Optical Rotation: The rotation of linearly polarized light as it passes through various media.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Reflex, Vestibulo-Ocular: A reflex wherein impulses are conveyed from the cupulas of the SEMICIRCULAR CANALS and from the OTOLITHIC MEMBRANE of the SACCULE AND UTRICLE via the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM and the median longitudinal fasciculus to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE nuclei. It functions to maintain a stable retinal image during head rotation by generating appropriate compensatory EYE MOVEMENTS.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Head Movements: Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.Torsion Abnormality: An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Shoulder Joint: The articulation between the head of the HUMERUS and the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Otolithic Membrane: A gelatinous membrane overlying the acoustic maculae of SACCULE AND UTRICLE. It contains minute crystalline particles (otoliths) of CALCIUM CARBONATE and protein on its outer surface. In response to head movement, the otoliths shift causing distortion of the vestibular hair cells which transduce nerve signals to the BRAIN for interpretation of equilibrium.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Shoulder: Part of the body in humans and primates where the arms connect to the trunk. The shoulder has five joints; ACROMIOCLAVICULAR joint, CORACOCLAVICULAR joint, GLENOHUMERAL joint, scapulathoracic joint, and STERNOCLAVICULAR joint.Vestibular Nerve: The vestibular part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The vestibular nerve fibers arise from neurons of Scarpa's ganglion and project peripherally to vestibular hair cells and centrally to the VESTIBULAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM. These fibers mediate the sense of balance and head position.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Scapula: Also called the shoulder blade, it is a flat triangular bone, a pair of which form the back part of the shoulder girdle.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Head: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Torso: The central part of the body to which the neck and limbs are attached.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Humerus: Bone in humans and primates extending from the SHOULDER JOINT to the ELBOW JOINT.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Vestibular Nuclei: The four cellular masses in the floor of the fourth ventricle giving rise to a widely dispersed special sensory system. Included is the superior, medial, inferior, and LATERAL VESTIBULAR NUCLEUS. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Baseball: A competitive nine-member team sport including softball.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Brachial Plexus Neuropathies: Diseases of the cervical (and first thoracic) roots, nerve trunks, cords, and peripheral nerve components of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS. Clinical manifestations include regional pain, PARESTHESIA; MUSCLE WEAKNESS, and decreased sensation (HYPESTHESIA) in the upper extremity. These disorders may be associated with trauma (including BIRTH INJURIES); THORACIC OUTLET SYNDROME; NEOPLASMS; NEURITIS; RADIOTHERAPY; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1351-2)Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Rotator Cuff: The musculotendinous sheath formed by the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, and teres minor muscles. These help stabilize the head of the HUMERUS in the glenoid fossa and allow for rotation of the SHOULDER JOINT about its longitudinal axis.Arthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Shoulder Dislocation: Displacement of the HUMERUS from the SCAPULA.Motion Sickness: Disorder caused by motion, as sea sickness, train sickness, car sickness, air sickness, or SPACE MOTION SICKNESS. It may include nausea, vomiting and dizziness.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Coriolis Force: The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Photogrammetry: Making measurements by the use of stereoscopic photographs.Imagination: A new pattern of perceptual or ideational material derived from past experience.Gravity Sensing: Process whereby a cell, bodily structure, or organism (animal or plant) receives or detects a gravity stimulus. Gravity sensing plays an important role in the directional growth and development of an organism (GRAVITROPISM).Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Vestibular Diseases: Pathological processes of the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH which contains part of the balancing apparatus. Patients with vestibular diseases show instability and are at risk of frequent falls.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Optic Flow: The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Tendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Preceptorship: Practical experience in medical and health-related services that occurs as part of an educational program wherein the professionally-trained student works outside the academic environment under the supervision of an established professional in the particular field.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Vestibular Function Tests: A number of tests used to determine if the brain or balance portion of the inner ear are causing dizziness.Gravity, Altered: A change in, or manipulation of, gravitational force. This may be a natural or artificial effect.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by retropatellar or peripatellar PAIN resulting from physical and biochemical changes in the patellofemoral joint. The pain is most prominent when ascending or descending stairs, squatting, or sitting with flexed knees. There is a lack of consensus on the etiology and treatment. The syndrome is often confused with (or accompanied by) CHONDROMALACIA PATELLAE, the latter describing a pathological condition of the CARTILAGE and not a syndrome.Paralysis, Obstetric: Paralysis of an infant resulting from injury received at birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Optical Devices: Products or parts of products used to detect, manipulate, or analyze light, such as LENSES, refractors, mirrors, filters, prisms, and OPTICAL FIBERS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Ear, Inner: The essential part of the hearing organ consists of two labyrinthine compartments: the bony labyrinthine and the membranous labyrinth. The bony labyrinth is a complex of three interconnecting cavities or spaces (COCHLEA; VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH; and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS) in the TEMPORAL BONE. Within the bony labyrinth lies the membranous labyrinth which is a complex of sacs and tubules (COCHLEAR DUCT; SACCULE AND UTRICLE; and SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS) forming a continuous space enclosed by EPITHELIUM and connective tissue. These spaces are filled with LABYRINTHINE FLUIDS of various compositions.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Gait: Manner or style of walking.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Oxidopamine: A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Chemotaxis: The movement of cells or organisms toward or away from a substance in response to its concentration gradient.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Internal Fixators: Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Chloroplast Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases which produce ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE in plants. They derive energy from light-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the membranous cisternae (THYLAKOIDS) of the CHLOROPLASTS.Venturicidins: Toxic substances isolated from various strains of Streptomyces. They are 20-membered macrolides that inhibit oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial ATPases. Venturicidins A and B are glycosides. Used mainly as tools in the study of mitochondrial function.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.AxisAnterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Compression of the rotator cuff tendons and subacromial bursa between the humeral head and structures that make up the coracoacromial arch and the humeral tuberosities. This condition is associated with subacromial bursitis and rotator cuff (largely supraspinatus) and bicipital tendon inflammation, with or without degenerative changes in the tendon. Pain that is most severe when the arm is abducted in an arc between 40 and 120 degrees, sometimes associated with tears in the rotator cuff, is the chief symptom. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Syndromes and Eponymic Diseases, 2d ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Distance Perception: The act of knowing or the recognition of a distance by recollective thought, or by means of a sensory process which is under the influence of set and of prior experience.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling: The selection, appointing, and scheduling of personnel.Humeral Head: The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Pliability: The quality or state of being able to be bent or creased repeatedly. (From Webster, 3d ed)Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Manipulation, Orthopedic: The planned and carefully managed manual movement of the musculoskeletal system, extremities, and spine to produce increased motion. The term is sometimes used to denote a precise sequence of movements of a joint to determine the presence of disease or to reduce a dislocation. In the case of fractures, orthopedic manipulation can produce better position and alignment of the fracture. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p264)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vibrio alginolyticus: A species of gram-negative, halophilic bacteria, in the genus VIBRIO. It is considered part of normal marine flora and commonly associated with ear infections and superficial wounds exposed to contaminated water sources.Pursuit, Smooth: Eye movements that are slow, continuous, and conjugate and occur when a fixed object is moved slowly.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Education, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Stars, Celestial: Large bodies consisting of self-luminous gas held together by their own gravity. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Head-Down Tilt: Posture while lying with the head lower than the rest of the body. Extended time in this position is associated with temporary physiologic disturbances.

