Retinoid X Receptor alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Retinoids: A group of tetraterpenes, with four terpene units joined head-to-tail. Biologically active members of this class are used clinically in the treatment of severe cystic ACNE; PSORIASIS; and other disorders of keratinization.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Retinoid X Receptor betaReceptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Retinoid X Receptor gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR ALPHA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Orphan Nuclear Receptors: A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Tetrahydronaphthalenes: Partially saturated 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene compounds.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Receptors, Purinergic P2X: A subclass of purinergic P2 receptors that signal by means of a ligand-gated ion channel. They are comprised of three P2X subunits which can be identical (homotrimeric form) or dissimilar (heterotrimeric form).Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Estrogen Receptor alpha: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has marked affinity for ESTRADIOL. Its expression and function differs from, and in some ways opposes, ESTROGEN RECEPTOR BETA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedTranscription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4: A subfamily of nuclear receptors that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a diverse group of GENES involved in the synthesis of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and in GLUCOSE; CHOLESTEROL; and FATTY ACIDS metabolism.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Nicotinic Acids: 2-, 3-, or 4-Pyridinecarboxylic acids. Pyridine derivatives substituted with a carboxy group at the 2-, 3-, or 4-position. The 3-carboxy derivative (NIACIN) is active as a vitamin.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 1: A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS; and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in the transcriptional activation of chromatin regions.Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase: A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Purinergic P2X Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and stimulate PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.COUP Transcription Factor I: A COUP transcription factor that was originally identified as a homodimer that binds to a direct repeat regulatory element in the chicken albumin promoter. It is a transcription factor that plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Isotretinoin: A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Acids, Acyclic: Carboxylic acids that have open-chain molecular structures as opposed to ring-shaped structures.Organotin Compounds: Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 2: A nuclear co-repressor protein that shows specificity for RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS and THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS. The dissociation of this co-repressor from nuclear receptors is generally ligand-dependent, but can also occur by way of its phosphorylation by members of the MAP KINASE SIGNALING SYSTEM. The protein contains two nuclear receptor interaction domains and four repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 1.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Receptors, Purinergic P2X2: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X2 subunits. The P2X2 subunits also have been found associated with P2X3 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular: A subclass of retinol-binding proteins that take part in the intracellular storage and transport of RETINOL. They are both functionally and structurally distinct from PLASMA RETINOL-BINDING PROTEINS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Receptors, Purinergic P2: A class of cell surface receptors for PURINES that prefer ATP or ADP over ADENOSINE. P2 purinergic receptors are widespread in the periphery and in the central and peripheral nervous system.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha2 Subunit: An interleukin-13 receptor subunit that is closely-related to the INTERLEUKIN-13 RECEPTOR ALPHA1 SUBUNIT. The receptor is found as a monomeric protein and has been considered to be a decoy receptor for interleukin-13 due the fact that it lacks cytoplasmic signaling domains.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 2: A transcription factor that partners with ligand bound GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS and ESTROGEN RECEPTORS to stimulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION. It plays an important role in FERTILITY as well as in METABOLISM of LIPIDS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fenretinide: A synthetic retinoid that is used orally as a chemopreventive against prostate cancer and in women at risk of developing contralateral breast cancer. It is also effective as an antineoplastic agent.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Purinergic P2X4: A widely distributed purinergic P2X receptor subtype that plays a role in pain sensation. P2X4 receptors found on MICROGLIA cells may also play a role in the mediation of allodynia-related NEUROPATHIC PAIN.Keratolytic Agents: Agents that soften, separate, and cause desquamation of the cornified epithelium or horny layer of skin. They are used to expose mycelia of infecting fungi or to treat corns, warts, and certain other skin diseases.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Interleukin-13 Receptor alpha1 Subunit: An interleukin receptor subunit with specificity for INTERLEUKIN-13. It dimerizes with the INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT to form the TYPE II INTERLEUKIN-4 RECEPTOR which has specificity for both INTERLEUKIN-4 and INTERLEUKIN-13. Signaling of this receptor subunit occurs through the interaction of its cytoplasmic domain with JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Oncogene Proteins v-erbA: Transforming proteins encoded by erbA oncogenes from the avian erythroblastosis virus. They are truncated versions of c-erbA, the thyroid hormone receptor (RECEPTORS, THYROID HORMONE) that have retained both the DNA-binding and hormone-binding domains. Mutations in the hormone-binding domains abolish the transcriptional activation function. v-erbA acts as a dominant repressor of c-erbA, inducing transformation by disinhibiting proliferation.COUP Transcription Factors: A sub-family of steroid receptor-related orphan nuclear receptors that have specificity for a variety of DNA sequences related to AGGTCA. COUP transcription factors can heterodimerize with a variety of factors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; and VITAMIN D RECEPTORS.Carcinoma, Embryonal: A highly malignant, primitive form of carcinoma, probably of germinal cell or teratomatous derivation, usually arising in a gonad and rarely in other sites. It is rare in the female ovary, but in the male it accounts for 20% of all testicular tumors. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1595)Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor 1: A nuclear protein that regulates the expression of genes involved in a diverse array of processes related to metabolism and reproduction. The protein contains three nuclear receptor interaction domains and three repressor domains and is closely-related in structure to NUCLEAR RECEPTOR CO-REPRESSOR 2.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Mediator Complex Subunit 1: A mediator complex subunit that is believed to play a key role in the coactivation of nuclear receptor-activated transcription by the mediator complex. It interacts with a variety of nuclear receptors including RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS; THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS; VITAMIN D RECEPTORS; PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS; ESTROGEN RECEPTORS; and GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTORS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Histone Acetyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze acyl group transfer from ACETYL-CoA to HISTONES forming CoA and acetyl-histones.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Estrogen Receptor beta: One of the ESTROGEN RECEPTORS that has greater affinity for ISOFLAVONES than ESTROGEN RECEPTOR ALPHA does. There is great sequence homology with ER alpha in the DNA-binding domain but not in the ligand binding and hinge domains.Receptors, Purinergic P2X3: A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.alpha 1-Antitrypsin: Plasma glycoprotein member of the serpin superfamily which inhibits TRYPSIN; NEUTROPHIL ELASTASE; and other PROTEOLYTIC ENZYMES.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Peroxisome Proliferators: A class of nongenotoxic CARCINOGENS that induce the production of hepatic PEROXISOMES and induce hepatic neoplasms after long-term administration.Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute: An acute myeloid leukemia in which abnormal PROMYELOCYTES predominate. It is frequently associated with DISSEMINATED INTRAVASCULAR COAGULATION.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Xenobiotics: Chemical substances that are foreign to the biological system. They include naturally occurring compounds, drugs, environmental agents, carcinogens, insecticides, etc.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Co-Repressor Proteins: A subclass of repressor proteins that do not directly bind DNA. Instead, co-repressors generally act via their interaction with DNA-BINDING PROTEINS such as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING FACTORS or NUCLEAR RECEPTORS.Trialkyltin Compounds: Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.Lithocholic Acid: A bile acid formed from chenodeoxycholate by bacterial action, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as cholagogue and choleretic.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 4, Group A, Member 1: An orphan nuclear receptor that is closely related to members of the thyroid-steroid receptor gene family. It was originally identified in NERVE CELLS and may play a role in mediation of NERVE GROWTH FACTOR-induced CELL DIFFERENTIATION. However, several other functions have been attributed to this protein including the positive and negative regulation of APOPTOSIS.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Retinal Dehydrogenase: A metalloflavoprotein enzyme involved the metabolism of VITAMIN A, this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of RETINAL to RETINOIC ACID, using both NAD+ and FAD coenzymes. It also acts on both the 11-trans- and 13-cis-forms of RETINAL.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

