Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Ecotoxicology: The study of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION and the toxic effects of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS on the ECOSYSTEM. The term was coined by Truhaut in 1969.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Risk Management: The process of minimizing risk to an organization by developing systems to identify and analyze potential hazards to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences, and by attempting to handle events and incidents which do occur in such a manner that their effect and cost are minimized. Effective risk management has its greatest benefits in application to insurance in order to avert or minimize financial liability. (From Slee & Slee: Health care terms, 2d ed)Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.United StatesMaximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Carcinogenicity Tests: Tests to experimentally measure the tumor-producing/cancer cell-producing potency of an agent by administering the agent (e.g., benzanthracenes) and observing the quantity of tumors or the cell transformation developed over a given period of time. The carcinogenicity value is usually measured as milligrams of agent administered per tumor developed. Though this test differs from the DNA-repair and bacterial microsome MUTAGENICITY TESTS, researchers often attempt to correlate the finding of carcinogenicity values and mutagenicity values.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Dental Caries Susceptibility: The predisposition to tooth decay (DENTAL CARIES).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Toxicogenetics: The study of existing genetic knowledge, and the generation of new genetic data, to understand and thus avoid DRUG TOXICITY and adverse effects from toxic substances from the environment.Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Dioxins: Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Benzene: Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Soil Pollutants: Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Consumer Product SafetyPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Trichloroethylene: A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.Nutrition Assessment: Evaluation and measurement of nutritional variables in order to assess the level of nutrition or the NUTRITIONAL STATUS of the individual. NUTRITION SURVEYS may be used in making the assessment.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Pharmacokinetics: Dynamic and kinetic mechanisms of exogenous chemical and DRUG LIBERATION; ABSORPTION; BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT; TISSUE DISTRIBUTION; BIOTRANSFORMATION; elimination; and DRUG TOXICITY as a function of dosage, and rate of METABOLISM. LADMER, ADME and ADMET are abbreviations for liberation, absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicology.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Mutagenicity Tests: Tests of chemical substances and physical agents for mutagenic potential. They include microbial, insect, mammalian cell, and whole animal tests.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Mutagens: Chemical agents that increase the rate of genetic mutation by interfering with the function of nucleic acids. A clastogen is a specific mutagen that causes breaks in chromosomes.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Great BritainEnvironment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Animals, LaboratoryUncertainty: The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Endpoint Determination: Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Petroleum Pollution: Release of oil into the environment usually due to human activity.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Technology Assessment, Biomedical: Evaluation of biomedical technology in relation to cost, efficacy, utilization, etc., and its future impact on social, ethical, and legal systems.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Consensus: General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.EuropeGovernment Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Metals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Ethylene Oxide: A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.MiningTetrachlorodibenzodioxin: A chemical by-product that results from burning or incinerating chlorinated industrial chemicals and other hydrocarbons. This compound is considered an environmental toxin, and may pose reproductive, as well as, other health risks for animals and humans.Obstetric Nursing: A nursing specialty involving nursing care given to the pregnant patient before, after, or during childbirth.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Forensic Psychiatry: Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.Hydrobiology: The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Preventive Dentistry: The branch of dentistry concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance and promotion of oral health.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Pressure Ulcer: An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Osteoporotic Fractures: Breaks in bones resulting from low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration characteristic of OSTEOPOROSIS.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Primary Prevention: Specific practices for the prevention of disease or mental disorders in susceptible individuals or populations. These include HEALTH PROMOTION, including mental health; protective procedures, such as COMMUNICABLE DISEASE CONTROL; and monitoring and regulation of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS. Primary prevention is to be distinguished from SECONDARY PREVENTION and TERTIARY PREVENTION.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Expert Testimony: Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Containment of Biohazards: Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents (bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.). Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Epidemiological Monitoring: Collection, analysis, and interpretation of data about the frequency, distribution, and consequences of disease or health conditions, for use in the planning, implementing, and evaluating public health programs.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Plant Weeds: A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Aircraft: A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.CaliforniaFuzzy Logic: Approximate, quantitative reasoning that is concerned with the linguistic ambiguity which exists in natural or synthetic language. At its core are variables such as good, bad, and young as well as modifiers such as more, less, and very. These ordinary terms represent fuzzy sets in a particular problem. Fuzzy logic plays a key role in many medical expert systems.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.