*  Patente US6884248 - Surgical helical fastener with applicator - Google Patentes

... the rotation of the lead screw 364 will cause the rotator 38 to likewise rotate. Where the lead screw is turned in the opposite ... structure comprising the terminal end 50 and preventing further rotation. Lock/indicator 40 can be made of a color (or shape) ... the clutch assembly or releasable connection functions to transfer the rotation of the lead screw 364 to the rotator 38, ...
google.es/patents/US6884248?dq=flatulence

*  Patent US7575600 - Artificial vertebral disk replacement implant with translating articulation ... - Google Patents

Thus, the two depressions 128, 134 have peaks 129, 135 that serve as stops to prevent over-rotation of the two endplates 110, ... Thus, the two depressions 228, 234 have peaks 229, 235 that serve as stops to prevent over-rotation of the two endplates 210, ...
google.ca/patents/US7575600

*  Turn Screen Rotation On / Off - HTC 10 | Verizon Wireless

Turn Screen Rotation On / Off - HTC 10™. Screen rotation displays content in landscape (horizontal) or portrait (vertical) and ... Home > Support > HTC > HTC 10 > Turn Screen Rotation On / Off - HTC 10 ...
https://verizonwireless.com/support/knowledge-base-204714/

*  Relative weights of static and dynamic visual cues in the perception of body roll | JOV | ARVO Journals

The speed of the visual rotation was varied relative to the speed of the body rotation. Four visual scenes were used: 1) ... We used a cue-conflict paradigm to directly compare the influence of static orientation and dynamic rotation visual cues. ... Prior research has investigated the relative influence of static orientation and dynamic rotation vestibular signals (from the ... Static orientation and dynamic rotation information both contribute to body orientation judgments, but static orientation ...
jov.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2133119

*  Biology-Online • View topic - The Fiber Disease

Regulation of the direction of flagellar rotation is central to the mechanism of bacterial chemotaxis. The transitions between ... counterclockwise and clockwise rotation are controlled by a 'switch complex' composed of three proteins (FliG, FliM, and FliN) ...
biology-online.org/biology-forum/post-63628.html

*  Rotation

Dodge pillars as the room spins!
https://newgrounds.com/portal/view/453639?id=453639