Orphan receptor: An orphan receptor is an apparent receptor that has a similar structure to other identified receptors but whose endogenous ligand has not yet been identified. If a ligand for an orphan receptor is later discovered, the receptor is referred to as an "adopted orphan".Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.TretinoinHormone receptor: A hormone receptor is a molecule that can bind to a specific hormone. Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be found on the plasma membrane of cells, whereas receptors for lipid-soluble hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm.Chemically induced dimerization: Chemically Induced Dimerization (CID) is a biological mechanism in which two proteins bind only in the presence of a certain small molecule, enzyme or other dimerizing agent. Genetically engineered CID systems are used in biological research to control protein localization, to manipulate signalling pathways and to induce protein activation.TamibaroteneLigand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.DNA-binding proteinGC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Coles PhillipsSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Trifluoromethylation: Trifluoromethylation in organic chemistry describes any organic reaction that introduces a trifluoromethyl group in an organic compound. Trifluoromethylated compounds are of some importance in pharma and agrochemicals.Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Hepatocyte nuclear factors: Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNFs) are a group of phylogenetically unrelated transcription factors that regulate the transcription of a diverse group of genes into proteins. These proteins include blood clotting factors and in addition, enzymes and transporters involved with glucose, cholesterol, and fatty acid transport and metabolism.Liver sinusoid: A liver sinusoid is a type of sinusoidal blood vessel (with fenestrated, discontinuous endothelium) that serves as a location for the oxygen-rich blood from the hepatic artery and the nutrient-rich blood from the portal vein.SIU SOM Histology GIProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Spatiotemporal gene expressionDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.TazaroteneProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Propyl benzoateReverse triiodothyronineCholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase: Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase also known as cholesterol 7-alpha-monooxygenase or cytochrome P450 7A1 (CYP7A1) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP7A1 gene which has an important role in cholesterol metabolism .It is a cytochrome P450 enzyme, which belongs to the oxidoreductase class, and converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol, the first and rate limiting step in bile acid synthesis.Transporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.List of MeSH codes (D12.776.930): This is a sub-part (transcription factors only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH.Thiazolidinedione: The thiazolidinediones , also known as glitazones, are a class of medications used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. They were introduced in the late 1990s.IsotretinoinVDRE: Vitamin D response element (VDRE) is a DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. The receptor for 1,25(OH)2D (VDR) binds to and regulates the expression of some genes.Organotin chemistryVitamin WellBile acid malabsorptionFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Lipotoxicity: Lipotoxicity is a metabolic syndrome that results from the accumulation of lipid intermediates in non-adipose tissue, leading to cellular dysfunction and death. The tissues normally affected include the kidneys, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.FenretinideThyroid hormone: The thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. T3 and T4 are partially composed of iodine (see molecular model).Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Keratolytic: Keratolytic therapy is treatment to remove warts and other lesions in which the epidermis produces excess skin. In this therapy, acid medicine, such as salicylic acid is put on the lesion.Cholesterol

