Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Child Restraint Systems: Devices used to protect and restrain infant and child automotive passengers.Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Seat Belts: Restraining belts fastened to the frame of automobiles, aircraft, or other vehicles, and strapped around the person occupying the seat in the car or plane, intended to prevent the person from being thrown forward or out of the vehicle in case of sudden deceleration.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Physical Therapy Specialty: The auxiliary health profession which makes use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction of anatomic or physiological origin.Physical Education and Training: Instructional programs in the care and development of the body, often in schools. The concept does not include prescribed exercises, which is EXERCISE THERAPY.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Air Bags: Automotive safety devices consisting of a bag designed to inflate upon collision and prevent passengers from pitching forward. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Physical Chromosome Mapping: Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Sedentary Lifestyle: Usual level of physical activity that is less than 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity on most days of the week.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Bulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Physical Therapists: Persons trained in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY to make use of PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES to prevent, correct, and alleviate movement dysfunction.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.United StatesProtein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Recreation: Activity engaged in for pleasure.Acceleration: An increase in the rate of speed.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the use of physical agents, mechanical apparatus, and manipulation in rehabilitating physically diseased or injured patients.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Social Isolation: The separation of individuals or groups resulting in the lack of or minimizing of social contact and/or communication. This separation may be accomplished by physical separation, by social barriers and by psychological mechanisms. In the latter, there may be interaction but no real communication.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Accelerometry: Qualitative and quantitative measurement of MOVEMENT patterns.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Behavior Control: Manipulation of the behavior of persons or animals by biomedical, physical, psychological, or social means, including for nontherapeutic reasons.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Environment Design: The structuring of the environment to permit or promote specific patterns of behavior.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Image: Individuals' concept of their own bodies.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Chemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Patient Isolation: The segregation of patients with communicable or other diseases for a specified time. Isolation may be strict, in which movement and social contacts are limited; modified, where an effort to control specified aspects of care is made in order to prevent cross infection; or reverse, where the patient is secluded in a controlled or germ-free environment in order to protect him or her from cross infection.Stomach Ulcer: Ulceration of the GASTRIC MUCOSA due to contact with GASTRIC JUICE. It is often associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI infection or consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Confined Spaces: A space which has limited openings for entry and exit combined with unfavorable natural ventilation such as CAVES, refrigerators, deep tunnels, pipelines, sewers, silos, tanks, vats, mines, deep trenches or pits, vaults, manholes, chimneys, etc.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Vagotomy, Truncal: Bilateral dissection of the abdominal branches of the vagus nerve. It is used frequently in the surgical management of duodenal and gastric ulcers, as well as in physiologic studies of gastrointestinal secretion and motility.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Accident Prevention: Efforts and designs to reduce the incidence of unexpected undesirable events in various environments and situations.Bulimia Nervosa: An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Schools: Educational institutions.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Self Mutilation: The act of injuring one's own body to the extent of cutting off or permanently destroying a limb or other essential part of a body.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.ManikinsMotivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.Physical Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of diagnostic and medical rehabilitation services to restore or improve the functional capacity of the patient.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Tiletamine: Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.TennesseeHypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Molecular Dynamics Simulation: A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Economics, Nursing: Economic aspects of the nursing profession.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Bupleurum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE that is the source of bupleurum root and of bupleurotoxin and is an ingredient of sho-saiko-to.Defecation: The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.Sheep, Domestic: A species of sheep, Ovis aries, descended from Near Eastern wild forms, especially mouflon.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Motor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Nitromifene: A non-steroidal estrogen antagonist (as the 1:1 citrate) most commonly used as a research tool in animal studies.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Propanil: A chlorinated anilide that is used as an herbicide.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Mifepristone: A progestational and glucocorticoid hormone antagonist. Its inhibition of progesterone induces bleeding during the luteal phase and in early pregnancy by releasing endogenous prostaglandins from the endometrium or decidua. As a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, the drug has been used to treat hypercortisolism in patients with nonpituitary CUSHING SYNDROME.Coercion: The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Geriatric Nursing: Nursing care of the aged patient given in the home, the hospital, or special institutions such as nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, etc.Child Abuse: Abuse of children in a family, institutional, or other setting. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Physical Phenomena: The entities of matter and energy, and the processes, principles, properties, and relationships describing their nature and interactions.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.

