Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Lolium: Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.Rhinitis, Atrophic: A chronic inflammation in which the NASAL MUCOSA gradually changes from a functional to a non-functional lining without mucociliary clearance. It is often accompanied by degradation of the bony TURBINATES, and the foul-smelling mucus which forms a greenish crust (ozena).Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Rhinitis, Vasomotor: A form of non-allergic rhinitis that is characterized by nasal congestion and posterior pharyngeal drainage.Nasal Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Arabis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE. Member species are ornamentals grown for their numerous small white, yellow, pink, or purplish flowers.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.Loratadine: A second-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Unlike most classical antihistamines (HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS) it lacks central nervous system depressing effects such as drowsiness.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Cetirizine: A potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Eczema: A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fluocinolone Acetonide: A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Cryptomeria: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE. Its POLLEN is one of the major ALLERGENS.Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Populus: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Balm of Gilead is a common name used for P. candicans, or P. gileadensis, or P. jackii, and sometimes also used for ABIES BALSAMEA or for COMMIPHORA.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Amaranthaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Caryophyllales, with about 60 genera and more than 800 species of plants, with a few shrubs, trees, and vines. The leaves usually have nonindented edges.Agrostis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Rhinometry, Acoustic: Diagnostic measurement of the nose and its cavity through acoustic reflections. Used to measure nasal anatomical landmarks, nasal septal deviation, and nasal airway changes in response to allergen provocation tests (NASAL PROVOCATION TESTS).Rhinomanometry: Technique for measuring air pressure and the rate of airflow in the nasal cavity during respiration.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Dermatitis, Atopic: A chronic inflammatory genetically determined disease of the skin marked by increased ability to form reagin (IgE), with increased susceptibility to allergic rhinitis and asthma, and hereditary disposition to a lowered threshold for pruritus. It is manifested by lichenification, excoriation, and crusting, mainly on the flexural surfaces of the elbow and knee. In infants it is known as infantile eczema.Panicum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).Eosinophil Cationic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil cationic protein is a 21-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. Although eosinophil cationic protein is considered a member of the RNAse A superfamily of proteins, it has only limited RNAse activity.Sublingual Immunotherapy: A method of treating an ALLERGY by administering ALLERGENS, in liquid formulation or tablets, to the ORAL MUCOSA under the tongue.Brachypodium: A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Epichloe: A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Ergotamines: A series of structurally-related alkaloids containing the ergotaman backbone structure.Pasteurella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PASTEURELLA.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Pregnadienediols: Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.Neotyphodium: The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.Dactylis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains allergen Dac g I.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Pimpinella: A plant genus in the family APIACEAE (Umbelliferae) that is used in SPICES and is a source of anethole.Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Ergot Alkaloids: Alkaloids originally isolated from the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea (Hypocreaceae). They include compounds that are structurally related to ergoline (ERGOLINES) and ergotamine (ERGOTAMINES). Many of the ergot alkaloids act as alpha-adrenergic antagonists.Primula: A plant genus of the family PRIMULACEAE. It can cause CONTACT DERMATITIS. SAPONINS have been identified in the root.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Scorzonera: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. INULIN and SESQUITERPENES have been found in it.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Oxymetazoline: A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Sorghum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.Cyproheptadine: A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Indole Alkaloids: Group of alkaloids containing a benzylpyrrole group (derived from TRYPTOPHAN)Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Renewable Energy: Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Andropogon: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of bluestem is also used for other plants in this family. Andropogon nardus has been reclassified as CYMBOPOGON nardus and Andropogon zizanioides to VETIVERIA zizanioides.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.ConjunctivitisUrtica dioica: A plant species of the genus Urtica, family URTICACEAE. Roots have been used to treat PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA. Leaves are edible after the stinging quality is eliminated by brief heating.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Festuca: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of fescue is also used with some other grasses.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Acremonium: A mitosporic fungal genus with many reported ascomycetous teleomorphs. Cephalosporin antibiotics are derived from this genus.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Mauritania: A republic in western Africa, southwest of ALGERIA and west of MALI. Its capital is Nouakchott.Salix: A plant genus of the family SALICACEAE. Members contain salicin, which yields SALICYLIC ACID.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Mimulus: A plant genus of the family Phrymaceae. Members contain 6-geranylflavanones and mimulone.Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Pennisetum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the millets used in EDIBLE GRAIN. It contains vitexin. The common name of buffelgrass is also used for CENCHRUS.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Brassicaceae: A plant family of the order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are mostly herbaceous plants with peppery-flavored leaves, due to gluconapin (GLUCOSINOLATES) and its hydrolysis product butenylisotrhiocyanate. The family includes many plants of economic importance that have been extensively altered and domesticated by humans. Flowers have 4 petals. Podlike fruits contain a number of seeds. Cress is a general term used for many in the Brassicacea family. Rockcress is usually ARABIS; Bittercress is usually CARDAMINE; Yellowcress is usually RORIPPA; Pennycress is usually THLASPI; Watercress refers to NASTURTIUM; or RORIPPA or TROPAEOLUM; Gardencress refers to LEPIDIUM; Indiancress refers to TROPAEOLUM.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Betulaceae: A plant family of the order Fagales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have simple, serrate, alternate leaves. Male flowers are borne in long, pendulous catkins; the female in shorter, pendulous or erect catkins. The fruit is usually a small nut or a short-winged samara.Bromus: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The name is similar to Broom or Scotch Broom (CYTISUS) or Butcher's Broom (RUSCUS) or Desert Broom (BACCHARIS) or Spanish Broom (SPARTIUM).Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Conservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Anemone: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE that contains triterpene saponins. The root of Anemone raddeana is the source of a Chinese folk medicine, zhu jie xian fu. The common name of liverwort is also used with other plants. This genus is unrelated to SEA ANEMONES.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Rosales: An order of the ANGIOSPERMS, subclass Rosidae. Its members include some of the most known ornamental and edible plants of temperate zones including roses, apples, cherries, and peaches.Nasal Polyps: Focal accumulations of EDEMA fluid in the NASAL MUCOSA accompanied by HYPERPLASIA of the associated submucosal connective tissue. Polyps may be NEOPLASMS, foci of INFLAMMATION, degenerative lesions, or malformations.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Diazinon: A cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an organothiophosphorus insecticide.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Chenopodium album: A plant species in the CHENOPODIUM genus known for edible greens.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Adrenal Cortex HormonesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Trifolium: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Helleborus: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE. Members contain hellebrin (BUFANOLIDES). The extract is the basis of Boicil preparation used to treat rheumatism.Agropyron: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wheatgrass is also used for other plants in the family.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Dermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Florigen: Molecule produced in plant leaves that acts like a hormone by inducing flowering in the shoot apical meristem of buds and growing tips.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cycas: A plant genus of the family Cycadaceae, order Cycadales, class Cycadopsida, division CYCADOPHYTA of palm-like trees. It is a source of CYCASIN, the beta-D-glucoside of methylazoxymethanol.Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Picea: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are evergreen, pyramidal trees with whorled branches and thin, scaly bark. Each of the linear, spirally arranged leaves is jointed near the stem on a separate woody base.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Tetraploidy: The presence of four sets of chromosomes. It is associated with ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; and MISCARRAGES.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)DibenzoxepinsUrticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Receptors, Leukotriene: Cell-surface receptors that bind LEUKOTRIENES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. The leukotriene receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their affinities for the endogenous leukotrienes LTB4; LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4.

