Respiratory Tract DiseasesRespiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Biliary Tract Diseases: Diseases in any part of the BILIARY TRACT including the BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections: Pneumovirus infections caused by the RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have been reported.Respiratory Syncytial Viruses: A group of viruses in the PNEUMOVIRUS genus causing respiratory infections in various mammals. Humans and cattle are most affected but infections in goats and sheep have also been reported.Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human: The type species of PNEUMOVIRUS and an important cause of lower respiratory disease in infants and young children. It frequently presents with bronchitis and bronchopneumonia and is further characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, wheezing, and pallor.Metapneumovirus: A genus of the subfamily PNEUMOVIRINAE, containing two members: Turkey rhinotracheitis virus and a human Metapneumovirus. Virions lack HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE.Bocavirus: A genus in the subfamily PARVOVIRINAE comprising three species: Bovine parvovirus, Canine minute virus, and HUMAN BOCAVIRUS.Paramyxoviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. This includes MORBILLIVIRUS INFECTIONS; RESPIROVIRUS INFECTIONS; PNEUMOVIRUS INFECTIONS; HENIPAVIRUS INFECTIONS; AVULAVIRUS INFECTIONS; and RUBULAVIRUS INFECTIONS.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Respirovirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus RESPIROVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE. Host cell infection occurs by adsorption, via HEMAGGLUTININ, to the cell surface.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.TurtlesCoronavirus: A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Parainfluenza Virus 3, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS frequently isolated from small children with pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia.Pneumonia, Viral: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by a viral infection.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Urologic Diseases: Pathological processes of the URINARY TRACT in both males and females.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Viral Fusion Proteins: Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cholelithiasis: Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Urinary Tract: The duct which coveys URINE from the pelvis of the KIDNEY through the URETERS, BLADDER, and URETHRA.Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the GALLBLADDER; generally caused by impairment of BILE flow, GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, infections, or other diseases.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Respiratory Tract NeoplasmsCat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Esophagoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the esophagus.Gastroscopes: Endoscopes used for examining the interior of the stomach.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Urinary Calculi: Low-density crystals or stones in any part of the URINARY TRACT. Their chemical compositions often include CALCIUM OXALATE, magnesium ammonium phosphate (struvite), CYSTINE, or URIC ACID.Vulvitis: Inflammation of the VULVA. It is characterized by PRURITUS and painful urination.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Biliary Tract: The BILE DUCTS and the GALLBLADDER.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Nasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Gallstones: Solid crystalline precipitates in the BILIARY TRACT, usually formed in the GALLBLADDER, resulting in the condition of CHOLELITHIASIS. Gallstones, derived from the BILE, consist mainly of calcium, cholesterol, or bilirubin.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Pancreatic Diseases: Pathological processes of the PANCREAS.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Cholestasis: Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).Cholestasis, Extrahepatic: Impairment of bile flow in the large BILE DUCTS by mechanical obstruction or stricture due to benign or malignant processes.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Pancreatitis: INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde: Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER'S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Bronchitis: Inflammation of the large airways in the lung including any part of the BRONCHI, from the PRIMARY BRONCHI to the TERTIARY BRONCHI.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Bordetella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Haemophilus Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus HAEMOPHILUS.Neisseriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family NEISSERIACEAE.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Pharynx: A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Respiratory Mucosa: The mucous membrane lining the RESPIRATORY TRACT, including the NASAL CAVITY; the LARYNX; the TRACHEA; and the BRONCHI tree. The respiratory mucosa consists of various types of epithelial cells ranging from ciliated columnar to simple squamous, mucous GOBLET CELLS, and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Otitis Media: Inflammation of the MIDDLE EAR including the AUDITORY OSSICLES and the EUSTACHIAN TUBE.