Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.United StatesDiabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Diabetes Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.JapanPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.BrazilPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hypercholesterolemia: A condition with abnormally high levels of CHOLESTEROL in the blood. It is defined as a cholesterol value exceeding the 95th percentile for the population.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Dyslipidemias: Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.IndiaUrban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.TriglyceridesAfrican Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.FinlandCerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.GermanyTunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.SwedenMass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.IranCalcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.TurkeyVascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS in the cardiac or peripheral circulation. They include diseases of ARTERIES; VEINS; and rest of the vasculature system in the body.ItalyExercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Diabetic Angiopathies: VASCULAR DISEASES that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS.Hyperhomocysteinemia: Condition in which the plasma levels of homocysteine and related metabolites are elevated (>13.9 µmol/l). Hyperhomocysteinemia can be familial or acquired. Development of the acquired hyperhomocysteinemia is mostly associated with vitamins B and/or folate deficiency (e.g., PERNICIOUS ANEMIA, vitamin malabsorption). Familial hyperhomocysteinemia often results in a more severe elevation of total homocysteine and excretion into the urine, resulting in HOMOCYSTINURIA. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, osteoporotic fractures and complications during pregnancy.Occupations: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Thrombophilia: A disorder of HEMOSTASIS in which there is a tendency for the occurrence of THROMBOSIS.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.TaiwanFamily Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.CaliforniaLipoprotein(a): A lipoprotein that resembles the LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS but with an extra protein moiety, APOPROTEIN (A) also known as APOLIPOPROTEIN (A), linked to APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100 on the LDL by one or two disulfide bonds. High plasma level of lipoprotein (a) is associated with increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Venous Thrombosis: The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.Great BritainContinental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.NorwayDenmarkKorea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Renal Dialysis: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).EuropeGlomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.CreatinineAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Confounding Factors (Epidemiology): Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Minnesota

*  What Does HIV Stand For? - Health And Medical Information

A small percentage of patients have no identifiable risk factors. The number of people worldwide infected with HIV is expected ... Other 'at risk' groups include the sexual partners of high-risk individuals, patients who have frequently received blood ... The lower the 'T cell count', the weaker the immune system of the body and the higher the risk of infections and cancers ...

*  GH and Cardiovascular Risk Factors - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Since (U-shaped) associations of IGF-I, within the normal range, have also been found with cardiovascular risk factors and ... Effect of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adult Patients With Severe Growth Hormone ... Objective: Next to cardiovascular risk factors (main objectives: body composition and lipid profile; secondary objectives: ... Rationale: Abnormally low and high levels of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are both associated with increased metabolic ...

*  Am I at Risk for Breast Cancer?

Being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer.. I'm older than age 50. Age is your next biggest risk factor. The ... In fact, you can have all the risk factors and never get breast cancer, or you can have no known risk factors and still get the ... Though you can't do anything to reduce this risk factor, as you get older, you can avoid those risk factors that are in your ... though certain risk factors can make it more likely. However, having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that ...

*  The magnitude of the association between smoking and the risk of developing cancer in Brazil: a multicenter study | BMJ Open

Although smoking is a well-established risk factor for the development of various types of cancer3 the magnitude of the risk ... Tobacco was classified as a strong risk factor for cancers of the oesophagus and bladder. A moderate risk was observed for ... Smoking as an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma: the Singapore Chinese Health Study. Br J Cancer 2011;105: ... Smoking is the main risk factor for the development of many types of cancer. According to the International Agency for Research ...

*  Abstract P204: Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors and Perceived Risk among Overweight and Obese Adults | Circulation

24.8 for 0 risk factors (n=46), 65.1±17.6 for 1 risk factor (n=53), 74.3±18.4 for 2 risk factors (n=30), 77.0±17.3 for 3 risk ... with 4 risk factors. No respondent reported 5 risk factors.. Conclusions: In this sample, the number of self-reported CHD risk ... Perceived CHD risk was associated with the number of CHD risk factors (p,.001). The mean perceived risk increased incrementally ... Background: Obesity is a known risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and plays a role in other CHD risk factors ...

*  Impact of preventable risk factors on stroke in the EPICOR study: does gender matter?

... of modifiable stroke risk factors in terms of prevented cases remains unclear due to sex-specific disease rate and risk factors ... Conclusions Half of strokes are attributable to potentially modifiable factors. The proportion of prevented cases is gender ... of modifiable stroke risk factors in terms of prevented cases remains unclear due to sex-specific disease rate and risk factors ... Keywords: Stroke; Gender medicine; Risk factors; Cohort study; Population-attributable fraction; Preventive fraction; ...

*  Autoantigen GAD-Vaccine is Safe for Children at High Risk for Developing Type 1 Diabetes

... ... Known risk factors for type 1 diabetes include family history, genetics, geography and age, with the highest incidence of onset ... The study aimed to test if it is safe to use Alum-GAD on children who are at high risk for developing the disease in an attempt ... The results indicated that it is safe to administer Alum-GAD to children who are at high risk of developing type 1 diabetes; ...