(1/261) Polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid bind to the retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain.

Nuclear receptors (NRs) constitute a large and highly conserved family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate diverse biological processes such as development, metabolism, and reproduction. As such, NRs have become important drug targets, and the identification of novel NR ligands is a subject of much interest. The retinoid X receptor (RXR) belongs to a subfamily of NRs that bind vitamin A metabolites (i.e. retinoids), including 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA). However, although 9-cis-RA has been described as the natural ligand for RXR, its endogenous occurrence has been difficult to confirm. Recently, evidence was provided for the existence of a different natural RXR ligand in mouse brain, the highly enriched polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Mata de Urquiza et al. (2000) Science 290, 2140-2144). However, the results suggested that supra-physiological levels of DHA were required for efficient RXR activation. Using a refined method for ligand addition to transfected cells, the current study shows that DHA is a more potent RXR ligand than previously observed, inducing robust RXR activation already at low micromolar concentrations. Furthermore, it is shown that other naturally occurring PUFAs can activate RXR with similar efficiency as DHA. In additional experiments, the binding of fatty acid ligands to RXRalpha is directly demonstrated by electrospray mass spectrometry of the noncovalent complex between the RXR ligand-binding domain (LBD) and its ligands. Data is presented that shows the noncovalent interaction between the RXR LBD and a number of PUFAs including DHA and arachidonic acid, corroborating the results in transfected cells. Taken together, these results show that RXR binds PUFAs in solution and that these compounds induce receptor activation, suggesting that RXR could function as a fatty acid receptor in vivo.  (+info)

(2/261) Ubiquitinated or sumoylated retinoic acid receptor alpha determines its characteristic and interacting model with retinoid X receptor alpha in gastric and breast cancer cells.

Retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) plays an important role in mediating all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) signals. In this study, we found that ATRA up-regulated RARalpha mRNA and protein expression in gastric cancer BGC-823 cells. However, in breast cancer MCF-7 cells it down-regulated RARalpha protein expression with no effect on its RARalpha mRNA. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis showed that, although sumoylated and ubiquitinated RARalpha existed simultaneously in both cancer cell lines, ATRA exerted different regulatory effects on sumoylation and ubiquitination of RARalpha. In MCF-7 cells, ATRA treatment enhanced the ubiquitination of RARalpha and the subsequent degradation of RARalpha through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. This resulted in a reduction in the DNA binding activity of RARalpha/retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) heterodimer, the separation of RXRalpha from RARalpha and the translocation of RXRalpha from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. By contrast, in BGC-823 cells, ATRA augmented sumoylation, not ubiquitination, of RARalpha. The stability of sumoylated RARalpha was significantly stronger than in non-sumoylated RARalpha. These results also showed an increase in the DNA binding activity of the RARalpha/RXRalpha heterodimer and the stability of nuclear localization of this heterodimer, which normally facilitates the ATRA signal transduction. In conclusion, our results reveal a novel mechanism for the regulation of RARalpha-dependent signal transduction through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway in breast cancer cells and the sumoylation pathway in gastric cancer cells.  (+info)

(3/261) The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR is activated by PGC-1alpha in a ligand-dependent manner.

The nuclear bile acid receptor FXR (farnesoid X receptor) is one of the key factors that suppress bile acid biosynthesis in the liver. PGC-1alpha [PPARgamma (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma) co-activator-1alpha] is known to control energy homoeostasis in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver. We performed cell-based reporter assays using the expression system of a GAL4-FXR chimaera, the ligand-binding domain of FXR fused to the DNA-binding domain of yeast GAL4, to find the co-activators for FXR. We found that the transcriptional activation of a reporter plasmid by a GAL4-FXR chimaera was strongly enhanced by PGC-1alpha, in a ligand-dependent manner. Transcriptional activation of the SHP (small heterodimer partner) gene by the FXR-RXRalpha (retinoid X receptor alpha) heterodimer was also enhanced by PGC-1alpha in the presence of CDCA (chenodeoxycholic acid). Co-immunoprecipitation and pull-down studies using glutathione S-transferase-PGC-1alpha fusion proteins revealed that the ligand-binding domain of FXR binds PGC-1alpha in a ligand-influenced manner both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, our studies revealed that SHP represses its own transcription, and the addition of excess amounts of PGC-1alpha can overcome the inhibitory effect of SHP. These observations indicate that PGC-1alpha mediates the ligand-dependent activation of FXR and transcription of SHP gene.  (+info)

(4/261) Global analysis of three-state protein unfolding data.

A new method for analyzing three-state protein unfolding equilibria is described that overcomes the difficulties created by direct effects of denaturants on circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence spectra of the intermediate state. The procedure begins with a singular value analysis of the data matrix to determine the number of contributing species and perturbations. This result is used to choose a fitting model and remove all spectra from the fitting equation. Because the fitting model is a product of a matrix function which is nonlinear in the thermodynamic parameters and a matrix that is linear in the parameters that specify component spectra, the problem is solved with a variable projection algorithm. Advantages of this procedure are perturbation spectra do not have to be estimated before fitting, arbitrary assumptions about magnitudes of parameters that describe the intermediate state are not required, and multiple experiments involving different spectroscopic techniques can be simultaneously analyzed. Two tests of this method were performed: First, simulated three-state data were analyzed, and the original and recovered thermodynamic parameters agreed within one standard error, whereas recovered and original component spectra agreed within 0.5%. Second, guanidine-induced unfolding titrations of the human retinoid-X-receptor ligand-binding domain were analyzed according to a three-state model. The standard unfolding free energy changes in the absence of guanidine and the guanidine concentrations at zero free-energy change for both transitions were determined from a joint analysis of fluorescence and CD spectra. Realistic spectra of the three protein states were also obtained.  (+info)

(5/261) Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) helix 12 plays an inhibitory role in the recruitment of the p160 co-activators by unliganded RXRalpha/retinoic acid receptor alpha heterodimers.