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Moraxellaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Parvovirinae: A subfamily of DNA vertebrate viruses, in the family PARVOVIRIDAE. There are three genera: PARVOVIRUS; ERYTHROVIRUS; and DEPENDOVIRUS.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Tonsillitis: Inflammation of the tonsils, especially the PALATINE TONSILS but the ADENOIDS (pharyngeal tonsils) and lingual tonsils may also be involved. Tonsillitis usually is caused by bacterial infection. Tonsillitis may be acute, chronic, or recurrent.Turbinates: The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Bronchiolitis, Viral: An acute inflammatory disease of the lower RESPIRATORY TRACT, caused by paramyxoviruses, occurring primarily in infants and young children; the viruses most commonly implicated are PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS TYPE 3; RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS, HUMAN; and METAPNEUMOVIRUS.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Bronchopneumonia: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is associated with BRONCHITIS, usually involving lobular areas from TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES to the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. The affected areas become filled with exudate that forms consolidated patches.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Respiratory Sounds: Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Tracheal NeoplasmsOrthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Bordetella parapertussis: A species of BORDETELLA with similar morphology to BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS, but growth is more rapid. It is found only in the RESPIRATORY TRACT of humans.Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells, water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells.Urogenital System: All the organs involved in reproduction and the formation and release of URINE. It includes the kidneys, ureters, BLADDER; URETHRA, and the organs of reproduction - ovaries, UTERUS; FALLOPIAN TUBES; VAGINA; and CLITORIS in women and the testes; SEMINAL VESICLES; PROSTATE; seminal ducts; and PENIS in men.Mice, Inbred BALB CCystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Pasteurella multocida: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria normally found in the flora of the mouth and respiratory tract of animals and birds. It causes shipping fever (see PASTEURELLOSIS, PNEUMONIC); HEMORRHAGIC BACTEREMIA; and intestinal disease in animals. In humans, disease usually arises from a wound infection following a bite or scratch from domesticated animals.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Pneumonia, Pneumococcal: A febrile disease caused by STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Bordetella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Wegener Granulomatosis: A multisystemic disease of a complex genetic background. It is characterized by inflammation of the blood vessels (VASCULITIS) leading to damage in any number of organs. The common features include granulomatous inflammation of the RESPIRATORY TRACT and kidneys. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies (ANTINEUTROPHIL CYTOPLASMIC ANTIBODIES) against neutrophil proteinase-3 (WEGENER AUTOANTIGEN).Diagnostic Test Approval: The process of gaining approval by a government regulatory agency for DIAGNOSTIC REAGENTS AND TEST KITS. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance.Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human: A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Ketolides: Compounds based on ERYTHROMYCIN with the 3-cladinose replaced by a ketone. They bind the 23S part of 70S bacterial RIBOSOMES.Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic coccobacillus-shaped bacteria that has been isolated from pneumonic lesions and blood. It produces pneumonia with accompanying fibrinous pleuritis in swine.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Parainfluenza Virus 1, Human: A species of RESPIROVIRUS also called hemadsorption virus 2 (HA2), which causes laryngotracheitis in humans, especially children.Penicillin V: A broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotic used orally in the treatment of mild to moderate infections by susceptible gram-positive organisms.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.TracheitisPseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Respirovirus: A genus of the family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE (subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE) where all the virions have both HEMAGGLUTININ and NEURAMINIDASE activities and encode a non-structural C protein. SENDAI VIRUS is the type species.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Bronchiectasis: Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Respiratory Tract Fistula: An abnormal passage communicating between any component of the respiratory tract or between any part of the respiratory system and surrounding organs.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Oropharynx: The middle portion of the pharynx that lies posterior to the mouth, inferior to the SOFT PALATE, and superior to the base of the tongue and EPIGLOTTIS. It has a digestive function as food passes from the mouth into the oropharynx before entering ESOPHAGUS.