*  Dementia risk factors

Nine modifiable lifestyle factors that increase dementia risk have been identifies, including high blood pressure, obesity and ... Nine dementia risk factors have been revealed. Some of these may surprise you ... of 29 globally renowned experts to identify the nine modifiable lifestyle factors that contribute to increased dementia risk - ... There was not enough data available to include dietary factors or alcohol consumption in the findings, but experts believe both ...

*  Risk Factor: Gout

... LISTS. Name. Occupation. Birth. Death. Known for. Ansel Adams. Photographer. 20-Feb-1902. 22-Apr-1984. ...

*  Pneumoconiosis: Symptoms, risk factors, and management

In this article, learn more about pneumoconiosis, its symptoms, risk factors, and management. ... Risk factors. Coal dust from mining may cause pneumoconiosis. There are clear risk factors for pneumoconiosis and a range of ... "Pneumoconiosis: Symptoms, risk factors, and management." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 8 Oct. 2017. Web.. 16 Dec. ... Sissons, C. (2017, October 8). "Pneumoconiosis: Symptoms, risk factors, and management." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. ...

*  Cancer Risk factors - Mayo Clinic

... the majority of cancers occur in people who don't have any known risk factors. Factors known to increase your risk of cancer ... Talk to your doctor about what types of cancer screening exams are best for you based on your risk factors. ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/cancer/basics/risk-factors/con-20032378 ... But doctors have identified several ways of reducing your cancer risk, such as:. *Stop smoking. If you smoke, quit. If you ...

*  Tuberculosis (TB) Disease: Symptoms & Risk Factors | Features | CDC

Learn to recognize the symptoms of TB disease and find out if you are at risk. ... TB Risk Factors. Anyone can get TB , but people at high risk generally fall into two categories:. *People recently infected ... You are a health-care worker who works with clients or patients who are at increased risk for TB disease ... Without treatment, they are at risk for developing TB disease. Treatment of latent TB infection is essential to controlling and ...

*  Survey highlights IT risk factors

... Manama, March 8, 2013. Information technology (IT) professionals in Bahrain will be expected ... Published by global consulting firm Protiviti, the survey highlights IT risk factors for 2013.. 'Continued rapid global ... However, it also creates greater technology risk potential,' he added.. The result is significant pressure on IT departments ... This pressure forces them to take on considerably more risk than they're prepared for - especially in terms of policy, ...

*  Mosquito bites Risk factors - Mayo Clinic

... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/mosquito-bites/basics/risk-factors/con-20032350 ...

*  Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Risk Factors

Many risk factors may increase your chance of developing lung cancer. This guide will help you learn about possible causes of ... Risk factors you can change. Tobacco smoke. Smoking is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer. About 80% of lung cancer ... Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Risk Factors. A risk factor is anything that affects a person's chance of getting a disease such as ... Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention * Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Risk Factors ...

*  Ischemic colitis Risk factors - Mayo Clinic

But several factors can increase your risk of ischemic colitis:. *Buildup of fatty deposits on the walls of an artery ( ... Risk factors for ischemic colitis include:. *Age. The condition occurs mostly frequently in adults older than age 60. Ischemic ... Clotting abnormalities. Conditions that affect the way the blood clots, such as Factor V Leiden, may increase the risk of ... A population-based study of incidence, risk factors, clinical spectrum, and outcomes of ischemic colitis. Clinical ...

*  Intestinal ischemia Risk factors - Mayo Clinic

Factors that may increase your risk of intestinal ischemia include:. *Buildup of fatty deposits in your arteries ( ... Blood-clotting problems. Diseases and conditions that increase your risk of blood clots may increase your risk of intestinal ... www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/intestinal-ischemia/basics/risk-factors/CON-20023818 ... Blood pressure problems. Having blood pressure that is too high or too low increases your risk of intestinal ischemia. ...

*  Breast cancer: Symptoms, risk factors, and treatment

Risk factors. The exact cause remains unclear, but some risk factors make it more likely. Some of these are preventable. ... Risk factors can be genetic, but some lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, make it more likely to happen. ... n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.breastcancer.org/risk/factors/radiation Risk of developing breast cancer. (2016, May 11). ... three established risk factors for breast cancer). Iron overload and the disruption of iron homeostasis with a resulting ...

*  Tularemia: Risk Factors, Causes, and Symptoms

Risk Factors for Tularemia. Animals carry the bacteria that causes tularemia. You're at increased risk of getting the disease ... To decrease your overall risk of contracting tularemia, you should:. *. Wear long pants and sleeves in the forest to help ... People at an increased risk for tularemia include:. *. those who work closely with animals, such as veterinarians, zookeepers, ...

*  Diabetes Risk Factors - Kraft Recipes

How do you know if you are at risk? ... in the United States have diabetes and many more are at risk of ... Print this list and place a checkmark next to each diabetes risk factor that applies to you. The more risk factors you have, ... Can children be at risk for type 2 diabetes? Yes. In fact, the incidence of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors are increasing ... How do you know if you are at risk? See the Diabetes Risk Checklist below to learn whether you're at risk. And if you are, find ...