*  A rotation shuffle

... they have bumped their ace back a day during the next turn through the rotation. It also shows they have an eye toward resting ... Kyle Kendrick, who was originally scheduled to start Monday, will now take his normal turn in the rotation on Saturday. That ... This means, if the rotation stays on schedule, Kendrick, Cole Hamels and Halladay would start the final three games of the ... they have bumped their ace back a day during the next turn through the rotation. It also shows they have an eye toward resting ...
philly.com/philly/blogs/phillies_zone/A_rotation_shuffle.html?viewFirst=y&jCount=3

*  Tire Rotation

The only time tire rotation is appropriate on a bicycle is when you are replacing the rear tire. If you feel like taking the ...
sheldonbrown.com/tire-rotation.html

*  76ers' rotation set, finally

Kate Fagan of the Inquirer discusses how the more defined rotation has sparked the team's recent hot streak. - Kate Fagan, ... 76ers' rotation set, finally Updated: December 8, 2010 - 4:05 PM EST * ... Kate Fagan of the Inquirer discusses how the more defined rotation has sparked the team's recent hot streak. ...
philly.com/philly/sports/sixers/76ers_rotation_set_finally.html

*  Translation after rotation

My translations are only in the (x, y) plane, and my rotation is only about the z-axis. Imagine looking directly down at a map ... regardless of rotation. The problem is that the rotation is about the center of the object, and I need the rotation to be about ... This gives me the rotation that I want, always about the point I am looking at. The problem is that after a rotation, the ... Translation after rotation I'm using OpenGL ES 2.0 for Android. I'm translating and rotating a model using the touch screen. My ...
https://opengl.org/discussion_boards/showthread.php/183887-Translation-after-rotation?p=1260890&viewfull=1

*  Adding interactivity: Rotation

So what attribute do we want to add?…Well we want to do rotation, so which axis do we want to rotate around.…Well we want to ... So now let's take a look at how to do rotation interactively.…Now we already have this refrigerator set up so that the drawers ... Join George Maestri for an in-depth discussion in this video Adding interactivity: Rotation , part of SketchUp 8 Essential ... rotate around the Z axis;…In fact, you can see it up here that that's the rotation, because we're going to…rotate around that ...
https://lynda.com/SketchUp-tutorials/Adding-interactivity-Rotation/77962/86161-4.html?w=0

*  APPENDIX B - Aquacultural Rotation

... 1. INTRODUCTION Aquacultural rotation (AR) is a production method developed for ... Chemical analyses of pond soils treated with aquacultural rotation in the Fish Culture Research Institute). In Halhustermelés ... Economics of utilization of alkali soils by aquacultural rotation). In Halhustermelés fejlesztése, edited by Fish Culture ...
fao.org/docrep/x5744e/x5744e0r.htm

*  direct (rotation)

... direct axial rotation or orbital rotation is in a counterclockwise direction when viewed looking down from above the Sun's ... direct (rotation). When referring to rotation, direct axial rotation or orbital rotation is in a counterclockwise direction ...
daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/D/direct.html

*  Bugs : Magick Rotation

The Magick Rotation Installer currently works with Fedora, LMDE, Mint, openSUSE, and Ubuntu. (Other Distros may also be ... Magick Rotation is not a Ubuntu specific application. Versions have worked in Arch, Fedora, Gentoo, Mandriva, and openSUSE ...
https://bugs.launchpad.net/magick-rotation/ bugs?field.has_cve=on

*  Rotation Within the Rotation

Rotation within rotation" Midday, morning gains in Materials and Energy stocks continue to hold up, but the other market leader ...
https://cnbc.com/id/42272762

*  crop rotation | agriculture | Britannica.com

crop rotation: The successive cultivation of different crops in a specified order on the same fields, in contrast to a one-crop ... A simple rotation would be one crop from each group with a 1:1:1 ratio. The first number in a rotation ratio refers to ... Short rotations are not likely to provide the best crop balances, and long rotations on a larger number of fields may introduce ... Rotations for any number of fields and crop relationships can be described in this manner. In general, most rotations are ...
https://britannica.com/topic/crop-rotation

*  Baker takes new rotation - SFGate

Manager Dusty Baker doesn't want to announce his rotation now, but he conceded Wednesday he does have five pitchers in mind. ... Last year, Baker predicted his rotation on the first day of spring training and was disappointed when projected No. 5 starter ... http://www.sfgate.com/sports/article/Baker-takes-new-rotation-3133290.php ...
sfgate.com/sports/article/Baker-takes-new-rotation-3133290.php