*  Update on Feline Infectious Upper Respiratory Tract Disease (URTD) - WSAVA2013 - VIN

Infectious causes for feline upper respiratory tract disease - a case-control study. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. ... Update on Feline Infectious Upper Respiratory Tract Disease (URTD) World Small Animal Veterinary Association World Congress ... These techniques rehydrate the upper respiratory tract, loosen secretions, and increase comfort. ... Famciclovir, an oral antiviral, is being increasingly used for FHV-associated disease (especially ocular disease but URTD too) ...

*  Diseases of the Respiratory Tract by Rachel Wilson on Prezi

Transcript of Diseases of the Respiratory Tract. Diphtheria. Bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract. Characterized ... Most respiratory viruses attack the upper respiratory tract, but some cause pneumonia, especially in children. Most of these ... are generally limited to the upper respiratory tract.. Some of the normal biota are also known to cause some serious diseases. ... Infections of the Respiratory Tract. Causes. TB is spread through the air from one person to another. The TB bacteria are put ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20024135 - Excess urinary tract cancer and respiratory disease mortality among styrene...

Excess urinary tract cancer and respiratory disease mortality among styrene workers in high-exposure departments.. ... All 12 deaths were from "other respiratory diseases", not pneumoconioses. Urinary tract and prostate cancer had statistically ... urinary tract cancer (n=6, SMR=3.1O, CI 1.13-6.75) and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases (n=12, SMR=2.56, CI 1.32- ... Kidney cancer and respiratory disease mortality may be associated with exposure to higher levels of styrene. ...

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 00237879 - Dose-response associations of silica with nonmalignant respiratory disease and...

... exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD) risk among DE industry workers. The cohort consisted of ... respiratory tract diseases; silicon dioxide ... exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory disease ( ... Dose-response associations of silica with nonmalignant respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality in the diatomaceous earth ...

*  Internet Archive Search: mediatype:texts AND subject:"Thorax"

Topics: Thorax, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Heart Diseases. MORE RESULTS. Fetching more results Next Page ... Lectures on the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of the diseases of the chest ... Lectures on the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of the diseases of the chest ... AND collection:medicineintheamericas AND subject:"Thorax"

*  Prevention of pulmonary embolism | Respiratory tract disorders and diseases articles | Body & Health Conditions center |...

Chelation Therapy for Heart Disease Lung Diseases: Emphysema & tobacco smoke Costochondritis: Symptoms & Treatment Pill Blood ... Heart Diseases Part VI - Heart Diseases Affecting Coronary Arteries and Coronary Vein over a year ago. ... Heart Diseases Part II - Types of Heart Diseases over a year ago. ... Patients suffering from heart or lung diseases may find their condition to be a contributing factor to pulmonary embolism. ...

*  Non-Rhinologic Etiologies of Headaches and Facial Pain in Tertiary Care Setting - Full Text View -

Nose Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases. Pain. Neurologic ... Nervous System Diseases. Signs and Symptoms. Disease Attributes. Pathologic Processes. Paranasal Sinus Diseases. ... but have no evidence of significant rhinologic disease and determine whether a neurologic etiology is responsible for headaches ...

*  Docetaxel and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Progressive or Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - Full Text View -...

Respiratory Tract Neoplasms. Thoracic Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Disease Control Rate [ Time Frame: Up to 4 years ]. Disease control rate was defined as the rate of partial response (PR) plus ... Progressive disease within a previously radiated field allowed.. *[Note: *Measurable disease DOES NOT include bone metastases ... Measurable disease must be outside the previous radiation field or a new lesion must be present. ...

*  Evaluate the Safety of MN-221 in Subjects With Stable Moderate to Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Full...

Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Antibiotic therapy for respiratory infection ≤ 30 days of screening;. *Presence of active respiratory disease such as pneumonia ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Drug: MN-221 (Dose Group 1) Drug: MN-221 (Dose Group 2) Drug: MN-221 (Dose Group 3) Phase ... Evaluate the Safety of MN-221 in Subjects With Stable Moderate to Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). This ...

*  Critical Smoke Alarm Characteristics to Awaken Children From Stage 4 Sleep - Full Text View -

Respiratory Aspiration. Smoke Inhalation Injury. Respiration Disorders. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Pathologic Processes. Burns ... [CONDITION] AND child [AGE-GROUP]&recr=Open&rank=18

*  A Study of Management of Tarceva - Induced Rash in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials...

Respiratory Tract Neoplasms. Thoracic Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Percentage of Participants With Global Disease Control by Visit [ Time Frame: Months 2, 4, 7, 10, and 12 ]. Disease control was ... PFS was defined by the time between first intake of treatment with erlotinib and disease progression or death for any cause; ... PFS was defined by the time between first intake of treatment with erlotinib and disease progression or death for any cause; ...

*  Use of Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in Infants Respiratory Failure - Full Text View -

Degenerative neuromuscular disease. *Bleeding disorders. *Cardiovascular instability defined by vasopressors infusion (dopamine ... Use of Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in Infants Respiratory Failure (NAVA). This study has been completed. ... Use of Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist in Infants With Acute Respiratory Failure: a Case Study on Servo I. ... Intubated and mechanically ventilated infant with respiratory failure , 1 year old). *Breathing spontaneously, as defined by ...