*  Cholesterol Risk Factors | HowStuffWorks

High cholesterol risk factors include poor diet, genetic factors and lifestyle choices. Learn about risk factors for high ... Reducing the risk of a cardiovascular disease involves eliminating all of the risk factors that we can control and seeking ... Always remember that risk factors for high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease don't exist in a vacuum--they tend to amplify ... A greater risk of increased cholesterol levels occurs when that extra weight is centered in the abdominal region, as opposed to ...

*  Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but is heterogeneous and both genetic factors affecting insulin release and responsiv ... Hypertension and antihypertensive therapy as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities ... Risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Authors. David K McCulloch, MD. David K McCulloch, MD ... Lifestyle factors and risk for new-onset diabetes: a population-based cohort study. Ann Intern Med 2011; 155:292. ...

*  Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

This website provides access to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) mapping tool. The BRFSS is a telephone ... This website provides access to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) mapping tool. The BRFSS is a telephone ... Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. http://www.cdc.gov/brfss/. Division of Adult and Community Health Centers for ... Maps created on the BRFSS website illustrate health risks at national, state, and local levels. Categories that may be mapped ...

*  Registry Identifies Surgical Risk Factors | Medpage Today

Having a large registry to track joint replacement and other surgical procedures can yield data on risk factors and help manage ... After five years, survival was 97.1%. Risk factors for revision included: * Age under 55 (RR 2.56, 95% CI 1.97 to 3.33, P,0.001 ... Having a large registry to track joint replacement and other surgical procedures can yield data on risk factors and help manage ... After five years, survivorship was 97.3%, and risk factors for revision procedures included: *Being female (RR 1.29, 95% CI ...

*  Osteoporosis risk factors in Indonesian women - Menopause

But are there any differences that make having a localized research study necessary? - Osteoporosis risk factors in Indonesian ... Indonesian postmenopausal women face the same osteoporosis risk factors as do women in the West. ... Osteoporosis risk factors in Indonesian women. Guest Author - Tammy Elizabeth Southin. Osteoporosis is one of the most pressing ... What are the risk factors? Does it matter where postmenopausal women live? For women in Indonesia, the answers correlate with ...

QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.HypertensionClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus: A newly identified and potentially treatable form of monogenic diabetes is the neonatal diabetes caused by activating mutations of the KCNJ11 gene, which codes for the Kir6.2 subunit of the beta cell KATP channel.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Comorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.Aortic pressure: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.Niigata UniversityPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Outline of diabetes: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:Epidemiological method: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.National Cholesterol Education Program: The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.CADgene: CADgene is a database of genes involved in coronary artery disease (CAD) .CholesterolUniversity of CampinasProportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Lipid droplet: Lipid droplets, also referred to as lipid bodies, oil bodies or adiposomes, are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue.Mobilization and cellular uptake of stored fats and triacylglycerol (with Animation) They also serve as a reservoir for cholesterol and acyl-glycerols for membrane formation and maintenance.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Gene polymorphismTamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityNon-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.TriglycerideDisease registry: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Australia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Silent strokeAfrican-American family structure: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.Waist-to-height ratio: A person's waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), also called waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), is defined as their waist circumference divided by their height, both measured in the same units. The WHtR is a measure of the distribution of body fat.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. He was the father of Hoel Mawr and is probably to be identified with the Emyr Llydaw ("Emperor of Brittany") and King Nentres who appear in Arthurian legend.Nathan W. LevinBaden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.

(1/106621) Does risk factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future.

The multiple cause black box paradigm of the current risk factor era in epidemiology is growing less serviceable. This single level paradigm is likely to be displaced. The signs are that the growing strength of molecular epidemiology on the one side, and of a global epidemiology based on information systems on the other, will come to dominate epidemiology and segregate it into separate disciplines. At the same time, the links with public health interests grow weaker. A multilevel ecoepidemiology has the potential to bind these strands together.  (+info)