*  Beware the Great Rotation - MarketWatch

The Great Rotation stock-market melt-up hypothesis also would have to fly in the face of well-documented seasonal trading ... Even if a Great Rotation out of bonds comes to pass, it doesn't mean investors will move all of that money into stocks. ... Another reason to question the Great Rotation argument is that any positive impact on the stock market is likely to be short- ... Consider 1987, arguably the period over the past three decades most relevant to the Great Rotation argument today. Then, as now ...
marketwatch.com/story/beware-the-great-rotation-2013-02-18?siteid=rss

*  Rotation | Houston Press

Flaming Lips The Soft Bulletin Warner Bros. Too bad all bands don't spend as much time thinking about what they do as the Flaming Lips. You, Beavis and...
houstonpress.com/music/rotation-6569088

*  WHO/Europe | Rotation principle

Rotation principle Membership to the EACHR terminates automatically after four years; after which members will receive a letter ... The Secretary will consult with the chairs of the EACHR about rotation. The Secretariat will then send the recommendation to ...
euro.who.int/en/data-and-evidence/evidence-informed-policy-making/european-advisory-committee-on-health-research-eachr/rules-and-procedures/rotation-principle

*  Psych rotation | allnurses

what was your psych rotation like? ours is supposed to be pretty short and mostly observation. im ok with this because i am ... Psych rotation by brokenroads27 Views: 7,632 Comments: 10 * what was your psych rotation like? ours is supposed to be pretty ... My rotation is 6 weeks long, 12.5 hours each week, twice a week. We are assigned a different patient each day that we are ... This rotation is at a state mental health hospital with co-ed patients on each unit. My instructor constantly expects each of ...
allnurses.com/general-nursing-student/psych-rotation-504774.html

*  BM Rotation: Help?

So I was reading up on EJ and it seems BM is back in a place where it almost has a rotation... So I am wondering if anyone here ... BM Rotation: Help? So I was reading up on EJ and it seems BM is back in a place where it almost has a rotation.... ... yes BM+SV do have sort of a rotation/priority/constraints thing, that has been there for a long time.. we try to fill the ... yes BM+SV do have sort of a rotation/priority/constraints thing, that has been there for a long time.. we try to fill the ...
mmo-champion.com/threads/1259938-BM-Rotation-Help?p=20129141&viewfull=1

*  PVE- Discipline rotation

It's mainly the rotation that made me respecc to holy each time. If someone could provide me a rotation to maintain in raids? ... PVE- Discipline rotation Hi guys,. I've been playing priest since the launch of MoP and I really enjoy healing with the class. ... There is no rotation as a healer, ever.. You cast spells based on what you need in the moment ... There is no rotation as a healer, ever.. You cast spells based on what you need in the moment ...
mmo-champion.com/threads/1249922-PVE-Discipline-rotation?p=19809683

*  Yardeni: Great Rotation - Business Insider

4) The Great Rotation? (5) The fiscal cliff turned out to be bullish. (6) Yearend bulge in bonuses and dividends. (7) The ... Two Stats You Should Consider Before Talking About This So-Called 'Great Rotation'. ... Two Stats You Should Consider Before Talking About This So-Called 'Great Rotation' The future is making a comeback. ... Two Stats You Should Consider Before Talking About This So-Called 'Great Rotation'. ...
businessinsider.com/yardeni-great-rotation-2013-2

*  Reverse Lunge with Trunk Rotation - YouTube

GET TONED abs - trunk rotation for abs, obliques and back (baseball drill) - Duration: 0:33. David Nuckols 484 views ... The reverse lunge rotation exercise utilizes both stability and mobility by combining a traditional reverse lunge with a torso ... How to Do Reverse Lunge With Rotation , Sleek/Strong With Rachel Cosgrove - Duration: 1:39. LivestrongWoman 10,736 views ... Exercises for Core Strength & Trunk Rotation : Getting in Great Shape - Duration: 2:46. eHowFitness 13,813 views ...
https://youtube.com/watch?v=RTP_Nn2TqHs&feature=related

