Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.IndiaDisease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.BrazilAnti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Hospital Mortality: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.RomaniaMedical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.United StatesIntensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Malaysia: A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.TurkeyTunisia: A country in northern Africa between ALGERIA and LIBYA. Its capital is Tunis.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.EnglandVisual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.JapanLymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Gingival DiseasesDiagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Maxillary Fractures: Fractures of the upper jaw.Eye Injuries: Damage or trauma inflicted to the eye by external means. The concept includes both surface injuries and intraocular injuries.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.ItalyLung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Endoscopy: Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.SingaporeDecompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Zygomatic Fractures: Fractures of the zygoma.Registries: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Multiple Trauma: Multiple physical insults or injuries occurring simultaneously.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Kidney Failure, Chronic: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.IranPatient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Tracheotomy: Surgical incision of the trachea.Kidney Transplantation: The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.Cause of Death: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Great BritainGermanyBlood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Postoperative Hemorrhage: Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Saudi ArabiaEmergency Treatment: First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.SwitzerlandChemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.TaiwanPneumonectomy: The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Lip DiseasesIsraelAdrenal Cortex HormonesFertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Morbidity: The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Drainage: The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Laparotomy: Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.Eye Injuries, Penetrating: Deeply perforating or puncturing type intraocular injuries.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Surgical Flaps: Tongues of skin and subcutaneous tissue, sometimes including muscle, cut away from the underlying parts but often still attached at one end. They retain their own microvasculature which is also transferred to the new site. They are often used in plastic surgery for filling a defect in a neighboring region.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Jaw Cysts: Saccular lesions lined with epithelium and contained within pathologically formed cavities in the jaw; also nonepithelial cysts (pseudocysts) as they apply to the jaw, e.g., traumatic or solitary cyst, static bone cavity, and aneurysmal bone cyst. True jaw cysts are classified as odontogenic or nonodontogenic.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Republic of Korea: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.Histiocytoma: A neoplasm containing HISTIOCYTES. Important forms include BENIGN FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA; and MALIGNANT FIBROUS HISTIOCYTOMA.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Preoperative Period: The period before a surgical operation.Tibial FracturesCat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Fracture Healing: The physiological restoration of bone tissue and function after a fracture. It includes BONY CALLUS formation and normal replacement of bone tissue.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the ear and its parts, the nose and nasal cavity, or the throat, including surgery of the adenoids, tonsils, pharynx, and trachea.Academic Medical Centers: Medical complexes consisting of medical school, hospitals, clinics, libraries, administrative facilities, etc.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Drug Substitution: The practice of replacing one prescribed drug with another that is expected to have the same clinical or psychological effect.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.

*  Retrospective Record Review of Adults and Children Advised for Allergen Immunotherapy (MK-7243-022) - Study Results -...

Submit Studies. *Why Should I Register and Submit Results?. *FDAAA 801 Requirements ... Retrospective Record Review of Adults and Children Advised for Allergen Immunotherapy (MK-7243-022). This study has been ... This study involved a retrospective record review of patients in a private allergy and asthma practice who were recommended to ... Observational Model: Ecologic or Community; Time Perspective: Retrospective. Conditions: Perennial Allergic Rhinitis. Seasonal ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01549340

*  Levels of Neonatal Care | From the American Academy of Pediatrics | Pediatrics

Many of these studies are retrospective and may be subject to selection bias because infants who were transferred most likely ... Several studies have explored the topic of center experience as measured by volume or census of VLBW infants.30-35 Phibbs et al ... Several studies have compared the short-term outcome of VLBW infants born in centers with level III units (inborn) compared ... Studies measuring the effect of hospital level of birth on fetal and neonatal outcomes stratified by gestational age, as well ...
pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/130/3/587.long

*  Retrospective Record Review of Adults and Children Advised for Allergen Immunotherapy (MK-7243-022) - Full Text View -...