(2/106621) Comparative total mortality in 25 years in Italian and Greek middle aged rural men.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Mortality over 25 years has been low in the Italian and very low in the Greek cohorts of the Seven Countries Study; factors responsible for this particularity were studied in detail. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: 1712 Italian and 1215 Greek men, aged 40-59 years, cohorts of the Seven Countries Study, representing over 95% of the populations in designated rural areas. DESIGN: Entry (1960-61) data included age, systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking habits, total serum cholesterol, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, vital capacity (VC), and forced expiratory volume in 3/4 seconds (FEV); the same data were obtained 10 years later. Multivariate Cox analysis was performed with all causes death in 25 years as end point. MAIN RESULTS: Italian men had higher entry levels of SBP, arm circumference, BMI, and VC; Greek men had higher cholesterol levels, smoking habits, and FEV. Mortality of Italian men was higher throughout; at 25 years cumulative mortality was 48.3% and 35.3% respectively. Coronary heart disease and stroke mortality increased fivefold in Italy and 10-fold in Greece between years 10 and 25. The only risk factor with a significantly higher contribution to mortality in Italian men was cholesterol. However, differences in entry SBP (higher in Italy) and FEV (higher in Greece) accounted for, according to the Lee method, 75% of the differential mortality between the two populations. At 10 years increases in SBP, cholesterol, BMI, and decreases in smoking habits, VC, FEV, and arm circumference had occurred (deltas). SBP increased more and FEV and VC decreased more in Italy than in Greece. Deltas, fed stepwise in the original model for the prediction of 10 to 25 years mortality, were significant for SBP, smoking, arm circumference, and VC in Greece, and for SBP and VC in Italy. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality in Italian men is related to stronger positive effects of entry SBP and weaker negative (protective) effects of FEV; in addition 10 year increases in SBP are higher and 10 year decreases in FEV are larger in Italy. Unaccounted factors, however, related to, for example, differences in the diet, may also have contributed to the differential mortality of these two Mediterranean populations.  (+info)

(3/106621) Physician advice and individual behaviors about cardiovascular disease risk reduction--seven states and Puerto Rico, 1997.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) (e.g., heart disease and stroke) is the leading cause of death in the United States and accounted for 959,227 deaths in 1996. Strategies to reduce the risk for heart disease and stroke include lifestyle changes (e.g., eating fewer high-fat and high-cholesterol foods) and increasing physical activity. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and the American Heart Association (AHA) recommend that, as part of a preventive health examination, all primary-care providers counsel their patients about a healthy diet and regular physical activity. AHA also recommends low-dose aspirin use as a secondary preventive measure among persons with existing CVD. To determine the prevalence of physician counseling about cardiovascular health and changes in individual behaviors, CDC analyzed data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for seven states and Puerto Rico. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicate a lower prevalence of counseling and behavior change among persons without than with a history of heart disease or stroke.  (+info)

(4/106621) Risk of major liver resection in patients with underlying chronic liver disease: a reappraisal.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of patient age, status of liver parenchyma, presence of markers of active hepatitis, and blood loss to subsequent death and complications in patients undergoing a similar major hepatectomy for the same disease using a standardized technique. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Major liver resection carries a high risk of postoperative liver failure in patients with chronic liver disease. However, this underlying liver disease may comprise a wide range of pathologic changes that have, in the past, not been well defined. METHODS: The nontumorous liver of 55 patients undergoing a right hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma was classified according to a semiquantitative grading of fibrosis. The authors analyzed the influence of this pathologic feature and of other preoperative variables on the risk of postoperative death and complications. RESULTS: Serum bilirubin and prothrombin time increased on postoperative day 1, and their speed of recovery was influenced by the severity of fibrosis. Incidence of death from liver failure was 32% in patients with grade 4 fibrosis (cirrhosis) and 0% in patients with grade 0 to 3 fibrosis. The preoperative serum aspartate transaminase (ASAT) level ranged from 68 to 207 IU/l in patients with cirrhosis who died, compared with 20 to 62 in patients with cirrhosis who survived. CONCLUSION: A major liver resection such as a right hepatectomy may be safely performed in patients with underlying liver disease, provided no additional risk factors are present. Patients with a preoperative increase in ASAT should undergo a liver biopsy to rule out the presence of grade 4 fibrosis, which should contraindicate this resection.  (+info)

(5/106621) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

(6/106621) Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer.

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

(7/106621) Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk.

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

(8/106621) Serum triglyceride: a possible risk factor for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the relationship between ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and serum concentrations of lipids and apolipoproteins. METHODS: A cohort of 21 520 men, aged 35-64 years, was recruited from men attending the British United Provident Association (BUPA) clinic in London for a routine medical examination in 1975-1982. Smoking habits, weight, height and blood pressure were recorded at entry. Lipids and apolipoproteins were measured in stored serum samples from the 30 men who subsequently died of ruptured AAA and 150 matched controls. RESULTS: Triglyceride was strongly related to risk of ruptured AAA. In univariate analyses the risk in men on the 90th centile of the distribution relative to the risk in men on the 10th (RO10-90) was 12 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 3.8-37) for triglyceride, 5.5 (95% CI: 1.8-17) for apolipoprotein B (apoB) (the protein component of low density lipoprotein [LDL]), 0.15 (95% CI : 0.04-0.56) for apo A1 (the protein component of high density lipoprotein [HDL]), 3.7 (95% CI: 1.4-9.4) for body mass index and 3.0 (95% CI: 1.1-8.5) for systolic blood pressure. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) was not a significant risk factor (RO10-90 = 1.6, 95% CI: 0.6-3.0). In multivariate analysis triglyceride retained its strong association. CONCLUSION: Triglyceride appears to be a strong risk factor for ruptured AAA, although further studies are required to clarify this. If this and other associations are cause and effect, then changing the distribution of risk factors in the population (by many people stopping smoking and adopting a lower saturated fat diet and by lowering blood pressure) could achieve an important reduction in mortality from ruptured AAA.  (+info)