*  Sunovion Brovana Versus Serevent Inspiratory Capacity High Resolution Computed Tomography - Full Text View -

Respiratory Tract Diseases. Pathologic Processes. Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Salmeterol Xinafoate. ... Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Emphysema. Pulmonary Emphysema. Bronchitis. ... Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD Emphysema Chronic Bronchitis Drug: Nebulized arformoterol Drug: Salmeterol Phase 4 ... Respiratory System Agents. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Adrenergic beta-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. Adrenergic ...

*  Role of Helicobacter Pylori and Its Toxins in Lung and Digestive System Diseases - Full Text View -

Respiratory Tract Diseases. Pathologic Processes. Lymphoproliferative Disorders. Lymphatic Diseases. Lymphangiomyoma. Lymphatic ... MedlinePlus related topics: Digestive Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis ... Lung Diseases. Fibrosis. Pulmonary Fibrosis. Sarcoidosis. Digestive System Diseases. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. ... other chronic or genetic lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, eosinophilic granuloma, cystic fibrosis, ...

*  Study of Provent Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients Who Are Non-compliant With CPAP - Full Text View -...

Respiratory Tract Diseases. Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory. Signs and Symptoms. Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic. Dyssomnias. Sleep ... Severe respiratory disorders (including respiratory muscle weakness, bullous lung disease, bypassed upper airway, pneumothorax ... Current acute upper respiratory (including nasal, sinus, or middle ear) inflammation or infection or perforation of the ... History of severe cardiovascular disease, including New York Heart Association Class III or IV heart failure, coronary artery ..."Sleep Apnea, Obstructive"&rank=8

*  New Pharmacological Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnea - Full Text View -

Respiratory Tract Diseases. Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory. Signs and Symptoms. Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic. Dyssomnias. Sleep ... Nervous System Diseases. Mirtazapine. Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists. Adrenergic Antagonists. Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter ...

*  ACT-293987 in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension - Full Text View -

Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Hypertension, Pulmonary. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Selexipag. ... Any known factor or disease that might interfere with treatment compliance, study conduct or interpretation of the results, ..."High Blood Pressure"&lup_s=01/26/2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

*  Asthma/Steroid Withdrawal Study - Full Text View -

Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Hypersensitivity. ...

*  Safety Study of Tecemotide (L-BLP25) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Subjects With Unresectable Stage III Disease - Full...

Respiratory Tract Neoplasms. Thoracic Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Neoplasms. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... Stable disease or clinical response after primary therapy of chemo-radiation treatment for unresectable stage III disease ... Safety Study of Tecemotide (L-BLP25) in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Subjects With Unresectable Stage III Disease. This ... PFS was defined as duration from first administration of trial treatment until progressive disease [PD] (radiological or ...

*  Emphysema Research Registry - Full Text View -

Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Emphysema. Pulmonary Emphysema. Bronchitis. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Pathologic ... This research registry will allow us to tap into this resource and address important, unanswered questions about the disease ..."Bronchitis, Chronic"&rank=18

*  Epoprostenol for Injection (EFI/ACT-385781A) - Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension - Full Text View -

Vascular Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Hypertension, Pulmonary. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ClinicalTrials. ... Disease severity was assessed by NYHA classification of pulmonary arterial hypertension criteria: Class I: no limitation of ... History of left-sided heart disease, including any of the following:. *hemodynamically significant aortic or mitral valve ... Any known factor or disease that might interfere with treatment compliance, study conduct or interpretation of the results such ..."High Blood Pressure"&lup_s=03/08/2013&lup_d=14&show_rss=Y&sel_rss=mod14

*  A Study to Determine the Immunogenicity and Safety Profile of CSL Limited's Influenza Virus Vaccine Compared to a US...

Virus Diseases. Respiratory Tract Infections. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Vaccines. Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects ... Have active or recent and clinically significant gastrointestinal/hepatic, renal, neurological, cardiovascular, respiratory, ...

