Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.BrazilGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Floods: Sudden onset water phenomena with different speed of occurrence. These include flash floods, seasonal river floods, and coastal floods, associated with CYCLONIC STORMS; TIDALWAVES; and storm surges.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Water Pollution, Chemical: Adverse effect upon bodies of water (LAKES; RIVERS; seas; groundwater etc.) caused by CHEMICAL WATER POLLUTANTS.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Trematode Infections: Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Phytoplankton: Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.
David Rivers - WikipediaEN) David Rivers, su Basketball-reference.com (NBA), Sports Reference LLC. David Rivers, su Legabasket.it, Lega Basket. (EN) ... David Lee Rivers (Jersey City, 20 gennaio 1965) è un ex cestista statunitense, professionista nella NBA e in Europa. Campione ... David Rivers, su Sports-reference.com (NCAA), Sports Reference LLC. ( ...
Applications of spatial statistical network models to stream data | TreesearchStreams and rivers host a significant portion of Earth's biodiversity and provide important ecosystem services for human ... Effects of climate change and wildfire on stream temperatures and salmonid thermal habitat in a mountain river network ...
Iron River - WikipediaO diagrama seguinte representa as localidades num raio de 24 km ao redor de Iron River. Iron River Alpha (21 km) Caspian (4 km ... Coordenadas: 46° 5' 46" N 88° 38' 26" O Iron River é uma cidade localizada no estado americano de Michigan, no Condado de Iron ... Iron River localiza-se a aproximadamente 489 m acima do nível do mar. ... mapas e outras informações sobre Iron-River em city-data.com. ...
All River Monsters Episodes | List of River Monsters Episodes (45 Items)Photos from the individual River Monsters episodes are listed along with the Ri... ... Below is a complete River Monsters episode list that spans the show's entire TV run. ... Filed Under: TV Episodes TVriver monsters love this list?. Full List of River Monsters Episodes. share tweet pin email embed ... Below is a complete River Monsters episode list that spans the show's entire TV run. Photos from the individual River Monsters ...
Onahau River - WikipediaList of rivers of New Zealand. References. "Place Name Detail: Onahau River". New Zealand Geographic Placenames Database ... The Onahau River is a river of the Tasman Region of New Zealand's South Island. It has its sources close to the northernmost ... The smaller Little Onahau River follows a roughly parallel course to the southwest of the Onahau River. ... This article about a river in the Tasman District is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it. *v ...
The coral δ15N record of terrestrial nitrate loading varies with river catchment land use | SpringerLinkRelationship between monthly river discharge and monthly precipitation in the Todoroki River catchment. The data were collected ... We analysed the nitrogen isotopes in two coral cores (δ15Ncoral) from the mouth of the Todoroki River, Ishigaki Island, Japan, ... The seasonal variation of nitrogen isotopes and nitrate concentrations at the mouth of the Todoroki River. The nitrogen ... The coral δ15N record of terrestrial nitrate loading varies with river catchment land use. ...
Wild river - WikipediaA wild river (United States, Australia, & New Zealand) or heritage river (Canada) is a river or a river system designated by a ... The French River in Ontario was the first river to be designated a heritage river, in 1986, and since then 40 rivers have been ... Wild rivers by country. Australia. View down Colo River Valley, New South Wales, being river recently protected as ... These wild river campaigns led, in 1981, to the passing of a Wild and Scenic Rivers legislation and, in 1984, to the Motu River ...
The Courier - Your Messenger for the River Valley - River Valley nets fishy new concernAlthough fishing is a major industry both in the Arkansas River Valley and around the state residents are concerned about a new ... He later added, "Even from river to river, the systems are different enough that the effects can be different.". Swan said a ... He cited a recent study on the Illinois River in which he said biologists did a study that found fish species other than the ... Both species are present in the Arkansas River, too - a fact disconcerting to some.. "They multiply so fast and they grow so ...
Shemanker River | river, Nigeria | Britannica.comIt flows southward for 95 miles (150 km) to meet the Benue River at Ibi. Its seasonally flooded... ... Tributary of the Benue River, rising in the Jos Plateau of east-central Nigeria. ... Shemanker River, also spelled Shemankar, tributary of the Benue River, rising in the Jos Plateau of east-central Nigeria. It ... Cry Me a River: Fact or Fiction?. Take this Geography True or False Quiz at Encyclopedia Britannica to test your knowledge of ...