Behavioral Risk F

  • In an analysis of data from the 2011 to 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the prevalence of self-reported diabetes was higher among Asians (9.9 percent) and Native Hawaiians or other Pacific Islanders (14.3 percent) than in white individuals (8 percent) [ 6 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • This website provides access to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) mapping tool. (carleton.edu)
  • The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a United States health survey that looks at behavioral risk factors. (wikipedia.org)


  • Risk Factoring begins to decompose information risk into its fundamental parts. (wikipedia.org)


  • If you don't have any signs or symptoms, but are worried about your risk of cancer, discuss your concerns with your doctor. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Learn to recognize the symptoms of TB disease and find out if you are at risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of severe complications is higher when you have symptoms on the right side of your abdomen. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Awareness of the symptoms and the need for screening are important ways of reducing the risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)


  • In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection. (wikipedia.org)


  • Risk factors for breast cancer may be divided into preventable and non-preventable. (wikipedia.org)


  • Risk factors or determinants are correlational and not necessarily causal, because correlation does not prove causation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Statistical analysis along with the biological sciences can establish that risk factors are causal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some prefer the term risk factor to mean causal determinants of increased rates of disease, and for unproven links to be called possible risks, associations, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although a causal link is not proved by this data, this increased risk could be caused by micronutrient deficiencies: possibly iron, vitamin B12 or vitamin D. Further studies have provided more evidence of a link between vitamin D deficiency and an increased risk of contracting tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors can also be interpreted as causal factors of the scenario that is materialising, or as vulnerabilities or weaknesses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imputation - e.g. assuming that risk factors and definitions of offending are homogenous across countries and cultures, assuming that statistical correlations between risk factors and offending actually represent causal relationships, assuming that risk factors apply to individuals on the basis of aggregated data. (wikipedia.org)


  • A risk factor is anything that affects a person's chance of getting a disease such as cancer. (cancer.org)
  • This may increase a person's risk of lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • There are a number of factors that influence a person's cholesterol levels. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Factors that negatively affect cholesterol levels also include high levels of stress , which can raise total cholesterol levels, and cigarette smoking , which can lower a person's HDL level as much as 15 percent. (howstuffworks.com)
  • For breast cancer, the list of environmental risk factors includes the individual person's development, exposure to microbes, "medical interventions, dietary exposures to nutrients, energy and toxicants, ionizing radiation, and chemicals from industrial and agricultural processes and from consumer products. (wikipedia.org)


  • Women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a higher risk of developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer or both. (medicalnewstoday.com)

management frameworks

  • These are terms often used in risk management frameworks. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a standards body, The Open Group adopted FAIR, and aims to evangelize the use of FAIR within the context of these risk assessment or management frameworks. (wikipedia.org)


  • Other disease states that increase the risk of developing tuberculosis are Hodgkin lymphoma, end-stage renal disease, chronic lung disease, malnutrition, and alcoholism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is probably this interference and blockage of macrophage function that increases the risk of tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given that silicosis greatly increases the risk of tuberculosis, more research about the effect of various indoor or outdoor air pollutants on the disease would be necessary. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV is a major risk factor for tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Low body weight is associated with risk of tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with diabetes mellitus are at increased risk of contracting tuberculosis, and they have a poorer response to treatment, possibly due to poorer drug absorption. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, among immigrants in London from the Indian subcontinent, vegetarian Hindu Asians were found to have an 8.5 fold increased risk of tuberculosis, compared to Muslims who ate meat and fish daily. (wikipedia.org)
  • Globally, the severe malnutrition common in parts of the developing world causes a large increase in the risk of developing active tuberculosis, due to its damaging effects on the immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main risk is that approximately 10% of these patients (5% in the first two years after infection and 0.1% per year thereafter) will go on to develop active tuberculosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on ventilation and other factors, these tiny droplets [from the person who has active tuberculosis] can remain suspended in the air for several hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV infection is the greatest known risk factor for the progression of latent M. tuberculosis infection to active TB. (wikipedia.org)


  • Risk factor research has proliferated within the discipline of Criminology in recent years, based largely on the early work of Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck in the USA and David Farrington in the UK. (wikipedia.org)


  • Computer security portal Information security management ISACA ISO/IEC 27001 Risk management Vulnerability (computing) Technical Standard Risk Taxonomy ISBN 1-931624-77-1 Document Number: C081 Published by The Open Group, January 2009. (wikipedia.org)


  • Some drugs, including rheumatoid arthritis drugs that work by blocking tumor necrosis factor-alpha (an inflammation-causingcytokine), raise the risk of activating a latent infection due to the importance of this cytokine in the immune defense against TB. (wikipedia.org)