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There are three basic types of restraint that can be effective during an emergency: location restraint, physical restraint and ... Colorado veterinarian Ruth Sorensen discusses different techniques of twitching, a form of physical restraint that can help ... Our series on emergency restraint techniques concludes with an article on different types of location restraint, chemical ... Vulnerable anatomy, such as ears, joints or genitals should never be used for restraint. Besides being illegal in some states, ...

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For restraint for medical or psychiatric purposes, see medical restraint. Physical restraints are used: primarily by police and ... See false arrest, false imprisonment). The misuse of physical restraint has resulted in many deaths. Physical restraint can be ... restraint can cause physical harm, can frighten and humiliate the victim. Restraint, specially face down restraint can re- ... Vast numbers of care staff are trained in 'physical interventions' including physical restraint, although they rarely employ ...

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There are three basic types of restraint that can be effective during an emergency: location restraint, physical restraint and ... Colorado veterinarian Ruth Sorensen discusses different techniques of twitching, a form of physical restraint that can help ... Our series on emergency restraint techniques concludes with an article on different types of location restraint, chemical ... Vulnerable anatomy, such as ears, joints or genitals should never be used for restraint. Besides being illegal in some states, ...

*  Special Care and Health Issues FAQs - C.L.A.S.S. Liver Disease Resource Center

If physical restraint is needed, learn how to provide it in a non-punitive way. For example, "This shot is just too hard for ... Physical Restraint. Be prepared for the possibility that the procedure could become just too scary or difficult for your child ... In this example the use of physical restraint is introduced as support, not punishment and the child is held in a comforting ... Close physical contact with the parent or caregiver.. *Parent participation which is focused around positive assistance rather ...

*  public data sorted by sau - Google Sheets

Number of Uses of Physical Restraint. Number of Students Restrained. Number of Uses of Seclusion Number of Students Secluded. ...

*  9780471693048 - Social Work in Mental Health : An |

Brief Physical Restraint. 142. (1). Noncontingent Reinforcement. 143. (1). Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior ...

*  Should Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Nursing Home Quality be Reported Publicly? | LeadingAge

Physical restraints.. The study focused on nursing homes that cared for at least 30 white residents and a minimum of 30 ...

*  People First of Tenn. v. Clover Bottom Devel. Center | Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse

Restraints : physical Staff (number, training, qualifications, wages) Mental Disability Intellectual/developmental disability, ... It also alleged the use of unnecessary restraints, inadequate discharge planning, and failure to provide habilitation and ...

*  United States v. Delaware | Civil Rights Litigation Clearinghouse

Restraints : physical Medical/Mental Health Mental health care, general Mental health care, unspecified ... inadequate restraint and seclusion practices; inadequate investigations of serious incidents; and inadequate discharge planning ...

*  Laboratory Primate Newsletter, Volume 41, Number 4

The report contains chapters on manipulation of access to food or fluids; experimental enclosures and physical restraint; ... di Psicologia, CNR, Via Aldrovandi 16 b, 00197 Rome, Italy [e-mail:]). American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ... for Tropical Studies, Box 90630, Durham, NC 27708-0630 [e-mail:]. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2002 ... A Guide to Careers in Physical Anthropology. A. S. Ryan (Ed.). Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 2002. [Price: $ ...


What types of physical restraint are not acceptable for children? [Statutory Authority: RCW 74.15.280, 74.15.020 and 2001 c 230 ... What types of physical restraint are acceptable? [Statutory Authority: RCW 74.15.280, 74.15.020 and 2001 c 230. WSR 03-08-026 ... What must I do following an incident that involved using physical restraint? [Statutory Authority: RCW 74.15.280, 74.15.020 and ... What must I do following an incident that involved using physical restraint? ...

*  To Amend Title I of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to Modernize Such...

To Prevent and Reduce the Use of Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Schools, and for Other Purposes. - Scholar's Choice ...

*  Handling and Restraint of Zoo Animals by Hayley Igbokwe on Prezi

There are 3 different types of Restraint method Physical Restraint Trap Containers. Chemical Restraint You are the keeper..... ... Handling and Restraint of Zoo Animals. Identify the 3 different types of restraint. Describe the 3 different types of restraint ... Chemical Restraint. Anaesthetics. UNCONSCIOUS IMMOBILISATION. This causes sleep, thus preventing pain and discomfort and allows ... Each of you will give me a factoid about restraint of an animal.... Think back to safe working practice. ...

*  Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of Elephants | Veterinary Medicine - Zoo & Wildlife | Veterinary Medicine | Subjects | Wiley

7. Preventive Health Care and Physical Examination (Susan K. Mikota).. 8. Physical Restraint and Handling (Murray E. Fowler). ... His previous publications include Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine, Fifth Edition (2003); Restraint and Handling of Wild and ...