For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies. No Contacts or Locations Provided ... Retrospective Record Review of Adults and Children Advised for Allergen Immunotherapy (MK-7243-022). This study has been ... Time Perspective: Retrospective. Official Title:. Evaluation of Patient Initiation and Persistence With Advised Allergen ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01549340

*  Most recent papers with the keyword Pediatric + fracture + remodeling | Read by QxMD

Studies have supported the use of an induced-membrane technique after placement of a cement spacer to aid in restoration of ... PATIENTS AND METHODS: This Level IV retrospective analysis was completed at a private orthopaedic practice in association with ... Considerable studies have been published on the natural history, management, and complications of pediatric pelvis and femoral ... A high percentage of the pediatric imaging studies requested during calls are related to musculoskeletal disease. Since bones ...
https://readbyqxmd.com/keyword/109687

*  Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

Pharmacoepidemiological Studies. *Pharmacotherapy. *Pharmacovigilance Regulatory Updates. *Pharmacovigilance and Risk ... Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer: a retrospective population-based cohort study.. Author(s): Lipscombe LL, Goodwin PJ, ... METHODS: Using population-based validated health databases from Ontario, Canada, this retrospective cohort study compared ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/diabetes-mellitus-and-breast-cancer-a-retrospective-populationbased-cohort-study-905991.html

*  Most recent papers with the keyword go-on | Read by QxMD

METHODS: A retrospective record review was performed of all patients who underwent TEMLA at our institution from 2010 to 2015. ... To date, studies using a range of experimental models have reported chronic behavioral deficits in the presence of axonal ... METHODS: This retrospective study was done at Northwest General Hospital & Research Centre (NWGH&RC), Peshawar, Pakistan. ...
https://readbyqxmd.com/keyword/71789

*  Prospective, Retrospective, Case-control, Cohort Studies - StatsDirect

Case-Control studies Case-Control studies are usually but not exclusively retrospective, the opposite is true for cohort ... Most sources of error due to confounding and bias are more common in retrospective studies than in prospective studies. For ... Prospective studies usually have fewer potential sources of bias and confounding than retrospective studies. ... Cohort studies Cohort studies are usually but not exclusively prospective, the opposite is true for case-control studies. The ...
https://statsdirect.com/help/content/basics/prospective.htm

*  "Pancreatic resection: a key component to reducing racial disparities in pancreatic adenocarcinoma" by Melissa M....

Retrospective Studies; SEER Program; Treatment Refusal ...
https://works.bepress.com/jennifer_tseng/59/

*  "Pain-sensitive temperament and postoperative pain" by Charmaine...

Retrospective Studies, *Risk Factors, *Scoliosis/surgery, *Severity of Illness Index, *Spinal Fusion/adverse effects, ...
https://works.bepress.com/charmaine_kleiber/34/

*  Underlying diseases and co-factors in patients with severe chronic pruritus: a 3-year retrospective study.

... with studies pending investigating its prevalence or incidence. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of ... Retrospective Studies. Skin Diseases / complications. Statistics, Nonparametric. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. ... Chronic pruritus is a symptom of many diseases, with studies pending investigating its prevalence or incidence. The aim of this ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Underlying-diseases-co-factors-in/17989889.html

*  CNS complications in children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: retrospective analysis and...

PROCEDURE: In a single center retrospective analysis, CNS complications in 950 subsequent pediatric patients treated between ... Clinical studies analyzing CNS complications in pediatric oncology systematically are rare. ... BACKGROUND: Clinical studies analyzing CNS complications in pediatric oncology systematically are rare. PROCEDURE: In a single ... CNS complications in children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: retrospective analysis and ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/CNS-complications-in-children-receiving/17455315.html

*  Outbreak of Mycobacterium mucogenicum bacteraemia due to contaminated water supply in a paediatric haematology-oncology...

Retrospective Studies. Water Microbiology*. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 7782-50-5/Chlorine ... three case studies.. 2596018 - Epidemiological aspects of the evolution of influenza infections in a large urban centr.... ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Outbreak-Mycobacterium-mucogenicum-bacteraemia-due/18799238.html

*  Functional results of operative treatment of rectal prolapse over an 11-year period: emphasis on transabdominal approach.

Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Surgical Mesh. Suture Techniques. Treatment Outcome. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a ... Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Questionnaires. Rectal Prolapse / complications, ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Functional-results-operative-treatment-rectal/10344689.html

*  Pulmonary venous evaluation using electrocardiogram-gated 64-detector row cardiac CT.

Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods*. ... Cohort Studies. Coronary Angiography / methods*. Female. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Male. Observer Variation. ... Type: Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't Date: 2011-12-13. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Pulmonary-venous-evaluation-using-electrocardiogram/22167511.html

*  Venovenous extracorporeal life support after pulmonary endarterectomy: indications, techniques, and outcomes.

Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: R01 HL70852/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Venovenous-extracorporeal-life-support-after/17126125.html

*  Clinical surveillance of a tined, bipolar, silicone-insulated ventricular pacing lead.

Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pacemaker, Artificial / adverse effects*. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Clinical-surveillance-tined-bipolar-silicone/16627421.html

*  The Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis score for discernment of necrotizing fasciitis originated from Vibrio...

Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Skin / pathology. Soft Tissue Infections / diagnosis*, microbiology, pathology. Vibrio ... METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted, enrolling 125 consecutive patients diagnosed with V. vulnificus-related SSTI who ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Laboratory-Risk-Indicator-Necrotizing-Fasciitis/23188248.html

*  High incidence of t(11;18)(q21;q21) in Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma.

Retrospective Studies. Stomach Neoplasms / epidemiology, etiology, genetics*. Translocation, Genetic*. Treatment Failure. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/High-incidence-in-Helicobacter-pylori/12517817.html

*  Seasonal variations in maternal mortality in Maputo, Mozambique: the role of malaria.

Retrospective Studies. Seasons*. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Seasonal-variations-in-maternal-mortality/17207149.html

*  Central corneal thickness as a predictor of visual field loss in primary open angle glaucoma for a Hispanic population.

Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Tonometry, Ocular. Vision Disorders / diagnosis*, ethnology. Visual Fields*. ... METHODS: Retrospective review of 308 charts of patients seen during a six-week period by a glaucoma specialist in his community ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Central-corneal-thickness-as-predictor/21275602.html

*  Limitations to ultrasound in the detection and measurement of urinary tract calculi.

Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed*. Comments/Corrections. Comment In: Urology. 2011 Jan;77(1):258-9; author ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Limitations-to-Ultrasound-in-Detection/20206970.html

*  Mean platelet volume is increased in chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced fibrosis.

Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index. Comments/Corrections. Comment In: Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2013 Dec;37 ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Mean-platelet-volume-increased-in/22572524.html

*  Physical activity level improves after periacetabular osteotomy for the treatment of symptomatic hip dysplasia.

Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult. Comments/Corrections. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Physical-Activity-Level-Improves-After/23212768.html

*  Induction chemotherapy before sleeve lobectomy for lung cancer: immediate and long-term results.

The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the impact of chemotherapy on re ... Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/ ... Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis, drug therapy*, surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. ... The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the impact of chemotherapy on resectability and long-term survival. ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Induction-chemotherapy-before-sleeve-lobectomy/19932225.html

*  Endovascular treatment of arch and proximal thoracic aortic lesions.

Retrospective Studies. Stents. Subclavian Artery / surgery. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... METHODS: A retrospective review of aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic lesions managed with endovascular treatment ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Endovascular-treatment-arch-proximal-thoracic/18589229.html

Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingQRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Incidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Soonchunhyang University Hospital: Soonchunhyang University Hospital is a hospital in Bucheon, South Korea. It is affiliated with Soonchunhyang University.List of hospitals in Hong Kong: This is a list of hospitals and other medical facilities in Hong Kong.Revision using distal inflow: Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) is a surgical treatment for Dialysis-associated Steal Syndrome.Tertiary referral hospital: A tertiary referral hospital (also called a tertiary hospital, tertiary referral center, or tertiary care center, or tertiary center) is a hospital that provides tertiary care, which is health care from specialists in a large hospital after referral from primary care and secondary care. Beyond that general definition, there is no precise narrower or more formal definition, but tertiary centers usually include the following:Budic II of Brittany: Budic II (; or ; ), formerly known as Budick, was a king of Cornouaille in Brittany in the late 5th and early 6th centuries. 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Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Old German Shepherd Dog: Old German Shepherd Dog () is a controversial predicate for the long-hair variation of the German Shepherd Dog (), which is not a separate breed recognized by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale. Nonetheless, there are efforts to establish this variety as a separate breed.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityClinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Brain biopsyComorbidity: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.University of CampinasBacitracinHinduism in Romania: There is relatively little history of active practice of Hinduism in Romania, although many prominent Romanian thinkers have had an interest in Hindu thought, and since the Romanian Revolution of 1989 there have been some converts.Central Cardiac Audit DatabaseTumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Internal fixationList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Yamtuan Besar: Yamtuan Besar, also known as Yang di-Pertuan Besar, is the royal title of the ruler of the Malaysian state of Negeri Sembilan. The ruler of Negeri Sembilan is selected by a council of ruling chiefs in the state, or the datuk-datuk undang.Nigerian Ports Authority: The Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA) is a federal government agency that governs and operates the ports of Nigeria. The major ports controlled by the NPA include: the Lagos Port Complex and Tin Can Island Port in Lagos; Calabar Port, Delta Port, Rivers Port at Port Harcourt, and Onne Port.The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons: The Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons is a non-profit organization based in Chandler, AZ, existing for the purpose of promoting access to minimally invasive surgery in the United States, and to lobby and promote the transition of the US medical system to adopt minimally invasive hysterectomy as standard of care.Society of Elite Laparoscopic Surgeons The organization is made up of member gynecologic surgeons, and holds annual meetings in various locales.HyperintensityKocaeli University: The University of Kocaeli (KOU) is a state university in Kocaeli, Turkey. It was founded as the Academy of Engineering and Architecture of Kocaeli in 1976.List of butterflies of Tunisia: This is a list of butterflies of Tunisia. About 84 species are known from Tunisia.Nested case-control study: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.National Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.Red Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).LogMAR chart: A LogMAR chart comprises rows of letters and is used by ophthalmologists and vision scientists to estimate visual acuity. This chart was developed at the National Vision Research Institute of Australia in 1976, and is designed to enable a more accurate estimate of acuity as compared to other charts (e.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).Senior Emergency Department: The senior emergency department is a recent hospital innovation to build separate geriatric emergency rooms for older adults akin to pediatric emergency rooms designed for children. The trend comes in response to the nation's rapidly growing population of older adults and overcrowding of emergency departments.Niigata UniversityLymphovascular invasionGingival disease: A gingival disease is a disorder primarily affecting the gingiva.Prescription cascade: Prescription cascade refers to the process whereby the side effects of drugs are misdiagnosed as symptoms of another problem resulting in further prescriptions and further side effects and unanticipated drug interactions. This may lead to further misdiagnoses and further symptoms.Eye injuryTriangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. 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Endoscopy units may be located within a hospital, incorporated within other medical care centres, or may be stand-alone in nature.Wansbeck General Hospital: Wansbeck General Hospital is a district general hospital based in Ashington, Northumberland. It is one of two "low energy" built hospitals in the United Kingdom, and is the most northerly General hospital in England.

(1/73093) Prednisone in MOPP chemotherapy for Hodgkin's disease.

High remission rates have been produced by MOPP (mustine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone) chemotherapy in patients with advanced Hodgkin's disease, but the prednisone component has caused adverse effects in patients who have undergone radiotherapy. The remission rates and length of remission were reviewed in 211 patients with Hodgkin's disease who received chemotherapy either with or without prednisone. In contrast to the findings of a British study, there were no significant differences in remission rates or length of remission between patients who had received prednisone and patients who had not. There were differences between the British prospective study and this retrospective one, but it is difficult to know what accounted for the substantial differences in the findings.  (+info)

(2/73093) Expression of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory bowel disease is not affected by corticosteroid treatment.