Breast Cancer Risk Assessment... help you understand how various factors influence your risk, and provide information on ways to reduce that risk ... The experts at the High-Risk Breast Cancer Program will conduct a brief cancer risk assessment to evaluate your breast cancer ... Breast Cancer Risk Assessment. The experts at the High-Risk Breast Cancer Program will conduct a brief cancer risk assessment ... Provide information on appropriate ways to reduce that risk. Gail Model Risk Assessment. This breast cancer risk assessment ...
Implementing Affordable Care Act mandated health risk assessments will stretch primary care providers beyond capacity - Vital...However, conducting health risk assessments and then helping patients improve their behaviors and mental health takes time and ... If they implement the assessments, the high number of health risks identified will likely stretch many practices beyond ... Implementing Affordable Care Act mandated health risk assessments will stretch primary care providers beyond capacity. November ... they only wanted to change or discuss one of those risks. Engaging patients in prioritizing health risks and then focusing on ...
amygdala - WiktionaryCognitive scientists distinguish between normal risk-assessment decisions, which activate the reward-prediction regions of the ...
Pesticide Residues and Bees - A Risk Assessment... a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are ... Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large ... Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose ... Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid ...
Risk Assessment | US EPARisk Assessment. Announcements. *Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments for Final Tetrachlorvinphos Occupational ... EPA uses risk assessment to characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans and ecological receptors from ... and Residential Exposure Risk Assessment. *Draft Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessments for the pesticide registration of ... Risk Calendar. *8/15-17: EPA's SAB Public Meeting for the Review of the IRIS Assessment of ETBE and tBA ...
Diabetes Risk Assessment SurveyThis simple tool developed by the American Diabetes Association and adapted by Dance Out Diabetes can help you learn your risk ... Answer the questions until you reach a stop light symbol and explanation of your risk.. ...
Lahar Risk AssessmentStudents act as first responders assessing Lahar risks associated with eruptions. Teacher sets an alert placemark on the Google ... Lahar Risk Assessment Activity: www.digitalplanet.org/lahar (inactive). Click the 'sign in' link in the upper right corner and ... Lahar Risk Assessment Authored by Declan De Paor, Steve Wild, Mladen Dordevic, and Arman Frasier, Old Dominion University, ... Integrate , Workshops and Webinars , Teaching the Methods of Geoscience , Activity Collection , Lahar Risk Assessment ...
Risk assessment is upside downHe tells John Authers why greater risk is in the developed world rather than emerging markets. ... Risk assessment is upside down Fundamentally we don't know what's going on, says Jerome Booth, author of 'Emerging Markets in ... He tells John Authers why greater risk is in the developed world rather than emerging markets. ...
Social Risk AssessmentThis presentation will review the what, why, when and how of social risk assessment, and draw examples from the industry to ... Conducting a thorough social risk assessment (SRA) during the initial stages of exploration can assist companies to identify ... While companies often perform adequate due diligence to identify financial and operating risks, social risks are often ... and allow them to begin to develop a strategy to mitigate such risks or avoid them altogether. ...
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Fraud risk assessment methodologies... our security management expert provides our member with a series of fraud risk assessment methodologies and factors to address ... Understand risk management processes, from defining an acceptable level of risk to conducting a risk analysis, with this guide. ... The following resources also provide steps for carrying out a fraud assessment:. www.community.nsw.gov.au/ documents/fraud_risk ... In this Ask the Expert Q&A, our security management expert provides our member with a series of fraud risk assessment factors ...
Facility Risk Assessment - Fujitsu GreeceThe Facility Risk Assessment is used to clearly assess all the factors which affect the security, reliability and energy ... The Facility Risk Assessment is used to clearly assess all the factors which affect the security, reliability and energy ... Audit of downtime risks and recommended measures to reduce them *Recommendations for coordinating and optimizing your ... Current risks and areas of low efficiency * ...
Fraud Risk AssessmentFraud professionals can use this tool to assist organizations in identifying fraud risks and developing a fraud risk response. ... s Fraud Risk Assessment is an invaluable resource for fraud examiners to use in identifying and addressing their clients' or ... Fraud Risk Assessment Tool. The ACFE's Fraud Risk Assessment tool is an invaluable resource for fraud examiners to use in ... Fraud professionals can use this tool to assist organizations in identifying fraud risks and developing a fraud risk response. ...
Risk Assessment Portal | US EPAThis record is unavailable at this time. You may return to your search by using the button below.. ...