  • The risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting varies based on the type of treatment received, as well as several outside factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some highly emetogenic agents and chemotherapy regimens include: Cisplatin Dacarbazine Cyclophosphamide (>1500 mg/m2) Carmustine (>250 mg/m2) Mechlorethamine Streptozocin ABVD MOPP/COPP/BEACOPP CBV VIP BEP AC Some moderately emetogenic agents and regimens include: Carboplatin Methotrexate Doxorubicin/Adriamycin Docetaxel Paclitaxel Etoposide Ifosfamide Cyclophosphamide (≤1500 mg/m2) CHOP/CHOP-R Besides the type of treatment, personal factors may put a patient at greater risk for CINV. (wikipedia.org)


  • The BRFSS is a telephone survey conducted by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention which tracks health risks in the United States. (carleton.edu)
  • Prevention is possible but there are many risk factors needing attention. (bellaonline.com)
  • The assessment of risk factors for genocide is an upstream prevention mechanism for genocide. (wikipedia.org)


  • It is not a methodology for performing an enterprise (or individual) risk assessment. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAIR is not in direct competition with the other risk assessment frameworks, but actually is complementary to many of them. (wikipedia.org)


  • While doctors have an idea of what may increase your risk of cancer, the majority of cancers occur in people who don't have any known risk factors. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Different cancers have different risk factors. (cancer.org)
  • Approximately 5% of new breast cancers are attributable to hereditary syndromes, and well-established risk factors accounts for approximately 30% of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sporadic cancers likely result from the complex interplay between the expression of low penetrance gene(s) (risk variants) and environmental factors. (wikipedia.org)


  • There was not enough data available to include dietary factors or alcohol consumption in the findings, but experts believe both could be similarly influential. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Although the risk of developing type 2 diabetes follows a continuum across all levels of abnormal glycemia, when classified categorically, the individuals demonstrably at highest risk include those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or a glycated hemoglobin (A1C) level of 5.7 to 6.4 percent (39 to 46 mmol/mol) ( table 1 ) [ 9,10 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • The nation also has a higher risk if there is state legitimacy deficit, which would include high corruption, disregard for constitutional norms, or mass protests. (wikipedia.org)
  • Risk factors include a weak immune system, atopic dermatitis, and crowded living conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other risk factors include: Female sex Patient age (under 55 years old) History of light alcohol use History of previous CINV History of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy History of motion sickness Anxiety or depression Anticipation of CINV Several treatment methods are available to help prevent CINV. (wikipedia.org)


  • A greater risk of increased cholesterol levels occurs when that extra weight is centered in the abdominal region, as opposed to the legs or buttocks. (howstuffworks.com)

increases with age


  • Risk factors can be genetic, but some lifestyle factors, such as alcohol intake, make it more likely to happen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Its pathogenesis is poorly understood, but is heterogeneous and both genetic factors affecting insulin release and responsiveness and environmental factors, such as obesity, are important. (uptodate.com)

lifetime risk

  • Although the lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes is high, our ability to predict type 2 diabetes in the general population is limited. (uptodate.com)
  • However, the actual lifetime risk is lower than that, because 90% of women die before age 95, most commonly from heart attacks, strokes, or other forms of cancer. (wikipedia.org)


  • How do I know if I'm at risk for diabetes? (kraftrecipes.com)
  • Over 26 million people in the United States have diabetes and many more are at risk of developing diabetes. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • See the Diabetes Risk Checklist below to learn whether you're at risk. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • And if you are, find out what you can do to reduce your diabetes risk. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • You should be tested if you've ever been told you're at risk for diabetes. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • You should also get tested if you are younger than 45, overweight, and have one or more risk factors for diabetes (see the diabetes risk checklist below). (kraftrecipes.com)
  • You may also be at increased diabetes risk if you are of Latin American, African American, Pacific Island or Native American heritage. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • Talk with your doctor about your diabetes risk and how to get tested. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • Can children be at risk for type 2 diabetes? (kraftrecipes.com)
  • In fact, the incidence of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors are increasing among children. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • It's a good idea to discuss your child's diabetes risk with his or her doctor, especially if your child is overweight or diabetes runs in your family. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • Shedding even a few pounds-5 to 7% of your body weight, which translates to 10 to 15 pounds for a 200-pound person-reduces your diabetes risk. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • Print this list and place a checkmark next to each diabetes risk factor that applies to you. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • The more risk factors you have, the higher your risk for getting type 2 diabetes. (kraftrecipes.com)
  • The prevalence of and risk factors for type 2 diabetes will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
  • Diabetes mellitus is also an important risk factor that is growing in importance in developing countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is also a very high 3 fold increased risk of infection with TB for patients who have diabetes mellitus. (wikipedia.org)


  • The risk of developing TB is estimated to be between 20-37 times greater in people living with HIV than among those without HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)


  • The fraction of cancer attributable to lifestyle and environmental factors in the UK in 2010. (cancerresearchuk.org)