AIM: To examine the effect of corticosteroid treatment on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the colon of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Four groups of patients were studied: (1) ulcerative colitis treated with high dose corticosteroids (six patients, 10 blocks); (2) ulcerative colitis patients who had never received corticosteroids (10 patients, 16 blocks); (3) Crohn's disease treated with high dose corticosteroids (12 patients, 24 blocks); (4) Non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic controls (four patients, six blocks). Full thickness paraffin sections of colons removed at surgery were immunostained with an antibody raised against the C terminal end of iNOS. Sections were assessed semiquantitatively for the presence and degree of inflammation and immunoreactivity for nitric oxide synthase. RESULTS: Cases of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease with active inflammation showed strong staining for nitric oxide synthase. The staining was diffuse in ulcerative colitis and patchy in Crohn's disease, in accordance with the distribution of active inflammation. Staining was seen in epithelial cells and was most intense near areas of inflammation such as crypt abscesses. Non-inflamed epithelium showed no immunoreactivity. Treatment with corticosteroids made no difference to the amount of nitric oxide synthase. CONCLUSIONS: Expression of nitric oxide synthase is increased in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and appears to be unaffected by treatment with corticosteroids. Disease severity necessitated surgery in all the cases included in this study, regardless of whether or not the patients had received long term corticosteroid treatment. It seems therefore that a high level of iNOS expression and, presumably, production of nitric oxide characterise cases which are refractory to clinical treatment; this suggests that specific inhibition of the enzyme may be a useful therapeutic adjunct.  (+info)

(3/73093) The role of alternative splicing of the adhesion molecule, CD44, in lymphoid malignancy.

AIM: To investigate the expression of CD44 isoforms containing variant exon 6 (v6) in a well characterised cohort of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), and to correlate this with phenotype and disease course. METHODS: Cryostat sections of OCT embedded diagnostic nodal material from NHL patients and cryopreserved mononuclear preparations from CLL patients were used as sources of RNA. After reverse transcription, PCR was carried out with amplimers positioned at either side of the variant exon insertion site to amplify all possible CD44 isoforms. Those isoforms containing v6 were identified after Southern blotting and hybridisation with a radiolabelled oligonucleotide. RESULTS: Of 32 NHL samples analysed, 16 did not express CD44 isoforms containing v6, six expressed an isoform containing exon v6 alone, and 10 expressed v6 long isoforms which contained exon v6 in addition to other variant exons. These data did not correlate with lymphoma classification, disease staging, or the presence or absence of extranodal disease. However, those patients expressing v6 long CD44 isoforms had a worse overall survival than those that did not. The plateau of the survival curves was 50% compared with 82%. No v6 long isoforms were detected in the 21 CLL samples investigated. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of v6 long CD44 isoforms is associated with aggressive disease in NHL, independent of grade, stage, or presence of extranodal disease.  (+info)

(4/73093) Analysis of the effect of conversion from open to closed surgical intensive care unit.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect on clinical outcome of changing a surgical intensive care unit from an open to a closed unit. DESIGN: The study was carried out at a surgical intensive care unit in a large tertiary care hospital, which was changed on January 1, 1996, from an open unit, where private attending physicians contributed and controlled the care of their patients, to a closed unit, where patients' medical care was provided only by the surgical critical care team (ABS or ABA board-certified intensivists). A retrospective review was undertaken over 6 consecutive months in each system, encompassing 274 patients (125 in the open-unit period, 149 in the closed-unit period). Morbidity and mortality were compared between the two periods, along with length-of-stay (LOS) and number of consults obtained. A set of independent variables was also evaluated, including age, gender, APACHE III scores, the presence of preexisting medical conditions, the use of invasive monitoring (Swan-Ganz catheters, central and arterial lines), and the use of antibiotics, low-dose dopamine (LDD) for renal protection, vasopressors, TPN, and enteral feeding. RESULTS: Mortality (14.4% vs. 6.04%, p = 0.012) and the overall complication rate (55.84% vs. 44.14%, p = 0.002) were higher in the open-unit group versus the closed-unit group, respectively. The number of consults obtained was decreased (0.6 vs. 0.4 per patient, p = 0.036), and the rate of occurrence of renal failure was higher in the open-unit group (12.8% vs. 2.67%, p = 0.001). The mean age of the patients was similar in both groups (66.48 years vs. 66.40, p = 0.96). APACHE III scores were slightly higher in the open-unit group but did not reach statistical significance (39.02 vs. 36.16, p = 0.222). There were more men in the first group (63.2% vs. 51.3%). The use of Swan-Ganz catheters or central and arterial lines were identical, as was the use of antibiotics, TPN, and enteral feedings. The use of LDD was higher in the first group, but the LOS was identical. CONCLUSIONS: Conversion of a tertiary care surgical intensive care unit from an open to closed environment reduced dopamine usage and overall complication and mortality rates. These results support the concept that, when possible, patients in surgical intensive care units should be managed by board-certified intensivists in a closed environment.  (+info)