Insurance & Risk Assessment - University of AlbertaInsurance & Risk Assessment. Insurance & Risk Assessment (I&RA) oversees the placement of insurance policies for the university ... assesses various university risks, and assists the university community with insurance and risk issues. ... The university is committed to building an increased awareness and recognition that the management of risk is a shared ...
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Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team... UMBC's Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team assists faculty, ... The Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team is an interdisciplinary team that examines reports of such behavior to ... Responds to behavior assessing whether a person poses a risk to self or others; ...
Judith Hackitt's 'Risk Assessment' - Taking (away) responsibility?The light bulb moment for me came when the 'inspector' asked the 'supervisor' if he had considered the risks involved in the ... job and the potential for this worker to take short cuts which would put him as risk of harm. The supervisor's response was ...
Risk Assessment - News and Events - NSF InternationalNSF toxicology experts conduct human health and environmental risk assessments for: antimicrobial agents, industrial chemicals ... Risk Assessment News. Check out the latest news and events for Risk Assessment. ...
Hereditary Cancer Syndromes and Risk Assessment - ACOGA hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing ... A hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing ... A hereditary cancer risk assessment is the key to identifying patients and families who may be at increased risk of developing ... If a hereditary cancer risk assessment suggests an increased risk of a hereditary cancer syndrome, referral to a specialist in ...
An Information Architecture for Risk Assessment and ManagementTo address this need, the authors developed RAMP, a risk management information system that provides interactive support for ... project managers need a means of accessing risk management experience gained on other projects. ... Paul R. Garvey, John A. Wilson, Douglas J. Phair, "An Information Architecture for Risk Assessment and Management", IEEE ... As systems become more complex, project managers need a means of accessing risk management experience gained on other projects ...
1. How far has risk-assessment of nanomaterials developed?The staged approach to the risk assessment of human and environmental risks as presented in a previous Opinion of SCENIHR ( ... risk assessment and the risk management of nanomaterials needs to be improved (European Commission 2008). ... 1. How far has risk-assessment of nanomaterials developed?. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in awareness of ... This Opinion deals with the recent developments in the area of risk assessment of nanomaterials. Some specific hazards have ...
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Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.National Ambient Air Quality Standards: The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) are standards established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency under authority of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.Highly hazardous chemical: A highly hazardous chemical is a substance classified by the American Occupational Safety and Health Administration as material that is both toxic and reactive and whose potential for human injury is high if released. Highly hazardous chemicals may cause cancer, birth defects, induce genetic damage, cause miscarriage, injury and death from relatively small exposures.ToxicityJournal of Medical Toxicology: The Journal of Medical Toxicology is a peer-reviewed medical journal on medical toxicology and the official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. It publishes original articles, illustrative cases, review articles, and other special features that are related to the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with exposure to various poisons.Ecotoxicology: Ecotoxicology is the study of the effects of toxic chemicals on biological organisms, especially at the population, community, ecosystem level. Ecotoxicology is a multidisciplinary field, which integrates toxicology and ecology.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.International Life Sciences Institute: The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) is a nonprofit [501c3]IRS 501c3 Definition1985 IRS ILSI Tax Code Determination science organization founded in 1978 and headquartered in Washington, DC. It is a member organization whose members are primarily food and beverage, agricultural, chemical, and pharmaceutical companies.Risk governance: Risk governance refers to the institutions, rules conventions, processes and mechanisms by which decisions about risks are taken and implemented. It can be both normative and positive, because it analyses and formulates risk management strategies to avoid and/or reduce the human and economic costs caused by disasters.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Bresle methodAssay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Bachelor of Environmental Science: A Bachelor of Environmental Science is an undergraduate bachelor's degree awarded for courses taken in the study of environmental science or related disciplines, such as sustainable resource development, environmental health, or ecological sustainability, and may also be known as a Bachelor of Environmental Science and Management degree in some schools.Carcinogen: A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes.SAFE FOODSGreat Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Noel Derecki: Noel Christopher Derecki See Noel Derecki at the IMDb Movie Database (born December 12, 1968) in New York City, NY, USA is former child actor whose work in television, film, and the stage was primarily during the 1980s and 1990s. Noel was featured as one of the gang in the film Billy Bathgate (1991) and as musician Tony Vandelo in Heartbreak Hotel (1988).AcheiropodiaPesticides in the United States: Pesticides in the United States are used predominantly by the agricultural sector,Kellogg RL, Nehring R, Grube A, Goss DW, and Plotkin S (February 2000), Environmental indicators of pesticide leaching and runoff from farm fields. United States Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDioxins and dioxin-like compounds: Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) are by-products of various industrial processes, and are commonly regarded as highly toxic compounds that are environmental pollutants and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). They include:Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Dewar benzeneVon Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.PyromorphiteConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Xenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a foreign chemical substance found within an organism that is not normally naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism. It can also cover substances which are present in much higher concentrations than are usual.Consumer Product Safety Act: The Consumer Product Safety Act (CPSA) was enacted in 1972 by the United States Congress. The act established the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as an independent agency of the United States federal government and defined its basic authority.