*  Montana Freemen

One male Freeman requires physical restraint. Holter refuses to hear their arguments that their own alternative government's ... Senator: FBI Showing Admirable Restraint - In a sidebar to the conversation about the power shutdown, Duke tells Lehrer that he ... compliments the FBI on its restraint. "Patriot" leader James "Bo" Gritz, who helped negotiate Weaver's surrender, implies that ... admires the FBI's restraint in handling the Freemen. "I think they have been lenient deliberately," he says. "That's really to ...

*  Not-For-Profit Nursing Homes Fare Better ... ( Quality of care higher than in for-pr...)

... less use of physical restraints; and fewer deficiencies cited by regulatory agencies. ...

*  Standard Search - Social Care Online

physical restraint 5 * police 5 * quality of life 5 * restraint 5 * self-concept 5 ... Issues related to How To Teach include: Teaching techniques: how to choose prompts (verbal, visual, physical, gestural) and how ... Issues related to How To Teach include: Teaching techniques: how to choose prompts (verbal, visual, physical, gestural) and how ... physical disability and autism. While the majority of respite services are centre based, the family-based model of providing ...

*  Pets - Lassen Volcanic National Park (U.S. National Park Service)

Pets under physical restraint are permitted overnight in developed campgrounds.. *Pets can be left unattended in vehicles. ...

*  Toby Edelman Testifies Before Senate Special Committee Regarding Antipsychotics In Nursing Homes

Physical restraints are used less often. General recognition that physical restraints are not appropriate has led nursing ... recognizing the dangers of physical restraints and promoting alternative methods of care. While physical restraints are still ... But physical restraints have been replaced by less visible chemical restraints.. Some drug companies have engaged in illegal ... on physical restraints presented the importance of the issue and information on how to provide care without physical restraints ...

*  Teratology - Wikipedia

Physical restraint. An example is Potter syndrome due to oligohydramnios in humans. Genetic disorders Alcohol consumption ... About 3% of newborns have a "major physical anomaly", meaning a physical anomaly that has cosmetic or functional significance. ... Historically, people have used many pejorative terms to describe/label cases of significant physical malformations. In the ...

*  Rivastigmine for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Delirium - Tabular View -

Use of physical restraints [ Time Frame: duration of ICU stay ]. *Use of escape medication (i.c. Haloperidol or benzodiazepines ... Use of physical restraints [ Time Frame: 3 months ]. *Use of escape medication (i.c. Haloperidol or benzodiazepines) [ Time ...

*  California Nursing Home Abuse Lawyer - Elder Abuse Attorneys

Signs of punishment or physical restraint. *Your loved one tells you they have been mistreated ... Provide services and activities to attain or maintain the highest practicable physical, mental, psycho social well-being of ... The intentional harm includes physical attacks, sexual assaults, emotional abuse and financial abuse. Neglect includes failure ...

*  KSED - Bridges Learning Center

Depending upon the aggressiveness of the student this may require physical restraint. Therefore all teachers, assistants, and ...

*  Contraception - Conservapedia

Liberty is not limited to freedom from physical restraint. It does cover areas, as you said, such as privacy. And it's not ...

*  Pain compliance - Wikipedia

Physical restraint Torture. ... with physical aids including the use of whips and shock collars ...