(5/73093) Peripheral hepatojejunostomy as palliative treatment for irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept of surgical decompression of the biliary tree by peripheral hepatojejunostomy for palliative treatment of jaundice in patients with irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Jaundice, pruritus, and recurrent cholangitis are major clinical complications in patients with obstructive cholestasis resulting from malignant tumors of the liver hilum. Methods for palliative treatment include endoscopic stenting, percutaneous transhepatic drainage, and surgical decompression. The palliative treatment of choice should be safe, effective, and comfortable for the patient. METHODS: In a retrospective study, surgical technique, perioperative complications, and efficacy of treatment were analyzed for 56 patients who had received a peripheral hepatojejunostomy between 1982 and 1997. Laparotomy in all of these patients had been performed as an attempt for curative resection. RESULTS: Hepatojejunostomy was exclusively palliative in 50 patients and was used for bridging to resection or transplantation in 7. Anastomosis was bilateral in 36 patients and unilateral in 20. The 1-month mortality in the study group was 9%; median survival was 6 months. In patients surviving >1 month, a marked and persistent decrease in cholestasis was achieved in 87%, although complete return to normal was rare. Among the patients with a marked decrease in cholestasis, 72% had no or only mild clinical symptoms such as fever or jaundice. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral hepatojejunostomy is a feasible and reasonably effective palliative treatment for patients with irresectable tumors of the liver hilum. In patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for attempted curative resection, this procedure frequently leads to persistent-although rarely complete-decompression of the biliary tree. In a few cases it may also be used for bridging to transplantation or liver resection after relief of cholestasis.  (+info)

(6/73093) Reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileoanal pouches.

OBJECTIVE: A retrospective review was performed to determine the results after surgical reconstruction for chronic dysfunction of ileal pouch-anal procedures for ulcerative colitis and familial colonic polyposis at a university medical center. METHODS: During the 20-year period from 1978 to 1998, 601 patients underwent colectomy and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) for ulcerative colitis, familial colonic polyposis, or Hirschsprung's disease. A J pouch was used for 351 patients, a lateral pouch for 221, an S pouch for 6, and a straight pull-through for 23. Acute complications after pouch construction have been detailed in previous publications and are not included in this study. Chronic pouch stasis with diarrhea, frequency, urgency, and soiling gradually became more severe in 164 patients (27.3%), associated with pouch enlargement, an elongated efferent limb, and obstruction to pouch outflow, largely related to the pouch configuration used during the authors' early clinical experience. These patients were sufficiently symptomatic to be considered for reconstruction (mean 68 months after IPAA). Transanal resection of an elongated IPAA spout was performed on 58 patients; abdominoperineal mobilization of the pouch with resection and tapering of the lower end (AP reconstruction) and ileoanal anastomosis on 83; pouch removal and new pouch construction on 7; and conversion of a straight pull-through to a pouch on 16. RESULTS: Good long-term results (mean 7.7 years) with improvement in symptoms occurred in 98% of transanal resections, 91.5% of AP reconstructions, 86% of new pouch constructions, and 100% of conversions of a straight pull-through to a pouch. The average number of bowel movements per 24 hours at 6 months was 4.8. Complications occurred in 11.6% of reconstructed patients. Five of the 164 patients (3.1%) required eventual pouch removal and permanent ileostomy. The high rate of pouch revision in this series of patients undergoing IPAA is due to a policy of aggressive correction when patients do not experience an optimal functional result, or have a progressive worsening of their status. CONCLUSIONS: Although occasionally a major undertaking, reconstruction of ileoanal pouches with progressive dysfunction due to large size or a long efferent limb has resulted in marked improvement in intestinal function in >93% of patients and has reduced the need for late pouch removal.  (+info)