Retinoid X receptor (RXR)/retinoic acid receptor (RAR) heterodimers control gene expression through recruitment of co-repressors or co-activators, depending on their hormone binding status. We show that the helix 12 of RXRalpha and RARalpha is critical for recruitment of the co-regulators and transcriptional regulation by RXRalpha, RARalpha, and RXRalpha/RARalpha. LG268, an RXR-specific agonist, was able to promote co-activator association with the heterodimers, but was unable to dissociate co-repressors. Reconstitution experiments in yeast demonstrated that LG268 was capable of activating transcription by RXRalpha/RARalpha through recruitment of the co-activator. We hypothesize that the inability to release co-repressors from RXRalpha/RARalpha is responsible for the inability of LG268 to activate RXRalpha/RARalpha heterodimers in mammalian cells. Deletion of RARalpha helix 12 (RXRalpha/RARalpha Delta403) abolished both hormone-dependent dissociation from co-repressors and hormone-dependent association with co-activators. Deletion of RXRalpha helix 12 (RXRalpha Delta443/RARalpha) resulted in a higher binding affinity for co-repressors. Unexpectedly, RXRalpha Delta443/RARalpha also gained hormone-independent co-activator binding activity. Moreover, LG268 became an antagonist to RXRalpha Delta443/RARalpha heterodimers. These data suggest that the helix 12 of RXRalpha plays an inhibitory role in the recruitment of co-activators by unliganded RXRalpha/RARalpha.  (+info)

(6/261) Cross-species global and subset gene expression profiling identifies genes involved in prostate cancer response to selenium.

BACKGROUND: Gene expression technologies have the ability to generate vast amounts of data, yet there often resides only limited resources for subsequent validation studies. This necessitates the ability to perform sorting and prioritization of the output data. Previously described methodologies have used functional pathways or transcriptional regulatory grouping to sort genes for further study. In this paper we demonstrate a comparative genomics based method to leverage data from animal models to prioritize genes for validation. This approach allows one to develop a disease-based focus for the prioritization of gene data, a process that is essential for systems that lack significant functional pathway data yet have defined animal models. This method is made possible through the use of highly controlled spotted cDNA slide production and the use of comparative bioinformatics databases without the use of cross-species slide hybridizations. RESULTS: Using gene expression profiling we have demonstrated a similar whole transcriptome gene expression patterns in prostate cancer cells from human and rat prostate cancer cell lines both at baseline expression levels and after treatment with physiologic concentrations of the proposed chemopreventive agent Selenium. Using both the human PC3 and rat PAII prostate cancer cell lines have gone on to identify a subset of one hundred and fifty-four genes that demonstrate a similar level of differential expression to Selenium treatment in both species. Further analysis and data mining for two genes, the Insulin like Growth Factor Binding protein 3, and Retinoic X Receptor alpha, demonstrates an association with prostate cancer, functional pathway links, and protein-protein interactions that make these genes prime candidates for explaining the mechanism of Selenium's chemopreventive effect in prostate cancer. These genes are subsequently validated by western blots showing Selenium based induction and using tissue microarrays to demonstrate a significant association between downregulated protein expression and tumorigenesis, a process that is the reverse of what is seen in the presence of Selenium. CONCLUSIONS: Thus the outlined process demonstrates similar baseline and selenium induced gene expression profiles between rat and human prostate cancers, and provides a method for identifying testable functional pathways for the action of Selenium's chemopreventive properties in prostate cancer.  (+info)

(7/261) Immunofluorescence localization of nuclear retinoid receptors in psoriasis versus normal human skin.