Physical restraintBaby walkerFold and thrust belt: A fold and thrust belt is a series of mountainous foothills adjacent to an orogenic belt, which forms due to contractional tectonics. Fold and thrust belts commonly form in the forelands adjacent to major orogens as deformation propagates outwards.Annual Fitness Test: In the British Army, the Annual Fitness Test is designed to assess soldiers' lower and upper body strength and endurance. The test was formally known as the Combat Fitness Test - and is still colloquially known by soldiers as the CFT.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.CorticosteroneMoline Automobile Company: The Moline Automobile Company (1904 - 1919) was an American brass era automobile manufacturer in Moline, Illinois known for the Moline-Knight.Select MedicalHigh-intensity interval training: High-intensity interval training (HIIT), also called high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) or sprint interval training (SIT), is an enhanced form of interval training, an exercise strategy alternating short periods of intense anaerobic exercise with less-intense recovery periods. HIIT is a form of cardiovascular exercise.ISO 39001: The ISO 39001 "Road Traffic Safety Management" is an ISO standard for a management system (similar to ISO 9000) for road traffic safety. The implementation of the standard is supposed to put the organizations, that provide the system "road traffic", into the position to improve the traffic safety and to reduce by that the number of persons killed or severely injured in road traffic.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Full-body CT scan: A full-body scan is a scan of the patient's entire body as part of the diagnosis or treatment of illnesses. If computed tomography (CAT) scan technology is used, it is known as a full-body CT scan, though many medical imaging technologies can perform full-body scans.Patricia MooreLet's Move!: Let's Move! seeks to combat the epidemic of childhood obesity and encourage a healthy lifestyle through "a comprehensive, collaborative, and community-oriented initiative that addresses all of the various factors that lead to childhood obesity [.Airbag dermatitis: Airbag dermatitis (also known as an "Airbag burn") is caused skin irritation and trauma secondary to the deployment of airbags.Reaction coordinateCorticotropin-releasing hormone: Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) also known as corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) or corticoliberin is a peptide hormone and neurotransmitter involved in the stress response. It is a releasing hormone that belongs to corticotropin-releasing factor family.SHIFTCORPersonal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992: The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 are set of regulations created under the Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 which came into force in Great Britain on 1 January 1993.Oil immersionTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingNational Center for Injury Prevention and Control: The U.S.Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame: Spin–lattice relaxation in the rotating frame is the mechanism by which Mxy, the transverse component of the magnetization vector, exponentially decays towards its equilibrium value of zero, under the influence of a radio frequency (RF) field in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is characterized by the spin–lattice relaxation time constant in the rotating frame, T1ρ.Sensitization: Sensitization is a non-associative learning process in which repeated administrations of a stimulus results in the progressive amplification of a response. Sensitization often is characterized by an enhancement of response to a whole class of stimuli in addition to the one that is repeated.Vessel safety survey: Vessel safety surveys are important during the life of a vessel for better safety and security. These controls are directed by the classification societies and are very different (safety equipment, security, hoist, dock survey).Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.ShorteningPhysical strength: Strength (physics)}}QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Car tuningClassification of obesity: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.Dieter Weichert: Dieter Weichert (born 1948) is a German mechanical engineer specialising in solid mechanics and polymer rheology. Since 1995 he is the Director of the Institute for General Mechanics of RWTH Aachen.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Glen Canyon National Recreation AreaOrders of magnitude (acceleration): This page lists examples of the acceleration occurring in various situations. They are grouped by orders of magnitude.Walking on a Dream (song)Association of Academic Physiatrists: The Association of Academic Physiatrists (AAP) is an organization of faculty, researchers, and others interested in supporting the advancement of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) academics. The Association currently has 1,100 members.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993: The Statute Law (Repeals) Act 1993 (c 50) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.Assunta LegnantePRX-07034: PRX-07034 is a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist. It has cognition and memory-enhancing properties and potently decreases food intake and body weight in rodents.Child life specialist: Child Life}}Home of the future: The home of the future, similar to the office of the future, is a concept that has been popular to explore since the early 20th century, or perhaps earlier. There have been many exhibits, such as at World's Fairs and theme parks, purporting to show how future homes will look and work, as well as standalone model "homes of the future" sponsored by builders, developers, or technology companies.Lough TaltAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.Lattice protein: Lattice proteins are highly simplified computer models of proteins which are used to investigate protein folding.Archie MorrisAlcohol and cortisol: Recent research has looked into the effects of alcohol on the amount of cortisol that is produced in the human body. Continuous consumption of alcohol over an extended period of time has been shown to raise cortisol levels in the body.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.IlmeniteFigure rating scale: The Figure Rating Scale (FRS) also known as the Stunkard Scale is a psychometric measurement developed in 1983 as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women and men.Grogan, S.Mayo Clinic Diet: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Beta encoder: A beta encoder is an analog to digital conversion (A/D) system in which a real number in the unit interval is represented by a finite representation of a sequence in base beta, with beta being a real number between 1 and 2. Beta encoders are an alternative to traditional approaches to pulse code modulation.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Index of energy articles: This is an index of energy articles.Food physical chemistry: Food physical chemistry is considered to be a branch of Food chemistryJohn M. de Man.Transmembrane domain: Transmembrane segment usually denotes a single transmembrane alpha helix of a transmembrane protein, also known as an integral protein.http://www.

(1/1058) Effects of nicorandil on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats: a possible role of K(ATP) channels.