*  Case Study: Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR) - Merge

To maintain subject interest in a two-year Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR) study, Merge created a robust subject retention ...

*  FDA Approves Singulair for Perennial Allergic Rhinitis - Drugs.com MedNews

About allergic rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis, an inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose due to allergens, is one of the ... FDA Approves Singulair for Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Share on GooglePlus Print this page ... Home › News › Pharma Industry News › FDA Approves Singulair for Perennial Allergic Rhinitis ... Allergic rhinitis is classified as either seasonal or perennial depending upon the type of trigger and duration of symptoms. ...

*  Safety Study To Assess Growth In Children With Seasonal Allergic And/Or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis Treated With GW685698X...

Rhinitis. Rhinitis, Allergic. Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. Nose Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiratory Tract ... Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis) or PAR (Perennial Allergic Rhinitis) of at least one year with either a current level of allergic ... Safety Study To Assess Growth In Children With Seasonal Allergic And/Or Perennial Allergic Rhinitis Treated With GW685698X ... The purpose of this study is to assess any effect in children with seasonal and/or perennial allergic rhinitis by GW685698X ...

*  Specific Immunotherapy (01.03.2013)

... the prevalence of self-reported rhinitis symptoms now ranges from 3.2% to 66% (2). It is... ... Walker SM, Durham SR, Till SJ, et al.: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis ... Specific immunotherapy has long-term preventive effect of seasonal and perennial asthma: 10-year follow-up on the PAT study. ... Walker SM, Durham SR, Till SJ, et al.: British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis ...

*  Levocetirizine Effect on Nasal Nitric Oxide and Nasal Eosinophils in Subjects With Perennial Allergic Rhinitis - Full Text View...

Rhinitis. Rhinitis, Allergic. Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. Nose Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiratory Tract ... Levocetirizine Effect on Nasal Nitric Oxide and Nasal Eosinophils in Subjects With Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. This study has ... Levocetirizine Effect on Nasal Nitric Oxide and Nasal Eosinophils in Subjects With Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. ... is to noninvasively measure the anti-inflammatory effect of levocetirizine after two weeks of treatment in allergic rhinitis ...