Asia - Rivers | continent | Britannica.com... and Kolyma rivers all flow northward into the Arctic Ocean. Among rivers draining into the Pacific Ocean are the Anadyr, Amur ( ... Asia is a land of great rivers. The Ob, Irtysh, Yenisey with the Angara, Lena (with the waters of the Aldan and the Vilyuy), ... The Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River), Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River), Ili (Yili), Tarim, Helmand, and Harīrūd (Tejen) rivers ... Among rivers draining into the Pacific Ocean are the Anadyr, Amur (combined with the Sungari [Songhua] and the Ussuri rivers), ...
PPT - Stream & River (Amazon River) PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4238103Amazon River). Research. Climate. Heavy rainfall and continuous high temperatures. Average temperature of eighty degrees during ... Sheridan Bighorn River Powder River -Bighorn. river. powder. river. casper. n. platte river. laramie. cheyenne ... key will ... The River Nile is the longest river in the world . -The river nile is the longest river in the world. asia is the biggest ... River flow modeling of the Mekong River Basin -River flow modeling of the mekong river basin. a.w. jayawardena department of ...
Rivers Cuomo - Wikipedia... rivers) East River e Hudson, dove è situata Manhattan, e dal padre in omaggio a due calciatori italiani, Rivera e Riva. 1994 - ... The Home Recordings of Rivers Cuomo 2008 - Alone II: The Home Recordings of Rivers Cuomo 2011 - Alone III: The Pinkerton Years ... Rivers Cuomo (New York, 13 giugno 1970) è un cantante e chitarrista statunitense. È membro del gruppo alternative rock/pop punk ... Di origini italiane, tedesche ed inglesi, ha dichiarato che il suo nome, "Rivers", gli è stato dato dalla madre per via del ...
Three Rivers - WikipediaJoseph, Michigan Three Rivers - census-designated place della Contea di Deschutes, Oregon Three Rivers - città della Contea di ... Regno Unito Three Rivers - distretto dell'Hertfordshire Stati Uniti d'America Three Rivers - CDP della Contea di Tulare, ... California Three Rivers - città della Contea di St. ... Live Oak, Texas Three Rivers - serie televisiva statunitense. ...
HESS - Abstract - Modeling 3-D permeability distribution in alluvial fans using facies architecture and geophysical acquisitionsThe Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, is used as an example to test the proposed approach. Due to the non ... The potentialities of the proposed approach are tested on the Chaobai River megafan, China. ...
The Effects of Land Use and Human Activities on Carbon Cycling in Texas Rivers... to study C cycling in three subtropical rivers in Texas, two small rivers (Buffalo Bayou and Spring Creek) and a midsized river ... Carbon cycles; Texas rivers; Carbon isotopes; Nuclear magnetic resonance; Partial pressure of CO2; More... Brazos River; Land ... Annually rivers receive a large amount of terrestrial C, process a portion of this C and return it to the atmosphere as CO2. ... Second, river damming and nutrient input from urban treated wastewater stimulate algal growth and reduce CO2 evasion of the ...
International Rivers - MacArthur FoundationRequiem for a River'. The Economist. Related Grantees: International Rivers Network, Stimson Center. More ... In Asia, Africa, and Latin America, International Rivers protects rivers and human rights threatened by some of the world's ... What Does the Magdalena River Mean to You?'. YouTube. Related Grantee: International Rivers Network. More ... International Rivers worked with the Ashaninka indigenous people who were threatened by the Pakitzapango Dam on the Ene River. ...
Geography of Paraguay, Landforms - World Atlas... including information on the Paraguay River, Parana River, Pilcomayo River - by worldatlas.com ... To the west of the Paraguay River, the hot scrub lands and low plains of the Chaco cover about 60% of Paraguay's total land ... Two major regions divide the country; the Paranena, east of the Paraquay River, is a fertile, cultivated landscape, with ... Paraguay is landlocked and crisscrossed by many rivers. The three largest - the Paraguay, Parana and Pilcomayo - form over 75% ...
Submit a Revision... a dam built in 1960 on the main channel of the São Francisco river in the municipality of Três Marias (MG) prevents migratory ... marggravii in the area of influence of the Três Marias dam on the São Francisco river, RAPD reactions were performed on samples ... The two former species are migratory and are considered very important species for inland fishing in this river basin (Paiva, ... lineatus collected from three sites in the Paraná river basin, detected no genetic divergences among the three samplings, ...