The anti-ulcer effects of nicorandil [N-(2-hydroxyethyl)nicotinamide nitrate ester] were examined on water-immersion plus restraint stress-induced and aspirin-induced gastric ulcers in rats, compared with those of cimetidine. Nicorandil (3 and 10 mg/kg) given orally to rats dose-dependently inhibited the development of acid-related damage (water-immersion- and aspirin-induced gastric lesions) in the models. Cimetidine (50 mg/kg, p.o.) also had anti-ulcer effects in the same models. However, in the presence of glibenclamide (20 mg/kg, i.v.), an antagonist of K(ATP) channels, nicorandil did not inhibit the formation of gastric lesions. Nicorandil (10 mg/kg) given intraduodenally (i.d.), like cimetidine (50 mg/kg), significantly reduced the volume of the gastric content, total acidity and total acid output in the pylorus ligation model. Glibenclamide reversed the changes caused by i.d. nicorandil. I.v. infusion of nicorandil (20 microg/kg per min) significantly increased gastric mucosal blood flow, without affecting blood pressure and heart rate, but the increase in the blood flow was not observed after i.v. treatment with glibenclamide (20 mg/kg). These results indicate that nicorandil administered orally to rats produces the anti-ulcer effect by reducing the aggressive factors and by enhancing the defensive process in the mucosa through its K(ATP)-channel-opening property.  (+info)

(2/1058) Action of the brain stem saccade generator during horizontal gaze shifts. I. Discharge patterns of omnidirectional pause neurons.

Omnidirectional pause neurons (OPNs) pause for the duration of a saccade in all directions because they are part of the neural mechanism that controls saccade duration. In the natural situation, however, large saccades are accompanied by head movements to produce rapid gaze shifts. To determine whether OPNs are part of the mechanism that controls the whole gaze shift rather than the eye saccade alone, we monitored the activity of 44 OPNs that paused for rightward and leftward gaze shifts but otherwise discharged at relatively constant average rates. Pause duration was well correlated with the duration of either eye or gaze movement but poorly correlated with the duration of head movement. The time of pause onset was aligned tightly with the onset of either eye or gaze movement but only loosely aligned with the onset of head movement. These data suggest that the OPN pause does not encode the duration of head movement. Further, the end of the OPN pause was often better aligned with the end of the eye movement than with the end of the gaze movement for individual gaze shifts. For most gaze shifts, the eye component ended with an immediate counterrotation owing to the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR), and gaze ended at variable times thereafter. In those gaze shifts where eye counterrotation was delayed, the end of the pause also was delayed. Taken together, these data suggest that the end of the pause influences the onset of eye counterrotation, not the end of the gaze shift. We suggest that OPN neurons act to control only that portion of the gaze movement that is commanded by the eye burst generator. This command is expressed by driving the saccadic eye movement directly and also by suppressing VOR eye counterrotation. Because gaze end is less well correlated with pause end and often occurs well after counterrotation onset, we conclude that elements of the burst generator typically are not active till gaze end, and that gaze end is determined by another mechanism independent of the OPNs.  (+info)

(3/1058) Lateralized effects of medial prefrontal cortex lesions on neuroendocrine and autonomic stress responses in rats.

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is highly activated by stress and modulates neuroendocrine and autonomic function. Dopaminergic inputs to mPFC facilitate coping ability and demonstrate considerable hemispheric functional lateralization. The present study investigated the potentially lateralized regulation of stress responses at the level of mPFC output neurons, using ibotenic acid lesions. Neuroendocrine function was assessed by plasma corticosterone increases in response to acute or repeated 20 min restraint stress. The primary index of autonomic activation was gastric ulcer development during a separate cold restraint stress. Restraint-induced defecation was also monitored. Plasma corticosterone levels were markedly lower in response to repeated versus acute restraint stress. In acutely restrained animals, right or bilateral, but not left mPFC lesions, decreased prestress corticosterone levels, whereas in repeatedly restrained rats, the same lesions significantly reduced the peak stress-induced corticosterone response. Stress ulcer development (after a single cold restraint stress) was greatly reduced by either right or bilateral mPFC lesions but was unaffected by left lesions. Restraint-induced defecation was elevated in animals with left mPFC lesions. Finally, a left-biased asymmetry in adrenal gland weights was observed across animals, which was unaffected by mPFC lesions. The results suggest that mPFC output neurons demonstrate an intrinsic right brain specialization in both neuroendocrine and autonomic activation. Such findings may be particularly relevant to clinical depression which is associated with both disturbances in stress regulatory systems and hemispheric imbalances in prefrontal function.  (+info)

(4/1058) Expansion of extrathymic T cells as well as granulocytes in the liver and other organs of granulocyte-colony stimulating factor transgenic mice: why they lost the ability of hybrid resistance.