*  Perennial Allergic Rhinitis Market Global Industry Analysis,Growth,Trends and Forecast 2020

... and other complimentary treatments.The market of perennial allergic rhinitis is expected to show steady growth during the ... The market of perennial allergic rhinitis is segmented on the basis of drugs classes used for the treatment, such as, steroids ... Perennial allergic rhinitis is the most common and frequently occurring type of allergic rhinitis. ... Among various types of rhinitis, allergic rhinitis is the most common disease. Allergic rhinitis, as the name indicates, occurs ...

*  ratio-Fluticasone - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - Canada.com

... and perennial rhinitis. It can be used to manage symptoms such as sinus pain and pressure associated with allergic rhinitis. It ... It is used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis, including hay fever, ... It is used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis, including hay fever, and perennial rhinitis. It can be used to manage symptoms ... Speak to your doctor if you have been using this medication for 3 weeks and are still experiencing allergic rhinitis symptoms. ...

*  Allergic Rhinitis Perennial or Hiv??? - Forum on Safe Sex and HIV Prevention -- TheBody.com

If you've got allergic rhinitis, wouldn't you be \ ... Hello Allergic Rhinitis Lady, If you've got allergic rhinitis, ... allergic rhinitis and HIV are 2 completely different conditions. HIV is obviously caused by a virus. Allergic rhinitis is an ... My question is this, I was recently diagnosed with allergic rhinitis perennial after suffering two year period of constant ...

*  Higher Dosage of HIFU Treatment May Lead to Higher and Longer Efficacy for Moderate to Severe Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

... ... Currently, this instrument has been applied to patients with moderate to severe perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR). Some ... Keywords: high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), surgical treatment ... treatment for perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) with regular and increased dosage.. Study design: A prospectively assembled ...

*  Retrospective Record Review of Adults and Children Advised for Allergen Immunotherapy (MK-7243-022) - Study Results -...

Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Participant Flow Hide Participant Flow Recruitment Details Key ... to treat their allergic rhinitis (AR) by their physician between January 2005 and June 2011. ...

*  A Clinical Study To Test A Nasal Spray (Fluticasone Furoate Nasal Spray) For The Treatment Of Perennial (Year-round) Allergic...

Rhinitis. Rhinitis, Allergic. Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. Nose Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiratory Tract ... Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial Drug: Fluticasone furoate nasal spray Drug: Placebo Phase 4 ... Fluticasone furoate nasal spray is effective and well tolerated for perennial allergic rhinitis in adolescents and adults. Am J ... with a placebo nasal spray for the treatment of perennial (year-round) allergic rhinitis. ...

*  Azelastine nasal Uses, Side Effects & Warnings - Drugs.com

Use: Seasonal allergic rhinitis. 0.15% spray: 2 sprays in each nostril twice a day. Use: Perennial allergic rhinitis ... Use: Perennial allergic rhinitis. What other drugs will affect azelastine nasal?. Using this medicine with other drugs that ... Usual Adult Dose for Allergic Rhinitis:. 0.1% spray: 1 or 2 sprays in each nostril twice a day. 0.15% spray: 1 or 2 sprays in ... Usual Pediatric Dose for Allergic Rhinitis:. 2 to 5 years:. 0.1% spray: 1 spray in each nostril twice a day. 6 to 11 years:. ...

*  Retrospective Record Review of Adults and Children Advised for Allergen Immunotherapy (MK-7243-022) - Full Text View -...

Rhinitis. Rhinitis, Allergic. Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal. Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. Nose Diseases. Respiratory Tract ... Participants with Allergic Rhinitis (AR) Patients in a private allergy practice who were diagnosed with AR, with or without ... Diagnosis of AR with or without allergic conjunctivitis (AC). *Documented provider-to-patient or parent discussion of AIT as a ...

*  Asthma: treatments, warning signs, triggers and diagnosis

Hay fever and allergic perennial rhinitis: why do you get hay fever? ... In allergic or extrinsic asthma, an attack is triggered by agents which cause an allergic reaction, for example when pollen, ... Asthma may also be triggered by non-allergic factors. This is known as intrinsic or non-allergic asthma and factors which cause ... Avoid the substances you know that you are allergic to, or that you know tend to trigger an attack for you if possible. It can ...

*  Flixonase Safety in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis (AR) - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. Intervention *Drug: Intermittent, sub-chronic and chronic Flixonase use Intermittent exposure ... Allergic rhinitis (AR) & Flixonase Patients initiating treatment for allergic rhinitis on intranasal fluticasone propionate ... Flixonase Safety in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis (AR). Official Title Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray (Flixonase) Safety ... Flixonase Safety in Patients With Allergic Rhinitis (AR). This study has been completed. ...

*  A Dose-Ranging Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of MK-8237 in the Treatment of House Dust Mite (HDM) Induced Allergic...

Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. *Rhinitis, Allergic, Nonseasonal. Intervention ICMJE *Drug: Placebo Placebo rapidly dissolving ... History of allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis to house dust of 1 year duration or more (with or without asthma) ... Induced Allergic Rhinitis/Rhinoconjunctivitis in Adults (MK-8237-003/P07627). This study has been completed. ... induced allergic rhinitis/rhinoconjunctivitis in adults. The primary hypothesis is that administration of MK-8237, compared to ...