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Cancer screeningNational Society of Film Critics Awards 1977: 12th NSFC AwardsPrenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Plant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.European Union climate and energy package: The European plan on climate change consists of a range of measures adopted by the members of the European Union to fight against climate change. The plan was launched in March 2007, and after months of tough negotiations between the member countries, it was adopted by the European Parliament on December 2008.Biostimulation: Biostimulation involves the modification of the environment to stimulate existing bacteria capable of bioremediation. This can be done by addition of various forms of rate limiting nutrients and electron acceptors, such as phosphorus, nitrogen, oxygen, or carbon (e.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.HeartScore: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.Bio Base EuropeList of Superfund sites in the United States: These are lists of Superfund sites in the United States, designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Superfund sites are polluted locations requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations.Drug action: The action of drugs on the human body is called pharmacodynamics, and what the body does with the drug is called pharmacokinetics. The drugs that enter the human tend to stimulate certain receptors, ion channels, act on enzymes or transporter proteins.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.P-AnisidineNational Clinical Guideline CentreDental cariesPublic water systemPolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Hungarian Food Safety Office: The Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) was established as the Hungarian partner institution of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2003 in conformity with the EU requirements. One of its priority aims is to assess the health risks derived from food and indirectly from feed, to liaise with international and Hungarian authorities, and to communicate with the public on food safety issues.Mutagen: In genetics, a mutagen is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the natural background level. As many mutations can cause cancer, mutagens are therefore also likely to be carcinogens.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentPesticide residues in New Zealand: Pesticide residues are of concern in New Zealand and foods are regularly checked to see if they are within set limits.Circulation plan: A circulation plan is a schematic empirical projection/model of how pedestrians and/or vehicles flow through a given area, like, for example, a neighborhood or a Central Business District (CBD). Circulation plans are used by city planners and other officials to manage and monitor traffic and pedestrian patterns in such a way that they might discover how to make future improvements to the system.Model risk: In finance, model risk is the risk of loss resulting from using models to make decisions, initially and frequently referring to valuing financial securities. However model risk is more and more prevalent in industries other than financial securities valuation, such as consumer credit score, real-time probability prediction of a fraudulent credit card transaction to the probability of air flight passenger being a terrorist.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Value of control: The value of control is a quantitative measure of the value of controlling the outcome of an uncertainty variable. Decision analysis provides a means for calculating the value of both perfect and imperfect control.Absorption (skin): Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin. Along with inhalation, ingestion and injection, dermal absorption is a route of exposure for toxic substances and route of administration for medication.
(1/30946) Does risk factor epidemiology put epidemiology at risk? Peering into the future.
The multiple cause black box paradigm of the current risk factor era in epidemiology is growing less serviceable. This single level paradigm is likely to be displaced. The signs are that the growing strength of molecular epidemiology on the one side, and of a global epidemiology based on information systems on the other, will come to dominate epidemiology and segregate it into separate disciplines. At the same time, the links with public health interests grow weaker. A multilevel ecoepidemiology has the potential to bind these strands together. (+info)
(2/30946) Hepatitis B--are surgeons putting patients at risk?
The 1993 Department of Health guidelines permit a surgeon who is hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive but e-antigen (HBeAg) negative to perform exposure prone procedures, unless demonstrated to have infected patients. However, there is increasing evidence of transmission of hepatitis B to patients from health care workers in this supposedly low infectivity category. The Occupational Physician must decide whether existing guidelines represent an adequate risk assessment and indeed whether this is an acceptable risk for patients. If an NHS Trust continues to follow these guidelines it may be in breach of its duty of care to patients. Yet refusing to allow such carriers to operate without testing for additional serological markers may be unlawful discrimination. Further research is clearly needed as well as an urgent review of the guidelines. (+info)
(3/30946) Contact dermatitis in Alstroemeria workers.