Phenylpropanoic acidVision in fishes: Vision is an important sensory system for most species of fish. Fish eyes are similar to terrestrial vertebrates like birds and mammals, but have a more spherical lens.Mechanochemistry: Mechanochemistry or mechanical chemistry is the coupling of mechanical and chemical phenomena on a molecular scale and includes mechanical breakage, chemical behaviour of mechanically stressed solids (e.g.Fall Heads Roll: Fall Heads Roll is an album by The Fall, released in 2005. It was recorded at Gracieland Studios in Rochdale, UK and Gigantic Studios in New York, NY.Ovarian torsionVoluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Shoulder arthritis: Shoulder arthritis can be one of three types of arthritis in the glenohumeral joint of the shoulder. The glenohumeral joint is a ball and socket joint, which relies on cartilage to move smoothly and to operate normally.Vestibular system: The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution about the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals, situated in the vestibulum in the inner ear (Figure 1).Electric torque wrenchFlagellar motor switch: In molecular biology, the flagellar motor switch is a protein complex. In Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium it regulates the direction of flagellar rotation and hence controls swimming behaviour.Alexander's law: Jacobson GP et al. Alexander's law revisited.Otolith: An otolith (οτο-, oto-, ear + λιθος, lithos, a stone), also called statoconium or otoconium, is a structure in the saccule or utricle of the inner ear, specifically in the vestibular labyrinth of vertebrates. They have been identified in both extinct and extant vertebrates.Orders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Riding-like sittingCanon EOS 5Snapping scapula syndrome: Snapping Scapula Syndrome, also known as scapulocostal syndrome or scapulothoracic syndrome, is described by a “grating, grinding, popping or snapping sensation of the scapula onto the back side of the ribs or thoracic area of the spine” (Hauser). Disruption of the normal scapulothoracic mechanics causes this problem.Molecular motor: Molecular motors are biological molecular machines that are the essential agents of movement in living organisms. In general terms, a motor may be defined as a device that consumes energy in one form and converts it into motion or mechanical work; for example, many protein-based molecular motors harness the chemical free energy released by the hydrolysis of ATP in order to perform mechanical work.Henry Beighton: Henry Beighton (c. 20 August 1687 – 9 October 1743) was an English engineer and surveyor.Scoliosis Research SocietyPrinciples of motion economy: The principles of motion economy form a set of rules and suggestions to improve the manual work in manufacturing and reduce fatigue and unnecessary movements by the worker, which can lead to the reduction in the work related trauma.Volume rendering: 250px|thumb| A volume rendered cadaver head using view-aligned [[texture mapping and diffuse reflection]]Reaction coordinatePronator drift: In medicine, pronator drift (also known as pyramidal drift) refers to a pathologic sign seen during a neurological examination. Jean Alexandre Barré is credited with having first described it thus it is sometimes known as the Barré test or sign.Bradford LeslieExtended physiological proprioception: Extended physiological proprioception (EPP) is a concept pioneered by D.C.Medial vestibular nucleus: The medial vestibular nucleus is one of the vestibular nuclei. It is located in the medulla oblongata.Jim McKeever (baseball)Hip resurfacing: 155px|right|thumb|The BHRMatrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Biological motion: Biological motion is a term used by social and cognitive neuroscientists to refer to the unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism.Knee pain: Knee pain is a common complaint for many people. There are several factors that can cause knee pain.MonoplegiaAgraphesthesia: Agraphesthesia is a disorder of directional cutaneous kinesthesia or a disorientation of the skin's sensation across its space. It is a difficulty recognizing a written number or letter traced on the skin after parietal damage.Rotator cuff tearGoniometerBankart lesionSeasicknessGeneralizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Coriolis effect (perception): In psychophysical perception, the Coriolis effect is the misperception of body orientation and induced nausea due to the Coriolis force (also referred to as the Coriolis illusion).Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Anterior meniscofemoral ligament: The anterior meniscofemoral ligament (ligament of Humphrey) is a small fibrous band of the knee joint. It arises from the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus and passes superiorly and medially in front of the posterior cruciate ligament to attach to the lateral surface of medial condyle of the femur.Photogrammetry: Photogrammetry is the science of making measurements from photographs, especially for recovering the exact positions of surface points. Moreover, it may be used to recover the motion pathways of designated reference points located on any moving object, on its components and in the immediately adjacent environment.Imagination (band)AmyloplastDog healthBirth trauma (physical)Grotto of the RedemptionCerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingHarrington Meeting HouseReflected-wave switching: Reflected-wave switching is a signalling technique used in backplane computer buses such as PCI.Phase problem: In physics the phase problem is the name given to the problem of loss of information concerning the phase that can occur when making a physical measurement. The name itself comes from the field of x-ray crystallography, where the phase problem has to be solved for the determination of a structure from diffraction data.Pes anserinus (leg): Pes anserinus ("goose foot") refers to the conjoined tendons of three muscles that insert onto the anteromedial (front and inside) surface of the proximal extremity of the tibia. The muscles are the sartorius, gracilis and semitendinosus.Stereopsis: Stereopsis (from the Greek στερεο- [meaning "solid", and ὄψις] opsis, "appearance, [[visual perception|sight") is a term that is most often used to refer to the perception of depth and 3-dimensional structure obtained on the basis of visual information deriving from two eyes by individuals with normally developed binocular vision.Clay-shoveler fracture: Clay-shoveler's fracture is a stable fracture through the spinous process of a vertebra occurring at any of the lower cervical or upper thoracic vertebrae, classically at C6 or C7. In Australia in the 1930s, men digging deep ditches tossed clay 10 to 15 feet above their heads using long handled shovels.Posturography: Posturography is a general term that covers all the techniques used to quantify postural control in upright stance in either static or dynamic conditions. Among them, Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP), also called test of balance (TOB), is a non-invasive specialized clinical assessment technique used to quantify the central nervous system adaptive mechanisms (sensory, motor and central) involved in the control of posture and balance, both in normal (such as in physical education and sports training) and abnormal conditions (particularly in the diagnosis of balance disorders and in physical therapy and postural re-education).Joint replacementWalker (BEAM): In BEAM robotics, a walker is a walking machine that has a driven mode of locomotion by intermittent ground-contacting legs. They usually possess 1 to 12 (generally, three or less) motors.Dynamic strain aging: Although sometimes dynamic strain aging is used interchangeably with the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect (or serrated yielding), dynamic strain aging refers specifically to the microscopic mechanism that induces the Portevin–Le Chatelier effect. This strengthening mechanism is related to solid-solution strengthening and has been observed in a variety of fcc and bcc substitutional and interstitial alloys, metalloids like silicon, and ordered intermetallics within specific ranges of temperature and strain rate.OsteotomyAging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Maladaptation: A maladaptation () is a trait that is (or has become) more harmful than helpful, in contrast with an adaptation, which is more helpful than harmful. All organisms, from bacteria to humans, display maladaptive and adaptive traits.Harmening High Flyer: The Harmening High Flyer is an American powered parachute that was designed and produced by Harmening's High Flyers of Genoa, Illinois.Cliche, Andre: Ultralight Aircraft Shopper's Guide 8th Edition, page D-7.Jules Comby: Jules Comby (1853–1947) was a French pediatrician.Cervical fractureBeta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Optical communication: Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information. It can be performed visually or by using electronic devices.