*  Nasonex - Uses, Side Effects, Interactions - MedBroadcast.com

... allergic rhinitis in adults and children 3 years of age and older. It is also used to treat acute sinusitis in adults and ... It is used to treat seasonal or perennial (year-round) ... Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis: The usual recommended ... The usual recommended dose for children 3 to 11 years to treat seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis is 1 spray into each ... Children: Mometasone nasal spray can be used for children 3 to 11 years old to treat allergic rhinitis, and for children 12 ...

*  Cortone (Cortisone Acetate): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

Seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis Contact dermatitis Atopic dermatitis Serum sickness Drug hypersensitivity reactions ... 5.Allergic States. Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional ... Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of ...

*  Regulatory AVAMYS Nasal Spray PMS - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Allergic Rhinitis. post marketing surveillance. Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR). ... Rhinitis. Rhinitis, Allergic. Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial. Nose Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiratory Tract ... Subject who is treated due to symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and children ≥2 years. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01001130?recr=Open&cond="Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal"&rank=19

*  DailyMed - MONTELUKAST SODIUM- montelukast sodium tablet, film coated

Perennial Allergic Rhinitis The efficacy of montelukast sodium tablets for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis was ... 14.3 Allergic Rhinitis (Seasonal and Perennial). Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis The efficacy of montelukast sodium tablets for the ... seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in patients 15 years of age and older, and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in patients 15 ... 2.3 Allergic Rhinitis 2.4 Asthma and Allergic Rhinitis 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 5 WARNINGS AND ...

*  Flashcards - upper & lower respiratory agents

Therapeutic uses: relief of symptoms associated with seasonal and perennial rhinitis; allergic conjunctivitis; uncomplicated ... nasal inhaler to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis; as an opthalmic solution to treat allergic conjuctivitis** Improvement of ... Allergic Rhinitis *Inflammatory disorder that affects the upper airway, lower airway and eyes*Symptoms: Sneezing.. Rhinorrhea ... Therapeutic uses: Relieves nasal stuffiness caused by allergic rhinitis, URI, sinusitis*Found in many OTC topical preparations* ...

*  Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine | Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point | Hudson, FL

The Chinese herbal formulation biminne in management of perennial allergic rhinitis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo- ... Sho-seiryu-to has been approved by the Japanese Health Ministry for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and allergic ... Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis by Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Altern Ther Health ... In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 220 people with allergic rhinitis were given either placebo or the Kampo remedy ...

*  Allergies, Respiratory | West Florida Hospital

Respiratory at West Florida Hospital Related Terms Allergic Conjunctivitis Allergic Pharyngitis Allergic Rhinitis Allergic ... People who suffer from year-round hay fever (perennial rhinitis) may be allergic to persistent allergens in the environment ... It is known officially as allergic rhinitis, allergic sinusitis, or allergic conjunctivitis , depending on whether symptoms ... Vitamin E effects on nasal symptoms and serum specific IgE levels in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy ...

*  U.S. National Institutes of Health | Netdata

A Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of a Nasal Spray to Treat Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Completed. Has Results. ... Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Drug: 0.15% azelastine hydrochloride,Drug: Mometasone furoate. https://ClinicalTrials.gov/show/ ... Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis. Drug: 0.15% azelastine hydrochloride 1644 mcg daily,Drug: 0.1% azelastine hydrochloride 1096 mcg ...

*  Microbial Glossary, Mold, Fungus, Environmental Bacteria

It can cause allergic disease in humans.. Eurotium species (Anamorph: Aspergillus species). A slow growing fungus that produces ... It can be isolated from air, soil, water, sewage, rumen of cows, plants (especially perennial ryegrass, tobacco, soybean) and ... rhinitis, irritated throat, fever, headache, feebleness and fatigue.. Staphylotrichum coccosporum. A rapidly-growing fungus ... There is evidence that it may be associated with allergic disease.. Botrytis cinerea. A rapidly-growing fungus that produces a ...