Psoriasis responds favourably to treatment with retinoids but the cellular pathways mediating these effects are poorly understood. Retinoids regulate keratinocyte proliferation and maturation via binding to nuclear retinoic acid receptors (mainly RARalpha and RARgamma) which form heterodimers with the 9-cis-RA receptor, RXRalpha. We have previously shown that mRNA expression of RARalpha and RXRalpha is down-regulated in psoriatic lesions as compared with non-lesional human skin. In the present study, we investigated the protein expression of RARalpha, RARgamma and RXRalpha in normal and psoriatic skin using indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Epidermal keratinocytes of normal and non-lesional psoriatic skin displayed similar nuclear localization of all three receptors; RARalpha was detected with decreasing intensity from basal to suprabasal layers, RARgamma showed the opposite trend, whereas RXRalpha was evenly expressed throughout the epidermis. In lesional psoriatic skin, however, all three receptor proteins showed a much higher staining intensity in the lower half of the epidermis; in particular, RARalpha immunoreactivity was low or even absent in the upper layers of epidermis. The results support the idea that psoriasis is associated with abnormal retinoid signalling in lesional epidermis.  (+info)

(8/261) RXRalpha acts as a carrier for TR3 nuclear export in a 9-cis retinoic acid-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells.

Retinoid X receptor (RXR) plays a crucial role in the cross talk between retinoid receptors and other hormone receptors including the orphan receptor TR3, forming different heterodimers that transduce diverse steroid/thyroid hormone signaling. Here we show that RXRalpha exhibits nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in MGC80-3 gastric cancer cells and that RXRalpha shuttling is energy-dependent through a nuclear pore complex (NPC)-mediated pathway for its import and an intact DNA binding domain-mediated pathway for its export. In the presence of its ligand 9-cis retinoic acid, RXRalpha was almost exclusively located in the cytoplasm. More importantly, we also show that RXRalpha acts as a carrier to assist translocation of TR3, which plays an important role in apoptosis. Both RXRalpha and TR3 colocalized in the nucleus; however, upon stimulation by 9-cis retinoic acid they cotranslocated to the cytoplasm and then localized in the mitochondria. TR3 export depends on RXRalpha, as in living cells GFP-TR3 alone did not result in export from the nucleus even in the presence of 9-cis retinoic acid, whereas GFP-TR3 cotransfected with RXRalpha was exported out of the nucleus in response to 9-cis retinoic acid. Moreover, specific reduction of RXRalpha levels caused by anti-sense RXRalpha abolished TR3 nuclear export. In contrast, specific knockdown of TR3 by antisense-TR3 or TR3-siRNA did not affect RXRalpha shuttling. These results indicate that RXRalpha is responsible for TR3 nucleocytoplasmic translocation, which is facilitated by the RXRalpha ligand 9-cis retinoic acid. In addition, mitochondrial TR3, but not RXRalpha, was critical for apoptosis, as TR3 mutants that were distributed in the mitochondria induced apoptosis in the presence or absence of 9-cis retinoic acid. These data reveal a novel aspect of RXRalpha function, in which it acts as a carrier for nucleocytoplasmic translocation of orphan receptors.  (+info)


  • steroid/thyroid/retinoid receptor superfamily of transcription factors. (
  • Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. (
  • Of note, retinoic acid can also modulate the transcriptional activity of other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily, such as PPARbeta/delta, RORbeta and COUP-TFII. (
  • The DNA binding domain, located in region C, is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers and its structure is characteristic of the nuclear receptor superfamily. (
  • The structure of ligand binding domain is also typical of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is formed by a sandwich of 12 alpha helices. (
  • Liver-enriched transcription factor HNF-4 is a novel member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily. (


  • Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant reduction in lipid content with a concomitant reduction in mRNA expression of adipocyte transcription factors such as, peroxisome proliferator-associated receptor γ (PPARγ) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and adipocytokine, resistin. (
  • Binding of ligands to PPARα is measured using binding assays in vitro and in silico, whereas the information about functional activation is derived from transactivation assays (e.g. transactivation assay with reporter gene) that demonstrate functional activation of a nuclear receptor by a specific compound. (
  • PPARα once activated by a ligand, the receptor binds to a promoter element in the gene for target gene and activates its transcription. (

retinoic acid

  • Receptor for retinoic acid. (
  • Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expression in various biological processes. (