*  Translating The GOLD COPD Guidelines Into Primary Care Practice - Full Text View -

Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Respiratory Tract Diseases. ... and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) COPD guidelines into primary care practice. During phase I, a needs ... and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) COPD guidelines into primary care practice. This study is based upon ... OR chronic obstructive pulmonary disease OR chronic bronchitis OR emphysema&recr=Open&fund=01&rank=20

*  Effect of NVA237 on Exercise Endurance in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) - Full Text View -...

Lung Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Glycopyrrolate. ... Patients who had a lower respiratory tract infection in the 6 weeks prior to Visit 1 ... Effect of NVA237 on Exercise Endurance in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (GLOW3). This study has ...

*  Utilization of Fixed Combination (Budesonide/Formoterol and Salmeterol/Fluticasone and Beclomethasone/Formoterol) in Treatment...

Bronchial Diseases. Respiratory Tract Diseases. Lung Diseases, Obstructive. Lung Diseases. Respiratory Hypersensitivity. ... Respiratory System Agents. Dermatologic Agents. Anti-Allergic Agents. Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists. Adrenergic beta- ... Immune System Diseases. Fluticasone. Budesonide. Beclomethasone. Formoterol Fumarate. Salmeterol Xinafoate. Budesonide, ...

Lower respiratory tract infection: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), while often used as a synonym for pneumonia, can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue.Respiratory syncytial virus G protein: Respiratory syncytial virus G protein is a protein produced by respiratory syncytial virus.Human bocavirus: Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus that has been suggested to cause human disease. It is a probable cause of lower respiratory tract infections and it has been linked to gastroenteritis, although the role of this emerging infectious disease in human disease has not been firmly established.Turtle farming: Turtle farming is the practice of raising turtles and tortoises of various species commercially. Raised animals are sold for use as gourmet food, traditional medicine ingredients, or as pets.Coronavirus 3' stem-loop II-like motif (s2m)Human parainfluenza virusesViral pneumoniaUrologic disease: Urologic disease can involve congenital or acquired dysfunction of the urinary system.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Prifinium bromideBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.Antiviral drug: Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. Like antibiotics for bacteria, specific antivirals are used for specific viruses.Sonographic Murphy sign: A Sonographic Murphy sign refers to a finding when performing diagnostic medical sonography. It is different from the Murphy sign found on physical examination, but both signs are associated with cholecystitis When the sonographer presses directly over the gallbladder, and the patient expresses pain, more than when the sonographer presses anywhere else, this is said to be a positive sonographic Murphy sign.DNA sequencer: A DNA sequencer is a scientific instrument used to automate the DNA sequencing process. Given a sample of DNA, a DNA sequencer is used to determine the order of the four bases: G (guanine), C (cytosine), A (adenine) and T (thymine).Colorpoint Shorthair: Colorpoint Shorthairs are the first cousins of the Siamese and the Cat Fanciers' Association is the only registry that recognizes them as a standalone breed. In all other registries, they are part of the Siamese and Oriental breeds.Functional gastrointestinal disorder: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and impaired gastrointestinal motility. Heightened mast cell activation is a common factor among all FGIDs that contributes to visceral hypersensitivity as well as epithelial, neuromuscular, and motility dysfunction.Instruments used in gastroenterology: Instruments used specially in Gastroenterology are as follows:Pathogenic Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli ( Anglicized to ; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).Calculus (dental): In dentistry, calculus or tartar is a form of hardened dental plaque. It is caused by precipitation of minerals from saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in plaque on the teeth.Vulvitis: Vulvitis is a condition of inflammation of the vulva of a female.BacitracinMycoplasma haemofelis: Mycoplasma haemofelis (formerly Haemobartonella felis) is a gram negative epierythrocytic parasitic bacterium. It often appears in bloodsmears as small (0.Gallstone: ), cholelithiasisTrachealis muscle: The trachealis muscle is a smooth muscle that bridges the gap between the free ends of C-shaped cartilages at the posterior border of the trachea, adjacent to the esophagus.Europac: EUROPAC, the European Registry of Hereditary Pancreatic Diseases was established in 1997 by a collaboration of pancreas surgeons from Liverpool, UK.Moraxella catarrhalis: Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans. It causes the infection of the host cell by sticking to the host cell using a Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA).Bile: Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine. In humans, bile is produced continuously by the liver (liver bile), and stored and concentrated in the gallbladder (gallbladder bile).ATC code J07: ==J07A Bacterial vaccines==Porcelain gallbladderPancreatitisSociety of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons: United StatesEosinophilic bronchitis: Eosinophilic bronchitis is a type of airway inflammation due to excessive mast cell recruitment and activation in the superficial airways as opposed to the smooth muscles of the airways as seen in asthma. It often results in a chronic cough.Quellung reaction: The Quellung reaction is a biochemical reaction in which antibodies bind to the bacterial capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Page 340 Escherichia coli, and Salmonella. The antibody reaction allows these species to be visualized under a microscope.Aerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.Red Noses: Red Noses is a comedy about the black death by Peter Barnes, first staged at Barbican Theatre in 1985. It depicted a sprightly priest, originally played by Antony Sher, who travelled around the plague-affected villages of 14th century France with a band of fools, known as God's Zanies, offering holy assistance.Thermal cyclerMan flu: Man flu is a pejoratively used phrase that refers to the idea that men, when they have a cold, exaggerate and claim they have the flu. Whilst a commonly used phrase in the UK and Ireland, it is referred to in other cultures and there is a continuing discussion over the scientific basis for the phrase.Hospital-acquired pneumonia: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at least 48–72 hours after being admitted. It is thus distinguished from community-acquired pneumonia.Cats in the United States: Many different species of mammal can be classified as cats (felids) in the United States. These include domestic cat (both house cats and feral), of the species Felis catus; medium-sized wild cats from the genus Lynx; and big cats from the genera Puma and Panthera.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDiffuse panbronchiolitisAbdominal ultrasonographyNasal administrationBronchus: A bronchus, also known as a main or primary bronchus, is a passage of airway in the respiratory tract that conducts air into the lungs. There is a right bronchus and a left bronchus and these bronchi branch into smaller secondary and tertiary bronchi which branch into smaller tubes, known as bronchioles.External bacterial infection (fish): External bacterial infection is a condition found in fish.SputumFerret: The ferret (Mustela putorius furo) is the domesticated form of the European polecat, a mammal belonging to the same genus as the weasel, Mustela of the family Mustelidae.Harris & Yalden 2008, pp.Coles PhillipsRhinovirus: Rhinoviruses (from the Greek (gen.) "nose") are the most common viral infectious agents in humans and are the predominant cause of the common cold.Influenza Research Database: The Influenza Research Database (IRD)IRD Influenza Research Database BRCSquires, R.B.Bacterial pneumonia