Two Rivers - WikipediaStati Uniti d'America Two Rivers - census-designated place del Borough di Fairbanks North Star, Alaska Two Rivers - località ... California Two Rivers - città della Contea di Manitowoc, Wisconsin. ... della Contea di Plumas, California Two Rivers - nome precedente di Dos Rios, località della Contea di Mendocino, ...
Three Rivers Aikido... Yahoo Group This is a private group to be used by the students of Three Rivers Aikido. ... Three Rivers Aikido is a Restricted Group with 125 members.. *Three Rivers Aikido ...
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Rivers | Asia TimesEconomics and policy from China's newspapers - directly to your ...
Jamie Rivers - WikipediaJamie Rivers, su NHL.com, National Hockey League. (EN) Jamie Rivers, su Eliteprospects.com. (EN) Jamie Rivers, su HockeyDB.com. ... Jamie Rivers ha giocato per i New York Islanders, gli Ottawa Senators, i Boston Bruins, i Florida Panthers, i Detroit Red Wings ... Jamie Rivers (Ottawa, 16 marzo 1975) è un allenatore di hockey su ghiaccio ed ex hockeista su ghiaccio canadese. Giocava nel ... Dal 25 novembre 2009 fino alla stagione Jamie Rivers giocò per l'HC Ambrì-Piotta come difensore. Si ritirò nel 2011. Campionato ...
Austin Rivers - WikipediaAustin James Rivers (Santa Monica, 1º agosto 1992) è un cestista statunitense. È figlio dell'allenatore NBA Doc Rivers. Rivers ... Austin Rivers, su Sports-reference.com (NCAA), Sports Reference LLC. (EN) Austin Rivers, su Basketball-reference.com (NBA), ... espn.go.com Altri progetti Wikimedia Commons Wikimedia Commons contiene immagini o altri file su Austin Rivers (EN) ... Austin Rivers commits to Duke over Kansas and UNC., ESPN.com, 30 settembre 2010. URL consultato il 29 giugno 2012. ^ ...
Romeo Rivers - WikipediaNorman Romeo Rivers (Winnipeg, 28 marzo 1907 - 4 maggio 1986) è stato un hockeista su ghiaccio canadese. Oro a Lake Placid 1932 ... EN) Romeo Rivers, su sports-reference.com, Sports Reference LLC.. ...
List of rivers of Brazil: This is a list of rivers in Brazil.Epidemic polyarthritis: Epidemic polyarthritis is an outdated term that was used to refer to polyarthritis caused by two mosquito-borne viruses endemic to Australasia:Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.United States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Baltic sculpin: The Baltic sculpinBaltic sculpin (Cottus microstomus) at EOL (Cottus microstomus) is a species of sculpin, a European freshwater fish in the Cottidae family. It is widespread in the Dniester drainage (Black Sea basin), Odra and Vistula drainages (southern Baltic basin), most likely extending further east to Gulf of Finland.Fecal coliform: A fecal coliform (British: faecal coliform) is a facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium. Coliform bacteria generally originate in the intestines of warm-blooded animals.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Water quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.University of CampinasNankai Trough gas hydrate site: Nankai Methane Hydrate Site (or Japanese Methane Hydrate R&D Program at Nankai, Nankai Trough Methane Hydrate Site) is located in the Nankai Trough, Japan.Flood: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land which is usually dry.MSN Encarta Dictionary.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.EcosystemSilurus biwaensis: The giant Lake Biwa catfish (Silurus biwaensis) or Biwako-o'namazu, ビワコオオナマズ (Japan) is the largest predatory catfish species endemic to Lake Biwa in Japan.Health geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Notropis: Notropis is a genus of fish in the family Cyprinidae, the carps and minnows. They are known commonly as eastern shiners.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Bithynia fuchsiana: Bithynia fuchsiana is a species of small freshwater snail with a gill and an operculum, an aquatic gastropod mollusk in the family Bithyniidae.Lontra, Minas GeraisMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases: The European Community Reference Laboratory for Fish DiseasesCommunity Reference Laboratory for Fish Diseases is located in Frederiksberg in Denmark at the National Veterinary Institute (a part of Technical University of Denmark).Public water systemAngang Sewage Disposal Plant: The Angang Sewage Disposal Plant is a sewage treatment plant located in the city of Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It began operating in April, 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install the facilities to prevent the pollution of Hyeongsan River which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents.Diseases and parasites in salmonTaiji dolphin drive hunt: The Taiji dolphin drive hunt is a dolphin drive hunt that takes place in Taiji, Wakayama in Japan every year from September to March. According to the Japanese Fisheries Research Agency, 1,623 dolphins were caught in Wakayama Prefecture in 2007 for human consumption or resale to dolphinariums, and most of these were caught at Taiji.Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996: The Sustainable Fisheries Act of 1996 is an amendment to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, a law governing the management of marine fisheries in the United States. Another major amendment to this legislation was later made under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Reauthorization Act of 2006.Alphavirus infection: Alphavirus infection may be caused by a Sindbis virus infection, and result in a cutaneous eruption of multiple, erythematous, 4- to 4-mm papules.Branching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Meramec Conservation AreaGeolocation software: In computing, geolocation software is used to deduce the geolocation (geographic location) of another party. For example, on the Internet, one geolocation approach is to identify the subject party's IP address, then determine what country (including down to the city and post/ZIP code level), organization, or user the IP address has been assigned to, and finally, determine that party's location.PhytoplanktonBrachiopod
(1/1318) From genes to genomes: beyond biodiversity in Spain's Rio Tinto.
Spain's Rio Tinto, or Red River, an example of an extremely acidic (pH 1.7-2.5) environment with a high metal content, teems with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial life. Our recent studies based on small-subunit rRNA genes reveal an unexpectedly high eukaryotic phylogenetic diversity in the river when compared to the relatively low prokaryotic diversity. Protists can therefore thrive in and dominate extremely acidic, heavy-metal-laden environments. Further, because we have discovered protistan acidophiles closely related to neutrophiles, we can hypothesize that the transition from neutral to acidic environments occurs rapidly over geological time scales. How have these organisms adapted to such environments? We are currently exploring the alterations in physiological mechanisms that might allow for growth of eukaryotic microbes at acid extremes. To this end, we are isolating phylogenetically diverse protists in order to characterize and compare ion-transporting ATPases from cultured acidophiles with those from neutrophilic counterparts. We predict that special properties of these ion transporters allow protists to survive in the Rio Tinto. (+info)
(2/1318) Nitrogen uptake in riparian plant communities across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies of anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) on the Pacific Coast of North America indicate an important and previously unrecognized role of salmonid nutrients to terrestrial biota. However, the extent of this uptake by primary producers and consumers and the influences on community structure remain poorly described. We examine here the contribution of salmon nutrients to multiple taxa of riparian vegetation (Blechnum spicant, Menziesii ferruginea, Oplopanax horridus, Rubus spectabilis, Vaccinium alaskaense, V. parvifolium, Tsuga heterophylla) and measure foliar delta15N, total %N and plant community structure at two geographically separated watersheds in coastal British Columbia. To reduce potentially confounding effects of precipitation, substrate and other abiotic variables, we made comparisons across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density that resulted from a waterfall barrier to salmon migration. RESULTS: delta15N and %N in foliage, and %cover of soil nitrogen indicators differed across the waterfall barrier to salmon at each watershed. delta15N values were enriched by 1.4 per thousand to 9.0 per thousand below the falls depending on species and watershed, providing a relative contribution of marine-derived nitrogen (MDN) to vegetation of 10% to 60%. %N in foliar tissues was slightly higher below the falls, with the majority of variance occurring between vegetation species. Community structure also differed with higher incidence of nitrogen-rich soil indicator species below the waterfalls. CONCLUSIONS: Measures of delta15N, %N and vegetation cover indicate a consistent difference in the riparian community across a sharp ecological boundary of salmon density. The additional N source that salmon provide to nitrogen-limited habitats appears to have significant impacts on the N budget of riparian vegetation, which may increase primary productivity, and result in community shifts between sites with and without salmon access. This, in turn, may have cascading ecosystem effects in forests adjacent to salmon streams. (+info)
(3/1318) High prevalence and morbidity of Schistosoma mansoni along the Albert Nile in Uganda.