Honeymoon rhinitis: Honeymoon rhinitis is a condition in which the sufferer experiences nasal congestion during sexual intercourse.Allergic rhinitis: wide.Chronic atrophic rhinitisRhinitisSomnoplasty: Somnoplasty (composed of the Latin root somnus, meaning sleep, and the Greek word plastia, meaning molding or formation) is a medical treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat three conditions: habitual snoring, chronic nasal obstruction, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using radiofrequency ablation to shrink the tissues that are causing the problem.Sneeze: A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane.OxatomideTopical decongestant: Topical decongestants are decongestants applied directly to the nasal cavity. By applying them directly to the site of action, topical decongestants relieve nasal congestion while reducing the side effects associated with systemically-acting decongestants, such as high blood pressure.Allergen immunotherapy: Allergen immunotherapy, also known as desensitization or hypo-sensitization, is a medical treatment for some types of allergies. It is useful for environmental allergies, allergies to insect bites, and asthma.PollenSwiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research: Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), founded in 1988, performs basic research in the field of allergy and asthma with the aim to improve the understanding and treatment of these conditions, which affect around 30-40% of the westernized population. The Institute has its roots in the Tuberculosis Research Institute of Davos, a medical society founded in 1905 to study the beneficial effects of high altitude treatment of tuberculosis.Paddock: A paddock has two primary meanings in different parts of the English-speaking world. In Canada, the USA and UK, a paddock is a small enclosure used to keep horses.Allergic conjunctivitisLoratadineTurbinectomyCetirizineType I hypersensitivity: Type I hypersensitivity (or immediate hypersensitivity) is an allergic reaction provoked by reexposure to a specific type of antigen referred to as an allergen. Type I is not to be confused with Type II, Type III, or Type IV hypersensitivities.Breast eczema: Breast eczema (also known as "Nipple eczema") may affect the nipples, areolae, or surrounding skin, with eczema of the nipples being of the moist type with oozing and crusting, in which painful fissuring is frequently seen, especially in nursing mothers.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Nasal administrationFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Fluocinolone acetonideFlower box: __NOTOC__FexofenadinePopulus tremula: Populus tremula, commonly called aspen, common aspen, Eurasian aspen, European aspen, or quaking aspen, is a species of poplar native to cool temperate regions of Europe and Asia, from Iceland and the British IslesJames Kilkelly Irish native Aspen tree east to Kamchatka, north to inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia and northern Russia, and south to central Spain, Turkey, the Tian Shan, North Korea, and northern Japan. It also occurs at one site in northwest Africa in Algeria.ZafirlukastPlant breeders' rights: Plant breeders' rights (PBR), also known as plant variety rights (PVR), are rights granted to the breeder of a new variety of plant that give the breeder exclusive control over the propagating material (including seed, cuttings, divisions, tissue culture) and harvested material (cut flowers, fruit, foliage) of a new variety for a number of years.Hydrophile: A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to, and tends to be dissolved by, water.Liddell, H.SinusitisAlternanthera mosaic virus: Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV) is a plant pathogenic virus. AltMV belongs to the virus genus Potexvirus and the virus family Alphaflexiviridae.List of hyperaccumulators: This article covers known hyperaccumulators, accumulators or species tolerant to the following: Aluminium (Al), Silver (Ag), Arsenic (As), Beryllium (Be), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Molybdenum (Mo), Naphthalene, Lead (Pb), Palladium (Pd), Platinum (Pt), Selenium (Se) and Zinc (Zn).Brevipalpus: Brevipalpus is a genus of mites in the family Tenuipalpidae, the flat mites.Brevipalpus californicus.ML domain: A:30-155 A:20-147 A:18-143RhinomanometryCanna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Atopic dermatitisPanicum coloratum: Panicum coloratum is a species of grass known by the common names kleingrass, blue panicgrassPanicum coloratum. Tropical Forages.Brachypodium sylvaticum: Brachypodium sylvaticum, commonly known as false brome, slender false brome or wood false brome, is a perennial grass native to Europe, Asia and Africa. It has a broad native range stretching from North Africa to Eurasia.AmborellaEcosystemThioperamidePoa bulbosa: Poa bulbosa is a species of grass known by the common names bulbous bluegrass or bulbous meadow-grass. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, but it is present practically worldwide as an introduced species.Pith: 250px|right|thumb|[[Elderberry shoot cut longitudinally to show the broad, solid pith (rough-textured, white) inside the wood (smooth, yellow-tinged). Scale in mm.Pasteurella multocida: Pasteurella multocida is a Gram-negative, nonmotile, penicillin-sensitive coccobacillus belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family. Strains belonging to the species are currently classified into five serogroups (A, B, D, E, F) based on capsular composition and 16 somatic serovars (1-16).Estradiol dipropionateTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Mometasone/formoterol: Mometasone/formoterol is a combination inhaler containing both an inhaled corticosteroid and long acting bronchodilator. It is indicated for the maintenance treatment of asthma in adults and children 12 years of age and older whose asthma is not well controlled on low- or medium-dose corticosteroids, or whose disease clearly warrants combination therapy.Loline alkaloidRhynchosporium: Rhynchosporium is a genus of fungi that causes leaf scald disease on several graminaceous hosts. It includes five currently accepted species: R.Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Pimpinella monoica: Pimpinella monoica is a plant species in the genus Pimpinella.Fragaria × vescana: Fragaria × vescana is a hybrid strawberry cultivar that was created in an effort to combine the best traits of the garden strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), which has large berries and vigorous plants, with the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca), which has an exquisite flavour, but small berries.RhizomeErgocristinePrimula rosea: Primula rosea, the Himalayan meadow primrose, is a flowering plant species in the genus Primula.PermethrinPyroglyphidae: Pyroglyphidae is a family of mites. It includes the house dust mite.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Reproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Marine fungi: Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments. They are not a taxonomic group but share a common habitat.Dristan: Dristan 12-Hour Nasal Spray and Dristan Cold Multi-Symptom Tablets are medications made by Pfizer. Dristan 12-Hour Nasal Spray is a nasal decongestant, the active ingredient of which is Oxymetazoline hydrochloride 0.Sweet sorghumBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Cryptolepine: Cryptolepine is an antimalarial drug with cytotoxic properties. It is used as an anticancer drug as it is able to intercalate into DNA at the cytosine-cytosine sites.Pepsi Wild Cherry: Pepsi Wild Cherry is a cherry-flavored cola first introduced in 1988 by PepsiCo as a replacement for Cherry Cola Slice, introduced as part of the line in 1986. A sugar-free version is also available, with zero calories, named Diet Pepsi Wild Cherry.Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland: The Forum for Renewable Energy Development in Scotland, also known as FREDS is a partnership between industry, academia and Government aimed at enabling Scotland to capitalise on its significant renewable energy resource and thereby secure economic benefits."Forum for Renewable Energy Development" Scottish Government.Plant lipid transfer proteins