When we attempted to characterize the immunological state in G-CSF transgenic mice, a large number of not only granulocytes but also lymphoid cells expanded in various immune organs. Such lymphoid cells were present at unusual sites of these organs, e.g., the parenchymal space in the liver. We then determined the phenotype of these lymphoid cells by immunofluorescence tests. It was demonstrated that CD3intIL-2Rbeta+ cells (i.e., extrathymic T cells), including the NK1.1+ subset of CD3int cells (i.e., NKT cells), increased in the liver and all other tested organs. These T cells as well as NK cells mediated NK and NK-like cytotoxicity, especially at youth. However, they were not able to mediate such cytotoxicity in the presence of granulocytes. This result might be associated with deficiency in the hybrid resistance previously ascribed to these mice. In other words, G-CSF transgenic mice had a large number of extrathymic T cells (including NKT cells) and NK cells that mediate hybrid resistance, but their function was suppressed by activated granulocytes. Indeed, these granulocytes showed an elevated level of Ca2+ influx upon stimulation. The present results suggest that, in parallel with overactivation of granulocytes, extrathymic T cells and NK cells are concomitantly activated in number but that their function is suppressed in G-CSF transgenic mice.  (+info)

(5/1058) Prevention of stress-induced weight loss by third ventricle CRF receptor antagonist.

We previously reported that rats exposed to repeated restraint (3 h/day for 3 days) experience temporary hypophagia and a sustained reduction in body weight compared with nonrestrained controls. Studies described here determined the involvement of central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptors in the initiation of this chronic response to acute stress. In experiment 1, Sprague-Dawley rats were fitted with cannulas in the lateral ventricle and infused with 50 micrograms of alphahCRF-(9-41) or saline immediately before restraint on each of the 3 days of restraint. The receptor antagonist inhibited hypophagia and weight loss on day 1 of restraint but not on days 2 and 3. In experiment 2, 10 micrograms of alphahCRF-(9-41) or saline were infused into the third ventricle immediately before each restraint. The receptor antagonist totally blocked stress-induced hypophagia and weight loss. These results demonstrate that CRF receptors located in or near the hypothalamus mediate the acute responses to stress that lead to a permanent change in the hormonal or metabolic processes that determine body weight and body composition.  (+info)

(6/1058) Regulation of GLUT-3 glucose transporter in the hippocampus of diabetic rats subjected to stress.

Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that chronic stress produces molecular, morphological, and ultrastructural changes in the rat hippocampus that are accompanied by cognitive deficits. Glucocorticoid attenuation of glucose utilization is proposed to be one of the causative factors involved in stress-induced changes in the hippocampus, producing an energy-compromised environment that may make hippocampal neuronal populations more vulnerable to neurotoxic insults. Similarly, diabetes potentiates neuronal damage in acute neurotoxic events, such as ischemia and stroke. Accordingly, the current study examined the regulation of the neuron-specific glucose transporter, GLUT-3, in the hippocampus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats subjected to restraint stress. Diabetes leads to significant increases in GLUT-3 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, increases that are not affected by stress. Collectively, these results suggest that streptozotocin-induced increases in GLUT-3 mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus may represent a compensatory mechanism to increase glucose utilization during diabetes and also suggest that modulation of GLUT-3 expression is not responsible for glucocorticoid impairment of glucose utilization.  (+info)

(7/1058) Effect of immobilization stress on testicular germ cell apoptosis in rats.

The influence of immobilization stress on testicular germ cell apoptosis was investigated in rats. A transient increase in serum corticosterone and a transient decrease in serum testosterone were observed during each period of immobilization stress. Twenty-four hours after the last immobilization session, the testicular weight and serum concentrations of corticosterone and testosterone were the same between the immobilization stress and control groups. However, the percentages of apoptotic tubules and apoptotic cells in the stress group were significantly higher than those in controls (P < 0.001). These facts suggest that immobilization stress can enhance testicular germ cell apoptosis in rats.  (+info)

(8/1058) Independent and overlapping effects of corticosterone and testosterone on corticotropin-releasing hormone and arginine vasopressin mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and stress-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone release.

Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) release is regulated by both glucocorticoids and androgens; however, the precise interactions are unclear. We have controlled circulating corticosterone (B) and testosterone (T) by adrenalectomy (ADX) +/- B replacement and gonadectomy (GDX) +/- T replacement, comparing these to sham-operated groups. We hoped to reveal how and where these neuroendocrine systems interact to affect resting and stress-induced ACTH secretion. ADX responses. In gonadal-intact rats, ADX increased corticotropin-releasing factor (CRH) and vasopressin (AVP) mRNA in hypothalamic parvocellular paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and ACTH in pituitary and plasma. B restored these toward normal. GDX blocked the increase in AVP but not CRH mRNA and reduced plasma, but not pituitary ACTH in ADX rats. GDX+T restored increased AVP mRNA in ADX rats, although plasma ACTH remained decreased. Stress responses. Restraint-induced ACTH responses were elevated in ADX gonadally intact rats, and B reduced these toward normal. GDX in adrenal-intact and ADX+B rats increased ACTH responses. Without B, T did not affect ACTH; together with B, T restored ACTH responses to normal. The magnitude of ACTH responses to stress was paralleled by similar effects on the number of c-fos staining neurons in the hypophysiotropic PVN. We conclude that gonadal regulation of ACTH responses to ADX is determined by T dependent effects on AVP biosynthesis, whereas CRH biosynthesis is B-dependent. Stress-induced ACTH release is not explained by B and T interactions at the PVN, but is determined by B- and T-dependent changes in drive to PVN motorneurons.  (+info)

coercive restraint therapy

  • She is an outspoken critic of RAD therapies (also known as attachment therapy, rebirthing, compression or coercive restraint therapy) which, she says, are "completely contrary to mainstream medical practice" and are used without empirical support for their efficacy. (
  • Other names or particular techniques include "the Evergreen model", "holding time", "rage-reduction", "compression therapy", "rebirthing", "corrective attachment therapy" and Coercive Restraint Therapy. (


  • To Prevent and Reduce the Use of Physical Restraint and Seclusion in Schools, and for Other Purposes. (


  • There are three basic types of restraint that can be effective during an emergency: location restraint, physical restraint and chemical restraint. (
  • Our series on emergency restraint techniques concludes with an article on different types of location restraint, chemical restraint, and special techniques to restrain a foal, mule or donkey. (
  • 9. Chemical Restraint and Anesthesia. (
  • Section I: Chemical restraint ((Murray E. Fowler and Susan K. Mikota). (
  • The misuse of antipsychotic drugs as chemical restraints is one of the most common and longstanding, but preventable, practices causing serious harm to nursing home residents today. (
  • More than twenty years ago, this Committee held a Workshop on "Reducing the Use of Chemical Restraints in Nursing Homes" that identified the same issues we are discussing today. (
  • Several months later, in February 1992, in the preamble to proposed regulations that would have given residents new protections from chemical restraints, the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) (predecessor agency to CMS) described the long-standing and "significant public health problem in many, but not all of this nation's long-term care facilities. (
  • At the other extreme, a person who is rendered semi-conscious by pharmacological (or chemical) sedation should be constantly monitored by a well-trained individual who is dedicated to protecting the restrained person's physical and medical safety. (
  • Chemical restraints are drugs that are administered to restrict the freedom of movement or to sedate a patient. (

false imprisonment

  • Actual physical restraint is not necessary for false imprisonment to occur. (


  • For restraint for medical or psychiatric purposes, see medical restraint. (
  • At one time in California, psychiatric restraint was viewed as a treatment. (
  • However, with the passing of SB-130, which became law in 2004, the use of psychiatric restraint(s) is no longer viewed as a treatment, but can be used as a behavioral intervention when an individual is in imminent danger of serious harm to self or others. (
  • unreliable medical source] There are many types of medical restraint: Four-point restraints, fabric body holders, straitjackets are typically only used temporarily during psychiatric emergencies. (
  • Mittens to prevent scratching are common for newborns, but may also be used on psychiatric patients or patients who manage to use their hands to undo limb restraints. (


  • It also alleged the use of unnecessary restraints, inadequate discharge planning, and failure to provide habilitation and training. (


  • Bondage: Acts involving the physical restraint of a partner. (
  • Bondage typically refers to total restraint, however it can be limited to a particular body part, such as breast bondage. (
  • Bedroom bondage is usually mild bondage, with one partner voluntarily being put into restraints by being tied up or handcuffed. (


  • The misuse of physical restraint has resulted in many deaths. (


  • excessive citations] British Police officers are authorised to use leg and arm restraints, if they have been instructed in their use. (
  • In rare cases, riders may be afraid of roller coasters due to a painful ride, tight restraints, being thrown around in the restraints, and excessive g-forces on the body of the rider. (