An epidemiological cross sectional study of Schistosoma mansoni was conducted in two hyper endemic fishing villages of Rhino Camp and Obongi both in West Nile district in northern Uganda in 1991 and 1992. People with various water contacts were registered. A small group of civil servants and clergies with less water contact in the river Nile were studied for control of infection and morbidity. An overall prevalence of 81.5% of the 1367 people studied in both fishing villages of Rhino Camp and Obongi were excreting from 100 to > or = 500 Schistosoma mansoni eggs per gram (epg). 253 18.5% did not have Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their faeces. The influence of socioeconomic factors on infections in the study population was high among poorer illiterates who have frequent water contacts activities with River Nile. The sonomorphological abnormalities of periportal thickening (PT) due to Schistosoma mansoni were performed using ultrasound. 664 patients were found to have various stages of (PT stages 0, I, II and III). A total of 703 (51.4%) patients did not have any periportal thickening (PT 0) in their livers despite the fact that 450 (32.9%) of them had Schistosoma. mansoni eggs in their faeces. The gravities of schistosomiasis in the two villages were similar showing greater morbidity in the younger adults. (+info)
(4/1318) Occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic Aeromonas in three riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, Morocco.
In order to evaluate the impact of pollution and sewage on the occurrence and antibiotic resistance of mesophilic aeromonads in riverine freshwaters of Marrakech, samples were collected from three rivers (Oukaimeden, Ourika, and Tensift) upstream and downstream from the principal bordering villages. During a 2-year study, indicators of pollution increased dramatically in the downstream waters. Bacterial indicators (faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) correlated with mesophilic aeromonads only in heavily polluted waters. In low and moderately polluted sources, densities of mesophilic aeromonads were independent of water quality indicators and did not correlate statistically with faecal indicators. Average counts of Aeromonas in low and heavily polluted waters were 2.5 x 10(3) and 2.1 x 10(6) colony forming units per 100 ml, respectively. The biochemical identification of 841 isolates indicated a predominance of A. caviae in heavily and moderately polluted water and sediment. A. hydrophila was dominant only in low polluted waters and when the temperature was below 12 degrees C. High densities of A. sobria were found in low, moderately polluted, or cleaned waters and when the water temperature was above 18 degrees C. All selected isolates (total = 841) were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against 21 antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance frequencies recorded were: ampicillin and amoxicillin, 100%; novobiocin, 96%; cefalotin, 81%; colistin, 72%; sulfamethoxazole, 40%; cefamandole, 37%; polymyxin B, 23%; trimethoprim, 17%; erythromycin, 15%; streptomycin, 8%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 5%. Resistance to cefotaxime, kanamycin, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, nalidixic acid, rifampicin, or trimethoprim-sulfameth-oxazole was found to be <5%. Antibiotic resistance rates did vary according to the source of a strain"s isolation, and high numbers of antibiotic resistant strains were recorded in polluted samples. Since no correlation between mesophilic aeromonads and conventional faecal pollution indicators was observed in low or moderately polluted waters, and since these freshwaters are used for domestic supply, we propose the use of mesophilic aeromonads as complementary water pollution indicators to ensure the safety of water. (+info)
(5/1318) Plant functions in wetland and aquatic systems: influence of intensity and capacity of soil reduction.
Wetland or hydric soils, in addition to excess water and limited air-filled porosity, are characterized by anaerobic or reducing conditions. Wetland plants have developed physiological and morphological adaptations for growing under these conditions. Various methods exist for measuring plant responses to reducing conditions in wetland and aquatic environments, including assessment of radial oxygen transport, cellular enzymatic transformations, changes in root structure, and nutrient uptake. However, a gap exists in quantifying the chemical properties and reducing nature of soil environment in which plant roots are grown. The variation in reducing conditions, oxygen demand, and other associated processes that occur in wetland soils makes it difficult to truly compare the plant responses reported in the literature. This review emphasizes soil-plant interactions in wetlands, drawing attention to the importance of quantifying the intensity and capacity of reduction and/or oxygen demand in wetland soils to allow proper evaluation of wetland plant responses to such conditions. (+info)
(6/1318) From litterfall to breakdown in streams: a review.
