.74, 59.91) concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: WHR discriminates risk of type 2 diabetes in overweight but not obese individuals. Abdominal adiposity is associated with elevated insulin concentrations in younger age groups and with impaired glucose control in middle-aged groups, suggesting metabolic staging by age on a continuum from insulin resistance to impaired glucose tolerance.  (+info)

(7/2509) What's driving an epidemic? The spread of syphilis along an interstate highway in rural North Carolina.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether county syphilis rates were increased along Interstate Highway 95 (I-95) in North Carolina during a recent epidemic. METHODS: Ecological data on syphilis cases demographic data, highway data, and drug activity data were used to conduct a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of North Carolina countries from 1985 to 1994. Crude and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were determined by means of standard and longitudinal Poisson regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors and drug use. RESULTS: Ten-year syphilis rates in I-95 counties greatly exceeded rates in non-I-95 counties (38 vs 16 cases per 100,000 persons) and remained higher after adjustment for race, age, sex, poverty, large cities, and drug activity (adjusted IRR = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.84, 2.28). Syphilis rates were stable until 1989, when rates increased sharply in I-95 counties but remained stable in non-I-95 counties. Increased drug activity in I-95 counties preceded the rise in syphilis cases. CONCLUSIONS: A better understanding of the relationship between high-ways and the spread of sexually transmitted diseases may guide future prevention interventions.  (+info)

(8/2509) Standardized comparison of glucose intolerance in west African-origin populations of rural and urban Cameroon, Jamaica, and Caribbean migrants to Britain.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of glucose intolerance in genetically similar African-origin populations within Cameroon and from Jamaica and Britain. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Subjects studied were from rural and urban Cameroon or from Jamaica, or were Caribbean migrants, mainly Jamaican, living in Manchester, England. Sampling bases included a local census of adults aged 25-74 years in Cameroon, districts statistically representative in Jamaica, and population registers in Manchester. African-Caribbean ethnicity required three grandparents of this ethnicity. Diabetes was defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) 1985 criteria using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (2-h > or = 11.1 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment) and by the new American Diabetes Association criteria (fasting glucose > or = 7.0 mmol/l or hypoglycemic treatment). RESULTS: For men, mean BMIs were greatest in urban Cameroon and Manchester (25-27 kg/m2); in women, these were similarly high in urban Cameroon and Jamaica and highest in Manchester (27-28 kg/m2). The age-standardized diabetes prevalence using WHO criteria was 0.8% in rural Cameroon, 2.0% in urban Cameroon, 8.5% in Jamaica, and 14.6% in Manchester, with no difference between sexes (men: 1.1%, 1.0%, 6.5%, 15.3%, women: 0.5%, 2.8%, 10.6%, 14.0%), all tests for trend P < 0.001. Impaired glucose tolerance was more frequent in Jamaica. CONCLUSIONS: The transition in glucose intolerance from Cameroon to Jamaica and Britain suggests that environment determines diabetes prevalence in these populations of similar genetic origin.  (+info)



Manatee County Rural Health Services


  • Manatee County Rural Health Services, Inc. (mcrhs.org)
  • The Annual Senator Edgar H. Price, Jr. Lifetime Achievement Awards Dinner is always an exciting occasion for the Manatee County Rural Health Services Foundation. (mcrhs.org)

eligible


  • L. 104-73) and is extended Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA) protections under 28 U.S.C. 1346(b), 2401(b), and 2679-81 as an eligible health center funded under the Health Center Program, section 330 of the Public Health Service (PHS) Act (42 U.S.C. 254b), as amended. (mcrhs.org)
  • Eligible rural hospital leaders and staff can attend a HELP webinar to learn about current financial, operational and quality performance needs that impact their transition to the new health care environment. (ruralcenter.org)