  • If you don't smoke, breathing in the smoke of others (called secondhand smoke or environmental tobacco smoke) can increase your risk of developing lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Environmental, further subdivided in: Internal environmental factors are, to a large extent, under the control of the enterprise, although they may not always be easy to change. (wikipedia.org)
  • External environmental factors are, to a large extent, outside the control of the enterprise. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast cancer, like other forms of cancer, can result from multiple environmental and hereditary risk factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "environmental", as used by cancer researchers, means any risk factor that is not genetically inherited. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these environmental factors are part of the physical environment, while others (such as diet and number of pregnancies) are primarily part of the social, cultural, or economic environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a retrospective analysis of over 1,300 newborns (born between 1996 and 2006) from 24 children's hospitals in the United States, researchers at Cincinnati Children's Hospital in Ohio found that babies with HLHS were more likely to be born in summer months, suggesting that seasonality and environmental factors may play a significant role in causation. (wikipedia.org)


  • The Risk Landscape Components section briefly describes the four primary components that make up any risk scenario. (wikipedia.org)


  • This is particularly true, and there is added risk, in particular situations such as medication that suppresses the immune system or advancing age. (wikipedia.org)


  • It's not clear how much low-level or short-term exposure to asbestos might raise lung cancer risk. (cancer.org)
  • These studies limited the true understanding of the total risk factor package for women living in the equatorial regions with the greatest exposure to Vitamin D from sunlight. (bellaonline.com)
  • Irregular, infrequent, absent or anovulatory menstrual cycles may reflect exposure to oestrogen unopposed by progesterone, and so may be associated with increased uterine cancer risk. (cancerresearchuk.org)


  • In practice, a linear combination of observed factors included in a linear asset pricing model (for example, the Fama-French three-factor model) proxy for a linear combination of unobserved risk factors if financial market efficiency is assumed. (wikipedia.org)


  • Sequence variants of these genes that are relatively common in the population may be associated with a small to moderate increased relative risk for breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)

lung cancer

  • Several risk factors can make you more likely to develop lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Smoking is by far the leading risk factor for lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • The risk for lung cancer among smokers is many times higher than among non-smokers. (cancer.org)
  • Smoking low-tar or "light" cigarettes increases lung cancer risk as much as regular cigarettes. (cancer.org)
  • Lung cancer risk is much greater in workers exposed to asbestos who also smoke. (cancer.org)
  • Studies of people in parts of Southeast Asia and South America with high levels of arsenic in their drinking water have found a higher risk of lung cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Studies looking at the possible role of vitamin supplements in reducing lung cancer risk have had disappointing results. (cancer.org)
  • In fact, 2 large studies found that smokers who took beta carotene supplements actually had an increased risk of lung cancer. (cancer.org)

cholesterol levels

  • The blood levels of cholesterol tend to increase as we age --a factor doctors consider when deciding treatment options for patients with certain cholesterol levels. (howstuffworks.com)


  • This latest study, which is being presented at the Alzheimer's Association International Conference in London, combined the work of 29 globally renowned experts to identify the nine modifiable lifestyle factors that contribute to increased dementia risk - all of which add up to 35% of overall impact. (netdoctor.co.uk)

increase your risk

  • Certain lifestyle choices are known to increase your risk of cancer. (mayoclinic.org)


  • Having a large registry to track joint replacement and other surgical procedures can yield data on risk factors and help manage device recalls, researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Researchers set out to create a customized model to get a better idea of Indonesian women and their risks for osteoporosis. (bellaonline.com)


greater risk

  • People exposed to large amounts of asbestos also have a greater risk of developing mesothelioma, a type of cancer that starts in the pleura (the lining surrounding the lungs). (cancer.org)
  • People with silicosis have an approximately 30-fold greater risk for developing TB. (wikipedia.org)


  • Recent research has shown that moderate alcohol use (one drink per day for women, two drinks a day for men) can raise HDL cholesterol and therefore reduce the risk of heart attack. (howstuffworks.com)


  • Much of the FAIR framework can be used to strengthen, rather than replace, existing risk analysis processes like those mentioned above. (wikipedia.org)


  • Always remember that risk factors for high cholesterol and cardiovascular disease don't exist in a vacuum--they tend to amplify each other. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Those who ate the chicken had a risk over five times as high as those who did not, that is, a relative risk of more than five. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those conditions with the addition of high unemployment rates, foreign debt, and informal economies such as growing black markets a country is at risk of its economic conditions playing into their risk factors for Genocide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Measuring Risk briefly discusses measurement concepts and challenges, and then provides a high-level discussion of risk factor measurements. (wikipedia.org)

identification of risk factors

  • When done thoughtfully and based on research, identification of risk factors can be a strategy for medical screening. (wikipedia.org)
  • The identification of risk factors that are allegedly predictive of offending and reoffending (especially by young people) has heavily influenced the criminal justice policies and practices of a number of first world countries, notably the UK, the USA and Australia. (wikipedia.org)


  • There are clear risk factors for pneumoconiosis and a range of jobs that are more likely to bring people into contact with harmful dust. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • And some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors. (cancer.org)
  • Other conflict histories that put a state at risk are past cultural traumas that have hurt the core social identity of the state, or if the people have been known to have legacy of group grievances or vengeance. (wikipedia.org)