(1/588) Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.

Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma.  (+info)

(2/588) Hyperosmolar saline induces reflex nasal secretions, evincing neural hyperresponsiveness in allergic rhinitis.

We investigated whether hyperosmolar saline (HS), applied via paper disk onto the septum of one nostril, induces a nasal secretory response. Furthermore, we examined whether this response is accentuated in patients with active allergic rhinitis (AR) compared with healthy volunteers. Unilateral HS produced significant nasal secretions both ipsilateral and contralateral to the site of challenge in the AR group and only ipsilaterally in the healthy group. The HS-induced nasal secretions were significantly greater in the AR vs. the healthy subjects. In a separate study, we ascertained that the nasal response to HS is neurally mediated and found that ipsilateral nerve blockade with lidocaine significantly attenuates the HS-induced secretions bilaterally. In another group of AR subjects, we determined whether nociceptive fibers were involved in this response and found that sensory nerve desensitization with repeated application of capsaicin attenuated the HS-induced nasal secretions. Finally, we determined whether the secretory hyperresponsiveness in AR is attributable to increased reactivity of submucosal glands rather than of nerves. We found that the dose response to methacholine, which directly stimulates the glands, was identical among AR and healthy subjects. We conclude that, in AR, nasal challenge with HS induces significantly greater reflex secretions involving capsaicin-sensitive nerve fibers, consistent with the notion of neural hyperresponsiveness in this disease.  (+info)

(3/588) Alpha2-macroglobulin and eosinophil cationic protein in the allergic airway mucosa in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

As previously demonstrated in seasonal allergic rhinitis, increased microvascular permeability and eosinophil activation are key features of allergic airway inflammation. In the present study, the hypothesis that exudation of alpha2-macroglobulin may cause the appearance of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the airway lumen was explored. Nasal lavages were carried out using the nasal pool device before and during the pollen season both at baseline and after histamine challenge in 10 children with allergic rhinitis. Nasal lavage fluid levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and ECP were determined. All patients experienced nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis during the pollen season (p<0.01-0.05). Baseline nasal lavage fluid levels of alpha2-macroglobulin and ECP were increased during the season (p<0.01-0.05) and were found to be well correlated (p<0.0001). Histamine produced concentration-dependent plasma exudation before and during the pollen season, but it was only during the pollen season that this caused an increase in the lavage fluid levels of ECP (p<0.05). These data suggest that exudation of plasma and increased tissue levels and output of eosinophil cationic protein characterize nasal mucosal inflammation in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis. The plasma exudation process in part may account for lumenal entry of eosinophil cationic protein molecules that have been released in mucosal tissue compartments. A combination of induced exudation and nasal lavage may improve the yield of important markers of inflammation in studies of nasal diseases.  (+info)

(4/588) New treatments for allergic rhinitis.

OBJECTIVE: To review new treatments for allergic rhinitis. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Most studies supporting the principles in this paper are double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Good evidence supports use of antihistamines, nasal steroid sprays, and immunotherapy. Fewer trials have been done on the new antileukotrienes. MAIN MESSAGE: Allergic rhinitis causes significant morbidity, which can be successfully treated. Newer antihistamines, developed to replace terfenadine and astemizole which have potential side effects, include loratadine, cetirizine, and the newest, fexofenadine. Intranasal steroid sprays are also effective, particularly for people with nasal stuffiness. One study showed some growth retardation in children using beclomethasone over a prolonged period (1 year). The newer steroid sprays, such as fluticasone, budesonide, and mometasone furoate aqueous, however, have not been studied in the same way and are usually recommended for shorter periods. The newest group of medications showing real promise are the antileukotrienes, including zafirlukast and montelukast. Taken orally, these medications avoid the discomfort of nasal sprays and seem to have few side effects. Immunotherapy offers a new option: a short-course, preseasonal series of six to 11 injections that reduces the burden on patients for year-round therapy. Combinations of these therapies are also possible. CONCLUSIONS: With new medications and immunotherapy options, family physicians can offer effective treatment to patients with allergic rhinitis.  (+info)

(5/588) Differences in nasal cellular infiltrates between allergic children and age-matched controls.