(1/2795) Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine.

LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  (+info)

(2/2795) 3D angiography. Clinical interest. First applications in interventional neuroradiology.

3D angiography is a true technical revolution that allows improvement in the quality and safety of diagnostic and endovascular treatment procedures. 3D angiography images are obtained by reconstruction of a rotational angiography acquisition done on a C-arm (GE Medical Systems) spinning at 40 degrees per second. The carotid or vertebral selective injection of a total of 15 ml of non-ionic contrast media at 3 ml/sec over 5 seconds allows the selection of the "arterial phase". Four hundred sixty 3D angiographic studies were performed from December 1996 to September 1998 on 260 patients and have been analyzed in MIP (Maximum Intensity Projection) and SSD (Shaded Surface Display) views. The exploration of intracranial aneurysms is simplified and only requires, for each vascular axis, a biplane PA and Lateral run followed by a single rotational angiography run. The 3D angiography image is available on the workstation's screen (Advantage Workstation 3.1, GE Medical Systems) in less than 10 minutes after the acquisition of the rotational run. It therefore allows one to analyze, during the intervention, the aneurysm's angioarchitecture, in particular the neck, and select the best therapeutic technique. When endovascular treatment is the best indication, 3D angiography allows one to define the optimal angle of view and accurately select the microcoils dimensions. 3D angiography replaces the multiple oblique views that used to be required to analyze the complex aneurysms and therefore allows a reduction of the total contrast medium quantity, the patient X-ray dose and the length of the intervention time which is a safety factor. Also, in particular for complex cases, it brings additional elements complementing the results of standard 2D DSA and rotational angiograms. In the cervical vascular pathology, 3D angiography allows for a better assessment of the stenosis level and of dissection lesions. Our current research activities focus on the matching without stereotactic frame between 3D X-ray angiography and volumetric MR acquisition, which should allow us to improve the treatment of intracerebral arterio-venous malformations (AVMs).  (+info)

(3/2795) Recovery of the vestibulocolic reflex after aminoglycoside ototoxicity in domestic chickens.

Avian auditory and vestibular hair cells regenerate after damage by ototoxic drugs, but until recently there was little evidence that regenerated vestibular hair cells function normally. In an earlier study we showed that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is eliminated with aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment and recovers as hair cells regenerate. The VOR, which stabilizes the eye in the head, is an open-loop system that is thought to depend largely on regularly firing afferents. Recovery of the VOR is highly correlated with the regeneration of type I hair cells. In contrast, the vestibulocolic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space, is a closed-loop, negative-feedback system that seems to depend more on irregularly firing afferent input and is thought to be subserved by different circuitry than the VOR. We examined whether this different reflex also of vestibular origin would show similar recovery after hair cell regeneration. Lesions of the vestibular hair cells of 10-day-old chicks were created by a 5-day course of streptomycin sulfate. One day after completion of streptomycin treatment there was no measurable VCR gain, and total hair cell density was approximately 35% of that in untreated, age-matched controls. At 2 wk postlesion there was significant recovery of the VCR; at this time two subjects showed VCR gains within the range of control chicks. At 3 wk postlesion all subjects showed VCR gains and phase shifts within the normal range. These data show that the VCR recovers before the VOR. Unlike VOR gain, recovering VCR gain correlates equally well with the density of regenerating type I and type II vestibular hair cells, except at high frequencies. Several factors other than hair cell regeneration, such as length of stereocilia, reafferentation of hair cells, and compensation involving central neural pathways, may be involved in behavioral recovery. Our data suggest that one or more of these factors differentially affect the recovery of these two vestibular reflexes.  (+info)

(4/2795) Projections and firing properties of down eye-movement neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal in the cat.