  • Physical restraint refers to means of purposely limiting or obstructing the freedom of a person's bodily movement. (


  • Physical restraint which prevents participants from indicating a withdrawal of consent. (
  • For example, the use of bed rails is routine in many hospitals and other care facilities, as the restraint prevents patients from rolling out of bed accidentally. (


  • 8. Physical Restraint and Handling (Murray E. Fowler). (


  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act has stated that "Restraints may not be used as an alternative to adequate staff" (McAfee, Schwilk & Miltruski, 2006, p. 713). (


  • The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) estimated in 1992 that improper use of restraints results in at least 100 deaths each year, most by strangulation. (


  • Historically, people have used many pejorative terms to describe/label cases of significant physical malformations. (


  • About 3% of newborns have a "major physical anomaly", meaning a physical anomaly that has cosmetic or functional significance. (


  • There are many kinds of mild, safety-oriented medical restraints which are widely used. (


  • A gag is usually an item or device designed to prevent speech, often as a restraint device to stop the subject from calling for help and keep its wearer quiet. (
  • Medical restraints are physical restraints used during certain medical procedures to restrain patients with the minimum of discomfort and pain and to prevent them from injuring themselves or others. (
  • Medical restraints are generally used to prevent people with severe physical or mental disorders from harming themselves or others. (
  • A major goal of most medical restraints is to prevent injuries due to falls. (
  • Other medical restraints are intended to prevent a harmful behavior, such as hitting people. (
  • Although medical restraints, used properly, can help prevent injury, they can also be dangerous. (
  • Restraint masks to prevent patients from biting in retaliation to medical authority in situations where a patient is known to be violent. (
  • Limb restraints to prevent unwanted activity in various limbs. (


  • The interaction between tops and bottoms-where physical or mental control of the bottom is surrendered to the top-is sometimes known as "power exchange", whether in the context of an encounter or a relationship. (
  • However most physicians understood mental illness was often caused by physical ailments such as an imbalance of the humors. (


  • Because of the potential for abuse, the use of medical restraints is regulated in many jurisdictions. (


  • That child would not understand the situation, and would naturally react with physical and psychological panic and anxiety. (
  • Non Abusive Psychological and Physical Intervention (NAPPI). (


  • Although the 1914 Manual of Military Law specifically stated that Field Punishment should not be applied in such a way as to cause physical harm, in practice abuses were commonplace. (


  • Pain compliance is used as a training aid in animals, with physical aids including the use of whips and shock collars. (
  • In some BDSM relationships, such as D/s, aftercare may involve the Dominant caring for the submissive if physical pain was inflicted, such as applying baby oil to areas that were struck during play. (
  • Others experience helplessness, struggle against their bonds, and feel a degree of masochistic pleasure from the restraint and pain, as well as being unobstructed for erotic stimulation by their partner. (


  • However physical restraint remained a theoretical (though rarely imposed) possibility. (


  • Colorado veterinarian Ruth Sorensen discusses different techniques of twitching, a form of physical restraint that can help control your horse as you address an emergency. (


  • Guidelines set out by the Association of Chief Police Officers dictate that restraints are only to be used on subjects who are violent while being transported, restraining the use of their arms and legs, minimising the risk of punching and kicking. (
  • Pouches carrying restraints are usually carried on the duty belt, and in some cases carried in police vans. (


  • A number of private national and regional companies teach physical (non-mechanical) restraint techniques for companies and agencies that care for or have custody of people who might become aggressive. (


  • Further it is an effective complementation of binding restraints. (


  • Physical restraint can be dangerous, sometimes in unexpected ways. (
  • Throughout the last decade or so, there has been an increasing amount of evidence and literature supporting the idea of a restraint free environment due to their contradictory and dangerous effects. (


  • Field Punishment Number One, often abbreviated to "F.P. No. 1" or even just "No. 1", consisted of the convicted man being placed in fetters and handcuffs or similar restraints and attached to a fixed object, such as a gun wheel or a fence post, for up to two hours per day. (


  • 7. Preventive Health Care and Physical Examination (Susan K. Mikota). (


  • Various ground textures in urban as well as natural areas can cause substantial physical distress for a shoeless person and hinder the locomotion. (


  • Some believed it was the punishment of the gods while others believed it to be caused a physical problem, this led to many variations of treatment ranging from prayer to surgery. (