  • El receptor X retinoide alfa (RXRA), también conocido como NR2B1 (de sus siglas en inglés "nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group B, member 1"), es un receptor nuclear codificado, en humanos, por el gen rxrA. (


  • Three RAR family members exist, alpha, beta and gamma, each gene being expressed as several isomers that vary in their N-terminus. (


  • On ligand binding, the corepressors dissociate from the receptors and associate with the coactivators leading to transcriptional activation. (


  • If the protein is a receptor, ligand binding may result in agonism or antagonism of the normal activity of the receptor. (


  • RXRA serves as a common heterodimeric partner for a number of nuclear receptors. (


  • 1]​ Los receptores X retinoides (RXRs) y los receptores de ácido retinoico (RARs) son receptores nucleares que actúan como intermediarios de los efectos biológicos de los retinoides en la activación del gen que codifica las proteínas implicadas en la síntesis de ácido retinoico. (
  • RARs bind DNA as heterodimers with members of another family of NRs, the retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which also include three genes expressed as different isoforms. (


  • Conversely, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) mediates the reversing effects of retinoids on head and neck carcinogenesis. (

ligand bindin

  • Ligand binding stabilizes a conformation of the ligand binding domain that allows recruitment of co-activators, often through insertion of an alpha-helical LXXLL coactivator motif into a pocket formed by residues of helices 3, 4 and 12 in the ligand binding domain. (


  • HNF4α was long considered an orphan receptor as the identity of its ligand was unknown. (


  • RARs share the common nuclear receptor organization in several regions of homology, corresponding to different functional domains. (
  • The integrity of the C-terminal helix H12, whose positioning differs markedly in the apo- and holo-forms for RARs, was shown to be crucial for induction of F9 cell differentiation by retinoids. (


  • 1]​[2]​ La proteína HNF4A es un factor de transcripción que une ADN en forma de homodímero y controla la expresión de diversos genes, incluyendo la del factor nuclear 1 alfa de hepatocito, un factor de transcripción que regula la expresión de varios genes hepáticos. (
  • 1]​ La proteína TR-alfa es un receptor nuclear de hormonas para triyodotironina. (


  • Es uno de los diversos receptores para hormonas tiroideas y ha demostrado estar implicado en la actividad biológica de la hormona tiroidea. (


  • El correpresor 2 de receptor nuclear (NCOR2) es un corregulador transcripcional codificado en humanos por el gen ncor2, que contiene varios dominios de interacción con receptores nucleares. (

hepatic nuclear factor

  • Facilitating effects of berberine on rat pancreatic islets through modulating hepatic nuclear factor 4 alpha expression and glucokinase activity. (


  • Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues at the N terminus of Human Retinoid X Receptor alpha. (


  • Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. (


  • 2]​ NCOR2/SMRT es un corregulador transcripcional que contiene varios dominios moduladores de función incluyendo múltiples dominios de represión autónomos así como dos o tres dominios de interacción con receptores nucleares en el extremo C-terminal. (
  • Se han descrito diversos transcritos alternativos de este gen.[3]​ HNF4A es necesario para la activación transcripcional de CYP3A4 mediada por PXR y el receptor constitutivo de androstano. (


  • 1]​[2]​ NCOR2 también es referido como mediador de los receptores de hormona tiroidea y retinoides (SMRT)[1]​ y como cofactor 1 asociado al receptor T3 (TRAC-1). (


  • Li H*, Shi X*: YEATS2 links histone acetylation to tumorigenesis of non-small cell lung cancer. (


  • In RXRalpha-positive cases, a markedly stronger induction of EGFR occurred with malignant transformation compared with the epithelia immunonegative for the nuclear receptor. (


  • it also exhibits strong homodimerization activity in the absence of DNA and cannot heterodimerize with retinoid X receptor (RXR), unlike other nuclear receptors [5] [6] . (


  • Retinoid X receptor overexpression desensitizes laryngeal epithelium to carcinogenic effects associated with epidermal growth factor receptor upreg. (
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is found frequently overexpressed in SCCs of the head and neck, although its regulatory role is not fully elucidated. (


  • Contains 1 nuclear receptor DNA-binding domain. (