(7/73093) Use of wood stoves and risk of cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Incidence rates for cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract in Southern Brazil are among the highest in the world. A case-control study was designed to identify the main risk factors for carcinomas of mouth, pharynx, and larynx in the region. We tested the hypothesis of whether use of wood stoves is associated with these cancers. METHODS: Information on known and potential risk factors was obtained from interviews with 784 cases and 1568 non-cancer controls. We estimated the effect of use of wood stove by conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for smoking, alcohol consumption and for other sociodemographic and dietary variables chosen as empirical confounders based on a change-in-estimate criterion. RESULTS: After extensive adjustment for all the empirical confounders the odds ratio (OR) for all upper aero-digestive tract cancers was 2.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 2.2-3.3). Increased risks were also seen in site-specific analyses for mouth (OR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.8-4.2), pharyngeal (OR = 3.82; 95% CI: 2.0-7.4), and laryngeal carcinomas (OR = 2.34; 95% CI: 1.2-4.7). Significant risk elevations remained for each of the three anatomic sites and for all sites combined even after we purposefully biased the analyses towards the null hypothesis by adjusting the effect of wood stove use only for positive empirical confounders. CONCLUSIONS: The association of use of wood stoves with cancers of the upper aero-digestive tract is genuine and unlikely to result from insufficient control of confounding. Due to its high prevalence, use of wood stoves may be linked to as many as 30% of all cancers occurring in the region.  (+info)

(8/73093) Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer.

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)



outcome


  • A retrospective study looks backwards and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an outcome that is established at the start of the study. (statsdirect.com)

complications


  • CNS complications in children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: retrospective analysis and clinical study of survivors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical studies analyzing CNS complications in pediatric oncology systematically are rare. (biomedsearch.com)
  • PROCEDURE: In a single center retrospective analysis, CNS complications in 950 subsequent pediatric patients treated between 1992 and 2004 by chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were studied. (biomedsearch.com)

risk factors


  • Many valuable case-control studies, such as Lane and Claypon's 1926 investigation of risk factors for breast cancer, were retrospective investigations. (statsdirect.com)

methods


  • related methods are risk (retrospective) , chi-square 2 by 2 test , Fisher's exact test , exact confidence interval for odds ratio , odds ratio meta-analysis and conditional logistic regression . (statsdirect.com)
  • METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted, enrolling 125 consecutive patients diagnosed with V. vulnificus-related SSTI who were admitted to a teaching hospital between January 2003 and December 2011. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: Retrospective review of 308 charts of patients seen during a six-week period by a glaucoma specialist in his community practice in a large Hispanic area. (biomedsearch.com)
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic lesions managed with endovascular treatment between June 2002 and June 2007. (biomedsearch.com)

prevalence


  • Chronic pruritus is a symptom of many diseases, with studies pending investigating its prevalence or incidence. (biomedsearch.com)

prospective studies


  • Prospective studies usually have fewer potential sources of bias and confounding than retrospective studies. (statsdirect.com)
  • Most sources of error due to confounding and bias are more common in retrospective studies than in prospective studies. (statsdirect.com)

cohort studies


  • Case-Control studies are usually but not exclusively retrospective, the opposite is true for cohort studies. (statsdirect.com)

chemotherapy


  • The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the impact of chemotherapy on resectability and long-term survival. (biomedsearch.com)

odds ratio


  • In retrospective studies the odds ratio provides an estimate of relative risk. (statsdirect.com)

study


  • Underlying diseases and co-factors in patients with severe chronic pruritus: a 3-year retrospective study. (biomedsearch.com)

care


  • You should take special care to avoid sources of bias and confounding in retrospective studies. (statsdirect.com)