Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Hevea: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. Commercial natural RUBBER is mainly obtained from Hevea brasiliensis but also from some other plants.Rubber Dams: Sheets of latex rubber punched and placed over the teeth during dental procedures to isolate the field of operation from the rest of the oral cavity (Jablonski; Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982). Rubber dams are useful in preventing the swallowing of instruments or restorations during dental work.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Silicone Elastomers: Polymers of silicone that are formed by crosslinking and treatment with amorphous silica to increase strength. They have properties similar to vulcanized natural rubber, in that they stretch under tension, retract rapidly, and fully recover to their original dimensions upon release. They are used in the encapsulation of surgical membranes and implants.Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Taraxacum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain chicoric and chlorogenic acids and germacrane- and eudesmane-type SESQUITERPENES.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Hemiterpenes: The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Dimethylallyltranstransferase: An enzyme that, in the pathway of cholesterol biosynthesis, catalyzes the condensation of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallylpyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and geranylpyrophosphate. The enzyme then catalyzes the condensation of the latter compound with another molecule of isopentenyl pyrophosphate to yield pyrophosphate and farnesylpyrophosphate. EC 220.127.116.11.Nevus, Blue: Usually a benign tumor, that commonly presents as a solitary blue nodule with spindled MELANOCYTES covered by smooth SKIN. Several variants have been identified, one variant being malignant. The blue color is caused by large, densely packed melanocytes deep in the DERMIS of the nevus. In CHILDREN, they usually occur on the BUTTOCKS and LUMBOSACRAL REGION and are referred to as cellular blue nevi. Malignant blue nevi are more commonly found on the SCALP.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Gloves, Surgical: Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
Synthetic rubber: Synthetic rubber, invariably a polymer, is any type of artificial elastomer mainly synthesised from petroleum byproducts. An elastomer is a material with the mechanical (or material) property that it can undergo much more elastic deformation under stress than most materials and still return to its previous size without permanent deformation.Plan Toys: PlanToys is a toy manufacturer located in Trang in the south of Thailand. It was founded in 1981 and makes its toys out of rubberwood, a sustainable by-product of the latex industry's harvesting of trees used for natural rubber production once their productivity declines.Inflatable rubber dam: Inflatable rubber dams are cylindrical rubber fabrics placed across channels, streams and weir or dam crests to raise the upstream water level when inflated. The membrane is a multi-layer fabric made of synthetic fibre (usually nylon) and rubberised on one or both sides.Latex beads: Latex beads are the polymeric particles suspended in a latex.Silastic: Silastic (a portmanteau of 'silicone' and 'plastic') is a trademark registered in 1948 by Dow Corning Corporation for flexible, inert silicone elastomer.Dandelion coffee: Dandelion 'coffee' (also dandelion tea) is herbal tea often used as a coffee substitute, made from the root of the dandelion plant. The roasted dandelion root pieces and the beverage have some resemblance to coffee in appearance and taste.Lumpers and splitters: Lumpers and splitters are opposing factions in any discipline which has to place individual examples into rigorously defined categories. The lumper-splitter problem occurs when there is the need to create classifications and assign examples to them, for example schools of literature, biological taxa and so on.Dimethylallyl pyrophosphateRubber band ligationMercurialis annua: Mercurialis annua is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family known by the common name annual mercury. It is native to Europe, North Africa, and the Middle EastKew World Checklist of Selected Plant FamiliesAltervista Flora Italiana, Mercorella comune, ortiga muerta, urtiga-morta, Einjähriges Bingelkraut, mercuriale annuelle, Annual Mercury, Mercurialis annua L.Dimethylallyltranstransferase: Dimethylallyltranstransferase is an enzyme that converts dimethylallylpyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate into farnesylpyrophosphate. It is also referred to as farnesylpyrophosphate synthase or farnesyldiphosphate synthase.Blue rubber bleb nevus syndromeAdvanced Chemical Industries (ACI): ৳ 238 Million http://www.aci-bd.Auditory illusion: An auditory illusion is an illusion of hearing, the aural equivalent of an optical illusion: the listener hears either sounds which are not present in the stimulus, or "impossible" sounds.Medical glove: Medical gloves are disposable gloves used during medical examinations and procedures that help prevent contamination between caregivers and patients. Medical gloves are made of different polymers including latex, nitrile rubber, vinyl and neoprene; they come unpowdered, or powdered with cornstarch to lubricate the gloves, making them easier to put on the hands.
(1/298) Urethral response to latex and Silastic catheters.
The reaction of the urethral mucosa to latex and Silastic catheters was compared in two groups of patients undergoing prostatectomy. The bacteriologic response in the two groups differed little; however, Silastic catheters produced less cellular reaction than latex catheters. (+info)
(2/298) Casts of hepatic blood vessels: a comparison of the microcirculation of the penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, with some common laboratory animals.