Little is known about the cellular infiltrates in the nasal mucosa of children. This study was set up to compare the nasal cellular infiltrates in biopsy specimens from allergic children and controls. Atopic children were distinguished from controls on the basis of symptoms of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma, total serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E, family history and specific serum IgE to food and aeroallergens. Fifteen allergic patients (median age 4.3 yrs) and 15 age-matched nonallergic control subjects were evaluated. The number of cells positive for CD1a, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD68, chymase, tryptase, IgE and major basic protein was determined in the mucosa of the inferior turbinate. A significantly higher number of IgE-positive cells and mast cells was found in the epithelia of the allergic group. In the lamina propria, higher numbers of IgE-positive cells and eosinophils were found. Langerhans' cells positive for IgE were only seen in allergic children with specific serum IgE against aeroallergens. These children also had a higher number of IgE-positive mast cells compared to controls and atopic children without specific serum IgE. These results show that the nasal cellular infiltrates of allergic children differ from nonallergic control subjects. Prior to the detection of specific serum immunoglobulin E, cellular changes can be found in the nasal mucosa of atopic children.  (+info)

(6/588) Economic outcomes of a targeted intervention program: the costs of treating allergic rhinitis patients.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the annual costs of treating allergic rhinitis patients in a managed care environment and to assess the effect of a treatment intervention program on direct and indirect costs. DESIGN: Two arms of an economics study were designed to calculate annual costs of treating allergic rhinitis in Lovelace Health Systems. Direct and indirect costs were also reviewed for patients participating in an intervention program designed to improve patient outcomes during the 1996 fall allergy season. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Annual medical costs of treating allergic rhinitis within the Lovelace system were reviewed using a patient database. A total of 7936 patients with allergic rhinitis symptoms were identified in the database using a case-finding algorithm. An equal number of patients without allergy conditions were selected for the comparison group. In addition to calculating annual costs of treating allergic rhinitis, direct and indirect costs were reviewed for patients participating in a rhinitis intervention program to determine differences in cost between the treatment and control groups. An intervention group of 247 patients was selected to receive care at clinics randomized to use practice guidelines to improve treatment, while 255 patients were treated in the control group clinics, which did not alter treatment practices. RESULTS: Annual expenditures were nearly $2 million more for the allergic rhinitis group than for the control group. In the intervention study, treatment and control groups expended the same in direct costs, but the intervention group showed a trend toward decreased indirect costs. CONCLUSION: Costs of allergic rhinitis are not trivial to a managed care organization; a specifically designed intervention program shows potential for minimizing the costs associated with the ailment.  (+info)

(7/588) Diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis: primary care in an integrated health system setting.

The first point of contact for many patients presenting with allergy symptoms is the primary care physician. And in the managed care system, this initial primary care visit is essential. Guidelines for the primary care physician in diagnosing and treatment rhinitis as well as referring patients to allergy specialists are described. In addition, optimal medication usage for treating mild, moderate, and severe rhinitis is detailed.  (+info)

(8/588) Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions.

House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important factors in the increasing prevalence of asthma. The lung epithelium forms a barrier that allergens must cross before they can cause sensitization. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the cysteine proteinase allergen Der p 1 from fecal pellets of the HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus causes disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs), which are the principal components of the epithelial paracellular permeability barrier. In confluent airway epithelial cells, Der p 1 led to cleavage of the TJ adhesion protein occludin. Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases. Putative Der p 1 cleavage sites were found in peptides from an extracellular domain of occludin and in the TJ adhesion protein claudin-1. TJ breakdown nonspecifically increased epithelial permeability, allowing Der p 1 to cross the epithelial barrier. Thus, transepithelial movement of Der p 1 to dendritic antigen-presenting cells via the paracellular pathway may be promoted by the allergen's own proteolytic activity. These results suggest that opening of TJs by environmental proteinases may be the initial step in the development of asthma to a variety of allergens.  (+info)


  • The purpose of this study is to compare the effects (effectiveness and safety) of an intranasal corticosteroid (fluticasone furoate nasal spray [FFNS]), with a placebo nasal spray for the treatment of perennial (year-round) allergic rhinitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)

symptoms of seasonal

  • Singulair, which was approved for the treatment of the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitus (SAR) in 2003, is different from most oral allergy medications, which block histamine, in that it blocks leukotrienes, an important contributor to allergy symptoms. (drugs.com)
  • Subject who is treated due to symptoms of seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis in adults and children ≥2 years. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Montelukast sodium tablet is indicated for the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis in patients 15 years of age and older and perennial allergic rhinitis in patients 15 years of age and older. (nih.gov)

seasonal or perennial

  • Positive skin test to an appropriate seasonal or perennial allergen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is used to treat seasonal or perennial (year-round) allergic rhinitis in adults and children 3 years of age and older. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The usual recommended dose for children 3 to 11 years to treat seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis is 1 spray into each nostril once daily . (medbroadcast.com)


  • WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J., August 18, 2005 - Merck & Co., Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Singulair (montelukast sodium) for the relief of symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR), or indoor allergies, in adults and children six months of age and older. (drugs.com)
  • For treatment of symptoms of allergic rhinitis, Singulair is available in tablet form for adults (10 mg), as a cherry-chewable tablet (4 or 5 mg) for children aged two to 14 years and in oral granules (4 mg) for children six months to five years. (drugs.com)

nasal spray

  • The purpose of this study is to assess any effect in children with seasonal and/or perennial allergic rhinitis by GW685698X aqueous nasal spray (versus vehicle placebo nasal spray) on growth using knemometry. (clinicaltrials.gov)


  • The market of perennial allergic rhinitis is segmented on the basis of drugs classes used for the treatment, such as, steroids, antihistamines, allergen immunotherapy formulations, decongestants, and other complimentary treatments. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • This study involved a retrospective record review of patients in a private allergy and asthma practice who were recommended to receive allergen immunotherapy (AIT) to treat their allergic rhinitis (AR) by their physician between January 2005 and June 2011. (clinicaltrials.gov)

relief of symptoms

  • The approval of Singulair for the relief of symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis provides healthcare providers with a new, effective option to help bring relief to patients who suffer from indoor allergies and for whom Singulair is appropriate. (drugs.com)
  • Relief of symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR): seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in patients 15 years of age and older, and perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in patients 15 years of age and older ( 1.3 ). (nih.gov)


  • Allergic rhinitis is an immunological overreaction (a "hypersensitivity") to a substance or substances such as house dust, your pet cat fluffy, or plant pollens, etc. that most people do not overreact to. (thebody.com)


  • Patients with both asthma and allergic rhinitis should take only one dose daily in the evening ( 2.4 ). (nih.gov)


  • The European region is the most dominating market in the world, owing to large number of perennial allergic rhinitis diagnosed patients. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Regular dosage of HIFU treatment was applied to 56 PAR patients in group A. An increased dosage as twice as the regular one was applied to 48 patients in group B. Nasal obstruction, sneezing, rhinorrhea and rhinocnesmus, which were recognized as the four main symptoms of allergic rhinitis (AR), were evaluated before treatment, 3 months after treatment, and 1 year after treatment. (medsci.org)


  • The purpose of this study is to noninvasively measure the anti-inflammatory effect of levocetirizine after two weeks of treatment in allergic rhinitis subjects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • History of SAR (Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis) or PAR (Perennial Allergic Rhinitis) of at least one year with either a current level of allergic rhinitis symptoms that warrants treatment and/or expected symptoms during a majority of the study period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Further, due to extensive R&D practices, a number of new formulations for the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis are under pipeline studies. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Wei H, Zhang Y, Shi L, Zhang J, Xia Y, Zang J, Yan A, Li W, Jiang X. Higher Dosage of HIFU Treatment May Lead to Higher and Longer Efficacy for Moderate to Severe Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. (medsci.org)
  • This study was to compare the efficacies and side effects of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment for perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) with regular and increased dosage. (medsci.org)
  • Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment. (rxlist.com)


  • In allergic or extrinsic asthma, an attack is triggered by agents which cause an allergic reaction, for example when pollen, dust mites or animal fur are breathed in. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Asthma may also be triggered by non-allergic factors. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • This is known as intrinsic or non-allergic asthma and factors which cause an attack include anxiety, stress, exercise and cold air, as well as smoke, chemical fumes, and other irritants including viral infections. (netdoctor.co.uk)



  • Singulair is the only medication indicated for allergic rhinitis that specifically targets this particular underlying contributor to allergy symptoms. (drugs.com)



  • Anyway, to answer your question, no, allergic rhinitis and HIV are 2 completely different conditions. (thebody.com)


  • According to World Allergy Organization (WAO), the prevalence of allergic rhinitis varies from 1.4% to 40% in various countries of the world. (transparencymarketresearch.com)


  • The rhinitis is one of the short term and environment related disorders, which is identified by common symptoms, such as, runny nose, stuffy nose and post-nasal drip. (transparencymarketresearch.com)



  • My question is this, I was recently diagnosed with allergic rhinitis perennial after suffering two year period of constant itching, feeling stuffed up, white coating on tongue fruited by mouth mucus explosions. (thebody.com)
  • To maintain subject interest in a two-year Perennial Allergic Rhinitis (PAR) study, Merge created a robust subject retention kit to supplement the ongoing recruitment program. (mergellc.com)