To clarify the role of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) in the control of vertical eye movements, projections of burst-tonic and tonic neurons in and around the INC were studied. This paper describes neurons with downward ON directions. We examined, by antidromic activation, whether these down INC (d-INC) neurons contribute to two pathways: a commissural pathway to the contralateral (c-) INC and a descending pathway to the ipsilateral vestibular nucleus (i-VN). Stimulation of the two pathways showed that as many as 74% of neurons were activated antidromically from one of the pathways. Of 113 d-INC neurons tested, 44 were activated from the commissural pathway and 40 from the descending pathway. No neurons were activated from both pathways. We concluded that commissural and descending pathways from the INC originate from two separate groups of neurons. Tracking of antidromic microstimulation in the two nuclei revealed multiple low-threshold sites and varied latencies; this was interpreted as a sign of existence of axonal arborization. Neurons with commissural projections tended to be located more dorsally than those with descending projections. Neurons with descending projections had significantly greater eye-position sensitivity and smaller saccadic sensitivity than neurons with commissural projections. The two groups of INC neurons increased their firing rate in nose-up head rotations and responded best to the rotation in the plane of contralateral posterior/ipsilateral anterior canal pair. Neurons with commissural projections showed a larger phase lag of response to sinusoidal rotation (54.6 +/- 7.6 degrees ) than neurons with descending projections (45.0 +/- 5.5 degrees ). Most neurons with descending projections received disynaptic excitation from the contralateral vestibular nerve. Neurons with commissural projections rarely received such disynaptic input. We suggest that downward-position-vestibular (DPV) neurons in the VN and VN-projecting d-INC neurons form a loop, together with possible commissural loops linking the bilateral VNs and the bilateral INCs. By comparing the quantitative measures of d-INC neurons with those of DPV neurons, we further suggest that integration of head velocity signals proceeds from DPV neurons to d-INC neurons with descending projections and then to d-INC neurons with commissural projections, whereas saccadic velocity signals are processed in the reverse order.  (+info)

(5/2795) Modified Bankart procedure for recurrent anterior dislocation and subluxation of the shoulder in athletes.

Thirty-four athletes (34 shoulders) with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability were treated with a modified Bankart procedure, using a T-shaped capsular incision in the anterior capsule. The inferior flap was advanced medially and/or superiorly and rigidly fixed at the point of the Bankart lesion by a small cancellous screw and a spike-washer. The superior flap was advanced inferiority and sutured over the inferior flap. Twenty-five athletes (median age: 22) were evaluated over a mean period of follow-up of 65 months. The clinical results were graded, according to Rowe, as 22 (88%) excellent, 3 (12%) good, and none as fair or poor. The mean postoperative range of movement was 92 degrees of external rotation in 90 degrees of abduction. Elevation and internal rotation was symmetrical with the opposite side. Twenty-four patients returned to active sport, 22 at their previous level. This modified Bankart procedure is an effective treatment for athletes with recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability.  (+info)

(6/2795) Transport of colloidal particles in lymphatics and vasculature after subcutaneous injection.

This study was designed to determine the transport of subcutaneously injected viral-size colloid particles into the lymph and the vascular system in the hind leg of the dog. Transport of two colloid particles, with average size approximately 1 and 0.41 microm, respectively, and with and without leg rotation, was tested. Leg rotation serves to enhance the lymph flow rates. The right femoral vein, lymph vessel, and left femoral artery were cannulated while the animal was under anesthesia, and samples were collected at regular intervals after subcutaneous injection of the particles at the right knee level. The number of particles in the samples were counted under fluorescence microscopy by using a hemocytometer. With and without leg rotation, both particle sets were rapidly taken up into the venous blood and into the lymph fluid. The number of particles carried away from the injection site within the first 5 min was <5% of the injected pool. Particles were also seen in arterial blood samples; this suggests reflow and a prolonged residence time in the blood. These results show that particles the size of viruses are rapidly taken up into the lymphatics and blood vessels after subcutaneous deposition.  (+info)