Latex casts of the hepatic blood vessels of the penguin, Pygoscelis adeliae, and of some common laboratory animals were compared. There was general similarity between the different species, but the portal venous and hepatic arterial systems of the penguin were simpler than those of other species. Measurements were made of the volume and length of portal veins and it appears that the portal venous system is capable of being a more efficient blood reservoir in the penguin than in other species studied. The peribiliary plexus was especially well formed in the penguin and was drained by long veins which usually joined portal venous branches. Some of the long veins drained directly into the hepatic venous tree: these translobular veins were more prominent than in mammals. Anastomoses between hepatic artery and portal vein were not present in penguins, and the supply to the sinusoids appeared to be separate. The morphology of small hepatic veins of all the species appeared to be similar. (+info)
(3/298) Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyurethane condom: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial.
CONTEXT: Condoms made of latex are not comfortable or appropriate for all consumers. Polyurethane condoms may provide a needed alternative. METHODS: In a double-masked study, 805 monogamous couples were randomized to use either the polyurethane condom or the latex condom for six months. Couples recorded the frequency of intercourse, of condom use and of breakage and slippage throughout the trial in coital diaries and in detailed reports on the first five uses. Breakage and slippage rates were determined, and typical-use and consistent-use pregnancy rates were calculated using life-table analysis, adjusted for use of emergency contraception. RESULTS: The six-month pregnancy rate during typical use (adjusted for use of emergency contraception) was 4.8% for the polyurethane condom and 6.3% for the latex condom. Similarly adjusted pregnancy rates during consistent use over six completed menstrual cycles--2.4% for the polyurethane condom and 1.1% for the latex condom--did not differ significantly. Clinical failure rates (including breakage and slippage occurring during either intercourse or withdrawal) were 8.5% for the polyurethane condom and 1.6% for the latex condom. In general, male participants were more satisfied with the latex condom, and users of latex were significantly less likely to drop out of the study for condom-related reasons than were users of polyurethane. CONCLUSIONS: Although polyurethane and latex condoms provide equivalent levels of contraceptive protection, the polyurethane condom's higher frequency of breakage and slippage suggests that this condom may confer less protection from sexually transmitted infections than does the latex condom. (+info)
(4/298) Measurement of some potentially hazardous materials in the atmosphere of rubber factories.
Two separate topics of work are outlined: methods for the measurement of chlorinated monomers in PVC and polychloroprene, and also methods for the measurement of these materials in factory air. Typical results which have been obtained in supplies of raw materials, in finished products, and in the working atmosphere at manufacturing operations are given. The second topic concerns the measurement of benzo[a]pyrene in the atmosphere of a tire manufacturing plant. This material is present in trace quantities in the mineral oils and carbon blacks used by the industry. The atmospheric concentrations present at various processes in this plant were measured on a daily basis over a period of two years, and the results obtained compared with results taken concurrently from an outside air station. It is shown that no significant quantities of benzo[a]pyrene are produced by tire manufacturing operations. (+info)
(5/298) Chronic diseases in the rubber industry.
An overview is presented of epidemiologic studies of chronic diseases in the rubber industry. Analyses of the mortality experience during the period 1964-1972 of workers age 40-64 and retirees age 65-84 of two large rubber and tire manufacturing companies consistently disclosed excesses of deaths attributed to leukemia and lymphosarcoma, and for cancers of the stomach, large intestine, and prostate. The relation of site-specific malignancies to work histories and grouped occupational titles as surrogate measures of work-related exposures to possible carcinogens is described. There was no evidence of company-wide, sizable, consistent excess for the other major chronic diseases causes of death. Although a total cohort deficit in the mortality rate for lung cancer was found, there was a history of increased frequency of exposure to certain work areas among lung cancer decedents. Morbidity studies, including analysis of disability retirements, and ad hoc questionnaire and health testing surveys, disclosed excesses of chronic pulmonary diseases. There was evidence of an interactive effect in the association of work and smoking histories with pulmonary disability retirement. (+info)
(6/298) Problems and perspective in epidemiological study of occupational health hazards in the rubber industry.
An epidemiological analysis of the problems in the study of companies engaged in the manufacture of rubber products in different countries and in different time periods is given. Selected findings on cancer of gallbladder and biliary system, cancer of the lung, and tumors of the central nervous system among rubber workers are presented. (+info)
(7/298) Recent achievements and research initiated in the Swedish plastics and rubber industry.
The improvement in exposure conditions in the Swedish vinyl chloride producing industry is reported. The article comments on the technology and control methods by which the vinyl chloride concentration has been lowered to less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride. Two epidemiological retrospective cohort studies are presently under way on workers in PVC-utilizing industries and in the rubber industry. (+info)
(8/298) Occupational disease in the rubber industry.
We have studied mortality patterns in a large cohort of rubber workers. We have examined workers exposed to curing fumes, processing dusts, and industrial talc and have begun to evaluate exposures of these workers in detail. Gastrointestinal (especially stomach) cancer appears in excess in processing workers. Lung cancer is excessive in curing workers. Leukemia is increased generally. All three groups studied for respiratory disease have an increase in disease prevalence which is related to intensity and duration of exposure. Since both an increase in stomach cancer and respiratory disease is seen in processing workers, exposures in this area must be controlled. Since both lung cancer and chronic respiratory disease is excessive in curing rooms, this exposure must be controlled. The leukemia risk is probably related to solvents. Whether this is all explainable by past benzene exposure is unknown. Further studies are planned to refine our knowledge concerning these risks so that occupational disease in the rubber industry can be prevented. (+info)