Hand dermatitis is common in workers in the horticultural industry. This study determined the prevalence of hand dermatitis in workers of Alstroemeria cultivation, investigated how many workers had been sensitized by tulipalin A (the allergen in Alstroemeria) and took stock of a wide range of determinants of hand dermatitis. The 12-month period prevalence of major hand dermatitis amounted to 29.5% whereas 7.4% had minor dermatitis. Of these workers, 52.1% were sensitized for tulipalin A. Several personal and work-related determinants played a role in the multifactorial aetiology of hand dermatitis. Factors which showed a significant relationship with major hand dermatitis were: female sex, atopic dermatitis, chapped hands and the frequency of washing hands. It may be concluded that the Alstroemeria workers are a population at risk of developing contact dermatitis and it might be useful to carry out an educational campaign to lower the high prevalence. (+info)
(4/30946) Irritant contact dermatitis due to 1-bromo-3-chloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin in a hydrotherapy pool. Risk assessments: the need for continuous evidence-based assessments.
A physiotherapist working in hydrotherapy presented to occupational health with irritant contact dermatitis. Subsequent investigation revealed that the likely causative agent was 1-bromo 3-chloro 5,5 dimethylhydantoin which was used to disinfect the hydrotherapy pool. A COSHH risk assessment had been performed which failed to take full account of current knowledge and this agent had been introduced into the workplace. The development of adverse health effects among staff and other pool users lead to a review of this risk assessment and eventually a return to less hazardous chlorine-based disinfection. Had an evidence-based approach been combined with an appropriate COSHH assessment prior to and following changes in the workplace then unnecessary risk to employees would not have occurred. (+info)
(5/30946) Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory. (+info)
(6/30946) Risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon.
OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for injuries and other health problems occurring during or immediately after participation in a marathon. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was undertaken of participants in the 1993 Auckland Citibank marathon. Demographic data, information on running experience, training and injuries, and information on other lifestyle factors were obtained from participants before the race using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information on injuries and other health problems sustained during or immediately after the marathon were obtained by a self administered questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were undertaken to identify significant risk factors for health problems. RESULTS: This study, one of only a few controlled epidemiological studies that have been undertaken of running injuries, has identified a number of risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. Men were at increased risk of hamstring and calf problems, whereas women were at increased risk of hip problems. Participation in a marathon for the first time, participation in other sports, illness in the two weeks before the marathon, current use of medication, and drinking alcohol once a month or more, were associated with increased self reported risks of problems. While increased training seemed to increase the risk of front thigh and hamstring problems, it may decrease the risk of knee problems. There are significant but complex relations between age and risk of injury or health problem. CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified certain high risk subjects and risk factors for injuries and other health problems sustained in a marathon. In particular, subjects who have recently been unwell or are taking medication should weigh up carefully the pros and cons of participating. (+info)
(7/30946) Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non-injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower momentum was injured in 80% of these cases. Forceful or crunching tackles resulting in injury mostly occurred head on or within the tackled player's side vision. CONCLUSIONS: Attention should be focused on high speed tackles going in behind the tackled player's line of vision. Comparative information on the circumstances of the vast majority of tackles in which no injury occurs is required before any changes are considered to reduce injuries in the tackle. (+info)
(8/30946) Rider injury rates and emergency medical services at equestrian events.