(7/2795) Hip moments during level walking, stair climbing, and exercise in individuals aged 55 years or older.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Low bone mass of the proximal femur is a risk factor for hip fractures. Exercise has been shown to reduce bone loss in older individuals; however, the exercises most likely to influence bone mass of the proximal femur have not been identified. Net moments of force at the hip provide an indication of the mechanical load on the proximal femur. The purpose of this study was to examine various exercises to determine which exercises result in the greatest magnitude and rate of change in moments of force at the hip in older individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Walking and exercise patterns were analyzed for 30 subjects (17 men, 13 women) who were 55 years of age or older (X = 65.4, SD = 6.02, range = 55-75) and who had no identified musculoskeletal or neurological impairment. Kinematic and kinetic data were obtained with an optoelectronic system and a force platform. Results. Of the exercises investigated, only ascending stairs generated peak moments higher than those obtained during level walking and only in the transverse plane. Most of the exercises generated moments and rate of change in moments with magnitudes similar to or lower than those obtained during gait. CONCLUSION AND DISCUSSION: Level walking and exercises that generated moments with magnitudes comparable to or higher than those obtained during gait could be combined in an exercise program designed to maintain or increase bone mass at the hip.  (+info)

(8/2795) Orientation-tuned spatial filters for texture-defined form.

Detection threshold for an orientation-texture-defined (OTD) test grating was elevated after adapting to an OTD grating of high orientation contrast. Threshold elevation was greatest for a test grating parallel to the adapting grating, and fell to zero for a test grating perpendicular to the adapting grating. We conclude that the human visual system contains an orientation-tuned neural mechanism sensitive to OTD form, and propose a model for this mechanism. We further propose that orientation discrimination for OTD bars and gratings is determined by the relative activity of these filters for OTD form.  (+info)



Great Rotation


  • But a careful review of historical fund patterns doesn't provide much support for this so-called Great Rotation argument. (marketwatch.com)
  • Other mutual-fund data cast doubt on the Great Rotation as well. (marketwatch.com)
  • Consider 1987, arguably the period over the past three decades most relevant to the Great Rotation argument today. (marketwatch.com)
  • Another reason to question the Great Rotation argument is that any positive impact on the stock market is likely to be short-term at best. (marketwatch.com)
  • The Great Rotation stock-market melt-up hypothesis also would have to fly in the face of well-documented seasonal trading patterns. (marketwatch.com)
  • The jump in Lipper's weekly equity mutual funds inflows since the start of the year has sparked some chatter about a "great rotation" out of bonds and into stocks. (businessinsider.com)

soils


  • Aquacultural rotation (AR) is a production method developed for unproductive soils. (fao.org)
  • In addition to the many beneficial effects on soils and crops, well-planned crop rotations also provide the business aspects of farming with advantages. (britannica.com)

time


  • The only time tire rotation is appropriate on a bicycle is when you are replacing the rear tire. (sheldonbrown.com)
  • In general, most rotations are confined to time limits of eight years or less. (britannica.com)
  • Now unlike previously we are actually in a position of being able to approximate a rotation this time around. (mmo-champion.com)
  • It's mainly the rotation that made me respecc to holy each time. (mmo-champion.com)

Translation


  • When the user translates, try applying the transposed rotation matrix to the incremental translation vector before adding it to your total translation vector. (opengl.org)

provide


  • Short rotations are not likely to provide the best crop balances, and long rotations on a larger number of fields may introduce complications. (britannica.com)
  • If someone could provide me a rotation to maintain in raids? (mmo-champion.com)

long


  • My rotation is 6 weeks long, 12.5 hours each week, twice a week. (allnurses.com)

question


  • Basically my first question is, which rotation should I use while healing as discipline? (mmo-champion.com)

find


  • I find this rotation to be very paperwork-heavy and tiring because my instructor always wants to talk about discussing feelings. (allnurses.com)

group


  • A simple rotation would be one crop from each group with a 1:1:1 ratio. (britannica.com)

year


  • Last year, Baker predicted his rotation on the first day of spring training and was disappointed when projected No. 5 starter Jamie Brewington pitched his way out of a job in the Cactus League. (sfgate.com)

back


  • In a clear sign the Phillies are at least mildly concerned about Roy Halladay's workload, they have bumped their ace back a day during the next turn through the rotation. (philly.com)
  • So I was reading up on EJ and it seems BM is back in a place where it almost has a rotation. (mmo-champion.com)

Games


  • This means, if the rotation stays on schedule, Kendrick, Cole Hamels and Halladay would start the final three games of the season in Atlanta. (philly.com)

stocks


  • Rotation within rotation" Midday, morning gains in Materials and Energy stocks continue to hold up, but the other market leader - techs - are definitely showing signs of weakness. (cnbc.com)

second


  • The first number in a rotation ratio refers to cultivated row crops, the second to close-growing grains, and the third to sod-forming, or rest, crops. (britannica.com)

Another


  • There is a benefit of the first ~3% haste which we probably can't shed anyway, as they make the cycle tighter if we don't have the 10% attack speed buff - if we do have the 10% attack speed buff, we just have a bit of room in the rotation - but not enough to cast another shot. (mmo-champion.com)