This paper is a review of recent (< or =10 years) information on litterfall, standing stock of benthic organic matter, breakdown rates, and fungal colonization of organic matter in streams. In some cases, recent research reinforces the findings of classic reference papers. In other cases, the additional knowledge provided by recent research introduces a higher variation in the processes analyzed. In many aspects, especially those concerning stream organic matter, the review is biased towards the temperate North American streams, reflecting the fact that most research was carried out there. However, during the 1990s European studies increased enormously, especially those related with instream processes, such as leaf litter decomposition. The first part of this review analyzes the origin of allochthonous organic matter to streams (litterfall, retention, and storage), and it provides data on the amounts estimated in different streams and on the methodology used in the studies. The second part analyzes the fate of detritus in streams: mechanisms of leaf breakdown, relative importance of fungi and bacteria, factors affecting the activity of microbial decomposers, and chemical changes of leaf litter during decomposition. A list of breakdown rates of several different leaf species is given, together with the methodology used, and the main characteristics of the incubation streams. (+info)
(7/1318) Future trends in worldwide river nitrogen transport and related nitrous oxide emissions: a scenario analysis.
We analyze possible future trends in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export by world rivers and associated emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). Our scenarios either assume that current trends continue or that nitrogen (N) inputs to aquatic systems are reduced as a result of changes in agriculture practices and fuel combustion technologies. The results indicate that moderate changes in the human diet in North America and Europe, reducing worldwide fertilizer use by only 16%, relative to Business-as-Usual (BAU) levels, may reduce DIN export rates to the North Atlantic and European Seas by about one third and associated N2O emissions by 36 to 77%. We furthermore calculate that relatively large reductions in NOy deposition rates in Europe (of about 80%) may reduce DIN export by rivers by a moderate 8% or less, relative to BAU levels. The potential effect of reduced NOy deposition on riverine DIN export is moderate, because most N in European rivers stems from agriculture, and not from fuel combustion. Nevertheless, the calculated 9% reduction (relative to BAU) in DIN inputs to the North Sea as a potential side effect of air pollution control may help achieve the international policy targets for reduced N inputs to the North Sea. (+info)
(8/1318) Nitrate leakage from deciduous forest soils into streams on Kureha Hill, Japan.
Nitrate leakage from deciduous forest soils into streams was investigated for two adjacent hills. Many of the streams on Kureha Hill, located in Toyama City, Japan, have extremely high nitrate concentrations. The nitrate concentration of Hyakumakidani, one of the streams on Kureha Hill, averaged 158 microeq l(-1) and reached 470 microeq l(-1) during an episodic event. In contrast, the streams on Imizu Hill, adjacent to Kureha Hill, had low concentrations, below 15 microeq l(-1). Even during an episode, the nitrate concentrations increased to no more than 75 microeq l(-1). Both areas have similar blown forest soils, C/N ratios in O horizons, and vegetation consisting primarily of deciduous trees. However, soil incubation experiments, which lasted for 4 weeks, revealed that the nitrification rates in the surface soils of Kureha Hill were much higher than in the soils of Imizu Hill. (+info)
- I live in Melbourne and for the last 11 days have persisting symptoms of Ross River virus, particularly multiple joint pain. (ourhealth.com)
- Is it possible to be bitten by a mosquito in Melbourne which is carrying the Ross River virus? (ourhealth.com)
- One of the things that has bothered me with Ross River Virus is inability to concentrate. (ourhealth.com)
- Australian naturopath, Susan Byrne, has discovered the answers needed for relief from Ross River Virus (RRV), an arbovirus or arthropod-borne virus. (webwire.com)
- Ross River Virus was first identified in the Townsville, Queensland area. (webwire.com)
- Characteristic symptoms of Ross River Virus include rash, painful hands and feet with increasing symptoms of polyarthritis, nausea, headache, backache, and muscle ache. (webwire.com)
- People suffering from symptoms of RRV can become very depleted and depressed from the debilitating symptoms, this also illustrates why it is important to first seek medical advice to confirm your diagnosis, as many of the Ross River symptoms could signify a more serious health matter needing attention. (webwire.com)
- For many of the arboviruses a detection of IgM indicates relatively recent infection but for Ross River virus infection, in particular, the IgM may remain positive for up to several years. (edu.au)
- I have had ross river virus for 14 months. (ourhealth.com)
- See my story in Constitutional General Wellbeing dated 02-19-2007 headed "Ross River Fever" and also under My Medical story dated 02-23-2007 At least you know what you have and it will in time go. (ourhealth.com)
- During that bathing season some 96 % of coastal bathing areas and 92 % of bathing sites in rivers and lakes complied with minimum standards. (environmental-expert.com)