(1/1792) Respiratory symptoms and long-term risk of death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes in Swedish men.

BACKGROUND: Depressed respiratory function and respiratory symptoms are associated with impaired survival. The present study was undertaken to assess the relation between respiratory symptoms and mortality from cardiovascular causes, cancer and all causes in a large population of middle-aged men. METHODS: Prospective population study of 6442 men aged 51-59 at baseline, free of clinical angina pectoris and prior myocardial infarction. RESULTS: During 16 years there were 1804 deaths (786 from cardiovascular disease, 608 from cancer, 103 from pulmonary disease and 307 from any other cause). Men with effort-related breathlessness had increased risk of dying from all of the examined diseases. After adjustment for age, smoking habit and other risk factors, the relative risk (RR) associated with breathlessness of dying from coronary disease was 1.43 (95% CI : 1.16-1.77), from stroke 1.77 (95% CI: 1.07-2.93), from any cardiovascular disease 1.48 (95% CI : 1.24-1.76), cancer 1.36 (95% CI : 1.11-1.67) and from any cause 1.62 (95% CI: 1.44-1.81). An independent effect of breathlessness on cardiovascular death, cancer death and mortality from all causes was found in life-time non-smokers, and also if men with chest pain not considered to be angina were excluded. An independent effect was also found if all deaths during the first half of the follow-up were excluded. Men with cough and phlegm, without breathlessness, also had an elevated risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and cancer, but after adjustment for smoking and other risk factors this was no longer significant. However, a slightly elevated independent risk of dying from any cause was found (RR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.02-1.36]). CONCLUSION: A positive response to a simple question about effort related breathlessness predicted subsequent mortality from several causes during a follow-up period of 16 years, independently of smoking and other risk factors.  (+info)

(2/1792) SWORD '97: surveillance of work-related and occupational respiratory disease in the UK.