  • The exact cause remains unclear, but some risk factors make it more likely. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The more conflict a country has had in the past can make them more unstable and more at risk for genocide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to this factor, the patient may require blood transfusions to make up for the blockage in the beta-chains. (wikipedia.org)


  • Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR) is devoted to the analysis of different factors influencing the IT risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factor analysis of information risk (FAIR) is a taxonomy of the factors that contribute to risk and how they affect each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Risk and Risk Analysis section discusses risk concepts and some of the realities surrounding risk analysis and probabilities. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://buildsecurityin.us-cert.gov/bsi/articles/best-practices/deployment/583-BSI.html "An Introduction to Factor Analysis of Information Risk (FAIR)" Archived 2014-11-18 at the Wayback Machine. (wikipedia.org)


  • Smoking menthol cigarettes might increase the risk even more since the menthol allows smokers to inhale more deeply. (cancer.org)
  • Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day increases the risk of TB by two to four times while silicosis increases the risk about 30 fold. (wikipedia.org)


  • But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. (cancer.org)


  • R i s k = number of persons experiencing event (food poisoning) number of persons exposed to risk factor (food) {\displaystyle Risk={\frac {\mbox{number of persons experiencing event (food poisoning)}}{\mbox{number of persons exposed to risk factor (food)}}}} So the chicken eaters' risk = 22/74 = 0.297 And non-chicken eaters' risk = 2/35 = 0.057. (wikipedia.org)
  • Persons with chronic renal failure and also on hemodialysis have an increased risk. (wikipedia.org)


  • Maps created on the BRFSS website illustrate health risks at national, state, and local levels. (carleton.edu)
  • risk is 2.1-2.7 times higher in women with the highest circulating oestrogen levels, a cohort study showed. (cancerresearchuk.org)

higher risk

  • If signs are presented the international community takes notes of them and watches over the countries that have a higher risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a state structure is weak and provides poor basic services for the citizens, restricted the rule of law, or has a lack of civilian protection, it also creates a higher risk and could become unstable. (wikipedia.org)


  • This pressure forces them to take on considerably more risk than they're prepared for - especially in terms of policy, integration, data management, security and data privacy related to mobile commerce and social media proliferation and innovation. (tradearabia.com)
  • NHIS is the Nation's largest in-person household health survey, providing data on health status, access to and use of health services, health insurance coverage, immunizations, risk factors, and health-related behaviors. (wikipedia.org)


  • It is important not to confuse these risks or throw them into one large risk list. (wikipedia.org)


  • 37% of uterine cancer cases each year in the UK are linked to major lifestyle and other risk factors. (cancerresearchuk.org)


  • NCHS works in partnership with the vital registration systems in each jurisdiction to produce critical information on such topics as teenage births and birth rates, prenatal care and birth weight, risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes, infant mortality rates, leading causes of death, and life expectancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • They conduct the National Survey of Family Growth, that obtains information on factors affecting birth and pregnancy rates, adoptions, and maternal and infant health, and supplements the information obtained on birth certificates collected through the National Vital Statistics System. (wikipedia.org)


  • For more information, see Asbestos and Cancer Risk . (cancer.org)
  • If a close relative has or has had, breast cancer, the risk is higher. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • TP53 is another gene that is linked to a greater breast cancer risk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Uterine cancer is associated with a number of risk factors. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Uterine cancer risk is strongly related to age. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • But oestrogen unopposed by progesterone (e.g. after menopause, or during use of oestrogen-only hormone replacement therapy) increases endometrial cancer risk. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • This is probably their mechanism of association with uterine cancer risk. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • 1 ] Studies with endometrial cancer as the endpoint are now rare, because the risks of oestrogen-only HRT users are now well-known, so users are closely monitored and their treatment stopped or changed if endometrial hyperplasia develops. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Mainly taken from risk factors for breast cancer, risk factors can be described in terms of, for example: Relative risk, such as "A woman is more than 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer in her 60s than in her 20s. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although many epidemiological risk factors have been identified, the cause of any individual breast cancer is most often unknowable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Male individuals have a much lower risk of developing breast cancer than females. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 5% of breast cancer cases, there is a strong inherited familial risk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Women who carry a harmful BRCA mutation have a 60% to 80% risk of developing breast cancer in their lifetimes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a mother or a sister was diagnosed breast cancer, the risk of a hereditary BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation is about 2-fold higher than those women without a familial history. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the suspected impact of most of these variants on breast cancer risk should, in most cases, be confirmed in large populations studies. (wikipedia.org)


  • Without treatment, they are at risk for developing TB disease. (cdc.gov)


  • You're at increased risk of getting the disease if you have frequent contact with animals. (healthline.com)
  • Reducing the risk of a cardiovascular disease involves eliminating all of the risk factors that we can control and seeking medical advise for those we can't. (howstuffworks.com)


  • A body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 increases the risk by 2 to 3 times. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in body weight lowers the risk. (wikipedia.org)