BACKGROUND: Horse riding is a hazardous pastime, with a number of studies documenting high rates of injury and death among horse riders in general. This study focuses on the injury experience of cross country event riders, a high risk subset of horse riders. METHOD: Injury data were collected at a series of 35 equestrian events in South Australia from 1990 to 1998. RESULTS: Injury rates were found to be especially high among event riders, with frequent falls, injuries, and even deaths. The highest injury rates were among the riders competing at the highest levels. CONCLUSION: There is a need for skilled emergency medical services at equestrian events. (+info)
fraud risk assessment
- In this Ask the Expert Q&A, our security management expert provides our member with a series of fraud risk assessment factors to address before a policy is created. (techtarget.com)
- We are performing a security and fraud risk assessment. (techtarget.com)
- The ACFE's Fraud Risk Assessment tool is an invaluable resource for fraud examiners to use in identifying and addressing their clients' or employers' vulnerabilities to internal fraud. (acfe.com)
- This risk mitigation results in increased security and less probability of a threat or vulnerability impacting an organization's production environment. (informit.com)
- Insurance & Risk Assessment (I&RA) oversees the placement of insurance policies for the university, assesses various university risks, and assists the university community with insurance and risk issues. (ualberta.ca)
- UMBC's Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team assists faculty, staff and students address situations where a person is displaying disruptive or threatening behavior. (umbc.edu)
- Conducting a thorough social risk assessment (SRA) during the initial stages of exploration can assist companies to identify the various social risks associated with operating in a particular area, and allow them to begin to develop a strategy to mitigate such risks or avoid them altogether. (cim.org)
- By conducting a risk assessment and vulnerability assessment, an organization can uncover known weaknesses and vulnerabilities in its existing IT infrastructure, prioritize the impact of these vulnerabilities based on the value and importance of affected IT and data assets, and then implement the proper security controls and security countermeasures to mitigate those identified weaknesses. (informit.com)
- The need to conduct vulnerability and risk assessments is being driven by these new laws and mandates. (informit.com)
- 5th Global Platform on Disaster Risk Reduction in May 2017. (unisdr.org)
- Risk is the probability or likelihood of the occurrence or realization of a threat. (informit.com)
- First, it's important to understand that the audit committee's primary role is to address fraud risk levels , determine the level of risk posed by management if they override the organization's internal controls, and ultimately prevent this type of behavior. (techtarget.com)
- This breast cancer risk assessment tool, developed by scientists at the National Cancer Institute and the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project, enables a health care professional to project a woman's individual estimate of risk for invasive breast cancer over a five-year period and over her lifetime (up to age 90). (upmc.com)
- This presentation will review the what, why, when and how of social risk assessment, and draw examples from the industry to demonstrate how SRAs can contribute to effective risk management for mining projects. (cim.org)
- Below is a three-part checklist containing questions that relate to three specific factors that can increase management risk levels: incentives, opportunities and attitude. (techtarget.com)
- The university is committed to building an increased awareness and recognition that the management of risk is a shared responsibility at all levels of the University, including staff, students and faculty. (ualberta.ca)
- Reference will be made to the relevance of strategic flood risk assessments and catchment flood management plans. (unisdr.org)
- The recent Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA) is driving the need for vulnerability and risk assessments to be conducted for all United States federal government agencies. (informit.com)
- The recent Canadian Management of Information Security Standard (MITS) requires regular security assessments for all Canadian federal government agencies. (informit.com)
- The recent Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) is driving the need for vulnerability and risk assessments to be conducted within any banking or financial institution in the United States. (informit.com)
- This simple tool developed by the American Diabetes Association and adapted by Dance Out Diabetes can help you learn your risk for having pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes. (surveymonkey.com)
- Students learn to analyze a risk map, read the terrain slope, and collaborate in decision-making. (carleton.edu)
- EPA uses risk assessment to characterize the nature and magnitude of health risks to humans and ecological receptors from chemical contaminants and other stressors that may be present in the environment. (epa.gov)
- The Facility Risk Assessment is used to clearly assess all the factors which affect the security, reliability and energy efficiency of your IT operations, and to make qualified recommendations for optimization measures which will increase the security and efficiency of your data center. (fujitsu.com)
- EPA considers risk to be the chance of harmful effects to human health or to ecological systems resulting from exposure to an environmental stressor. (epa.gov)
- What is a human health risk assessment? (epa.gov)
- See human health risk assessment for more information. (epa.gov)
- The Healthcare Information Privacy and Portability Act (HIPPA) is driving the need for vulnerability and risk assessments to be conducted within any health-care or health-care-related institution. (informit.com)
- The Behavioral Risk Assessment and Consultation Team is an interdisciplinary team that examines reports of such behavior to assess and identify persons whose behaviors may endanger their own or others' health and safety. (umbc.edu)
- Check out the latest news and events for Risk Assessment. (nsf.org)
- Fraud professionals can use this tool to assist organizations in identifying fraud risks and developing a fraud risk response. (acfe.com)
- With industry compliancy and information security laws and mandates being introduced in the past four years, the need for conducting a vulnerability and risk assessment is now paramount. (informit.com)
- Organizations must now be information security conscious and must develop and implement proper security controls based on the results of their internal risk assessment and vulnerability assessment. (informit.com)
- While companies often perform adequate due diligence to identify financial and operating risks, social risks are often overlooked, which can lead to significant roadblocks such as permitting delays, and sometimes denied access. (cim.org)
- Students act as first responders assessing Lahar risks associated with eruptions. (carleton.edu)