SWORD is one of seven clinically based reporting schemes which together now provide almost comprehensive coverage of occupational diseases across the UK. Although SWORD is now in its tenth year, participation rates remain high. Of an estimated 3,903 new cases seen this year, 1,031 (26%) were of occupational asthma, 978 (25%) of mesothelioma, 794 (20%) of non-malignant pleural disease, 336 (9%) of pneumoconiosis and 233 (6%) of inhalation accidents. Incidence rates of occupational asthma were generally highest among workers in the manufacture of wood products, textiles and food (particularly grain products and crustaceans) and additionally, in the production of precious and non-ferrous metals, rubber goods, detergents and perfumes, and in mining. Health care workers were noted to have a surprisingly high incidence of inhalation accidents. Occupational asthma attributed to latex has increased dramatically; the highest rates are among laboratory technicians, shoe workers and health care workers.  (+info)

(3/1792) Renal failure predisposes patients to adverse outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery. VA Cooperative Study #5.

BACKGROUND: More than 600,000 coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures are done annually in the United States. Some data indicate that 10 to 20% of patients who are undergoing a CABG procedure have a serum creatinine of more than 1.5 mg/dl. There are few data on the impact of a mild increase in serum creatinine concentration on CABG outcome. METHODS: We analyzed a Veterans Affairs database obtained prospectively from 1992 through 1996 at 14 of 43 centers performing heart surgery. We compared the outcome after CABG in patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl (median 1.1 mg/dl, N = 3271) to patients with a baseline serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl (median 1.7, N = 631). RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl had a higher 30-day mortality (7% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) requirement for prolonged mechanical ventilation (15% vs. 8%, P = 0.001), stroke (7% vs. 2%, P < 0.001), renal failure requiring dialysis at discharge (3% vs. 1%, P < 0.001), and bleeding complications (8% vs. 3%, P < 0.001) than patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl. Multiple logistic regression analyses found that patients with a baseline serum creatinine of less than 1.5 mg/dl had significantly lower (P < 0.02) 30-day mortality and postoperative bleeding and ventilatory complications than patients with a serum creatinine of 1.5 to 3.0 mg/dl when controlling for all other variables. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that mild renal failure is an independent risk factor for adverse outcome after CABG.  (+info)

(4/1792) Short-term associations between outdoor air pollution and visits to accident and emergency departments in London for respiratory complaints.

Many epidemiological studies have shown positive short-term associations between health and current levels of outdoor air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between air pollution and the number of visits to accident and emergency (A&E) departments in London for respiratory complaints. A&E visits include the less severe cases of acute respiratory disease and are unrestricted by bed availability. Daily counts of visits to 12 London A&E departments for asthma, other respiratory complaints, and both combined for a number of age groups were constructed from manual registers of visits for the period 1992-1994. A Poisson regression allowing for seasonal patterns, meteorological conditions and influenza epidemics was used to assess the associations between the number of visits and six pollutants: nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particles measured as black smoke (BS) and particles with a median aerodynamic diameter of <10 microm (PM10). After making an allowance for the multiplicity of tests, there remained strong associations between visits for all respiratory complaints and increases in SO2: a 2.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-4.9) increase in the number of visits for a 18 microg x (-3) increase (10th-90th percentile range) and a 3.0% (95% CI 0.8-5.2) increase for a 31 microg x m(-3) increase in PM10. There were also significant associations between visits for asthma and SO2, NO2 and PM10. No significant associations between O3 and any of the respiratory complaints investigated were found. Because of the strong correlation between pollutants, it was difficult to identify a single pollutant responsible for the associations found in the analyses. This study suggests that the levels of air pollution currently experienced in London are linked to short-term increases in the number of people visiting accident and emergency departments with respiratory complaints.  (+info)

(5/1792) Fine particulate air pollution, resuspended road dust and respiratory health among symptomatic children.