Services


  • MCR Health Services is protected by the Federally Supported Health Centers Assistance Acts (FSHCAA) of 1992 (Pub. (mcrhs.org)
  • As the national knowledge center on rural electronic health record adoption, The Center offers comprehensive services targeted at rural hospitals, rural health clinics and state and national HIT programs. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Expertly facilitated services conducted by The Center's staff of national rural health experts will help hospitals and organizations achieve this success. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The Center offers a complete spectrum of rural health performance improvement services. (ruralcenter.org)
  • South Plains Rural Health Services, Inc. (wealthminder.com)
  • South Plains Rural Health Services, Inc. Retirement Plan at South Plains Rural Health Services, Inc. in the Health Care and Social Assistance industry has an unknown number of investment options, and a total of $852,740.00 in assets. (wealthminder.com)
  • With 45 participants, the South Plains Rural Health Services, Inc. Retirement Plan has an average balance per participant of $18,949.78. (wealthminder.com)
  • Want professional advice on your South Plains Rural Health Services, Inc. Retirement Plan? (wealthminder.com)
  • Do you work at South Plains Rural Health Services, Inc. (wealthminder.com)
  • A new round of crises and challenges in rural Colorado medicine has health experts and public officials on alert, scrambling to shore up services in far-flung areas. (brushnewstribune.com)

Medicare


  • Fast-aging rural communities rely more on Medicare payments, which are being trimmed by the sequestration and other measures. (brushnewstribune.com)
  • Melissa Minge, Hanover's billing clerk, says the claims-processing employees at the managed care organizations insisted the hospital first bill Medicare on claims that she says the federal health care program for seniors couldn't pay. (kcur.org)

hospital


  • Childhood and adult tuberculosis in a rural hospital in Southeast Ethiopia: a ten-year retrospective study. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, experience in a rural hospital and information on the differences between children and adults are limited. (omicsonline.org)
  • We described the epidemiology and treatment outcome of adult and childhood tuberculosis (TB) cases, and identified risk factors associated with defaulting and dying during TB treatment in a rural hospital over a 10-year period (1998 to 2007). (omicsonline.org)
  • METHODS: Retrospective data collection using TB registers and treatment cards in a rural private mission hospital. (omicsonline.org)
  • The Small Rural Hospital Transition ( SRHT ) Project supports small rural hospitals nationally by providing on-site technical assistance to assist bridging the gaps between the current health care system and the newly emerging health care delivery and payment system. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The rural hospital that Dr. Roger Warren leads in Hanover, Kan., is owed about $140,000 by the three insurance companies the state contracted with to administer Medicaid. (kcur.org)

officials


  • At a recent legislative oversight hearing, officials from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) said none of the three KanCare companies - Amerigroup, Sunflower State Health Plan and United HealthCare - had met contractual goals for timely claims payment in 2013. (kcur.org)

care


  • Community support of the local health care system is vital for sustainability and growth. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The Center understands that rural health care facilities face unique workforce challenges. (ruralcenter.org)
  • Since 1991, The Center has assisted rural citizens, health professionals, educators and policymakers with design and implementation strategies to assure the availability of quality health care. (ruralcenter.org)
  • TASC provides performance improvement resources to CAHs and state Flex Programs on quality, finance, operations, systems of care and population health. (ruralcenter.org)
  • SHIP provides funding to approximately 1,600 participating hospitals in 46 participating SORHs to help small rural hospitals participate in value-based payment and care delivery models. (ruralcenter.org)
  • The Associates Program is designed to connect health care organizations and networks with highly qualified rural consultants and technical experts. (ruralcenter.org)
  • PMG calls allow peer-to-peer education focused on preparing rural hospitals for new payment and care delivery models. (ruralcenter.org)

local health


  • CONCLUSION: (1) The registration of TB cases can be useful to understand the epidemiology of TB in local health facilities. (omicsonline.org)

Public Health


  • said Randy Kuykendall, interim director of EMS for the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. (brushnewstribune.com)

center


  • Find information about upcoming webinars, workshops and more hosted by The Center or Rural Health Innovations. (ruralcenter.org)

plans


  • KanCare, which launched in January 2013 , moved virtually all the state's 380,000 Medicaid enrollees into health plans run by the three companies. (kcur.org)

industry


  • The Center's Resource Library features webinars, presentations, articles and toolkits developed by trusted industry leaders to guide and support rural health stakeholders. (ruralcenter.org)

community


  • Every year we honor those inspiring individuals who have contributed to the health and welfare of our community. (mcrhs.org)

assist


  • Certified Application Counselors are available to assist you with enrollment into the Marketplace or other health insurance options. (mcrhs.org)