The short-term association of particulate air pollution with peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and respiratory symptoms was examined. Forty-nine children with chronic respiratory symptoms aged 8-13 yrs were followed daily for six weeks in spring, 1995, in Kuopio, Finland. Daily concentrations of particulate material with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm and < or = 2.5 microm (PM10 and PM2.5, respectively), black carbon, and the number concentrations of particles from 0.01-10 microm diameter were measured. During the study period, PM10 were mainly resuspended soil and street dust, and the concentration was estimated using aluminum content of PM10 samples. No consistent effect of particles was found as the associations varied by lag. Of the lags examined, only 1-day lagged PM2.5 was statistically significantly associated with morning PEF (beta=-1.06, SE=0.52 (per interquartile increase in pollutant)). Evening PEF was significantly associated with the 1-day lagged number of particles in the size range 0.1-1.0 microm (beta=-1.56, SE=0.72). One-day lagged PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and resuspended PM10, and 4-day average of PM2.5 were significantly associated with increased risk of cough. Given the short duration of the study, separating the effects of different types of particles was difficult. The present study demonstrates the highly variable size and number distribution and chemical composition of particles in Finland, and underlines the importance of measuring the size and chemical composition of particles to determine which types of particles are associated with health effects.  (+info)

(6/1792) Health effects of passive smoking-10: Summary of effects of parental smoking on the respiratory health of children and implications for research.

BACKGROUND: Two recent reviews have assessed the effect of parental smoking on respiratory disease in children. METHODS: The results of the systematic quantitative review published as a series in Thorax are summarised and brought up to date by considering papers appearing on Embase or Medline up to June 1998. The findings are compared with those of the review published recently by the Californian Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Areas requiring further research are identified. RESULTS: Overall there is a very consistent picture with odds ratios for respiratory illnesses and symptoms and middle ear disease of between 1.2 and 1.6 for either parent smoking, the odds usually being higher in pre-school than in school aged children. For sudden infant death syndrome the odds ratio for maternal smoking is about 2. Significant effects from paternal smoking suggest a role for postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Recent publications do not lead us to alter the conclusions of our earlier reviews. While essentially narrative rather than systematic and quantitative, the findings of the Californian EPA review are broadly similar. In addition they have reviewed studies of the effects of environmental tobacco smoke on children with cystic fibrosis and conclude from the limited evidence that there is a strong case for a relationship between parental smoking and admissions to hospital. They also review data from adults of the effects of acute exposure to environmental tobacco smoke under laboratory conditions which suggest acute effects on spirometric parameters rather than on bronchial hyperresponsiveness. It seems likely that such effects are also present in children. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial benefits to children would arise if parents stopped smoking after birth, even if the mother smoked during pregnancy. Policies need to be developed which reduce smoking amongst parents and protect infants and young children from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The weight of evidence is such that new prevalence studies are no longer justified. What are needed are studies which allow comparison of the effects of critical periods of exposure to cigarette smoke, particularly in utero, early infancy, and later childhood. Where longitudinal studies are carried out they should be analysed to look at the way in which changes in exposure are related to changes in outcome. Better still would be studies demonstrating reversibility of adverse effects, especially in asthmatic subjects or children with cystic fibrosis.  (+info)

(7/1792) Aspirated foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree: report of 250 cases.

During the last 14 years, 250 patients with aspirated foreign bodies in the tracheobronchial tree were admitted to Kuwait Chest Diseases Hospital. Ninety-six per cent of the cases were under 10 years of age and 38% gave a clear history of foreign body inhalation. The rest were diagnosed either clinically, from the chest radiograph findings or because of unexplained pulmonary symptoms. In 247 cases, bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia was successful in removing the foreign bodies. In only three cases was bronchotomy needed. Seventy per cent of the foreign bodies were melon seeds. Asphyxia and cardiac arrest occurred in four cases during bronchoscopy but the patients were successfully resuscitated. In 10 cases a tracheostomy was done before bronchoscopy and the removal of the foreign body, while in five it was needed after bronchoscopy. Fifteen patients developed late complications such as recurrent pneumonia or atelectasis of the lung. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment are essential to prevent pulmonary and cardiac complications and to avoid radical lung surgery.  (+info)

(8/1792) Sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract and its association with lupus pernio.

In a series of 34 patients with sarcoidosis affecting the upper respiratory tract and nose, 26 had lupus pernio (LP) and 17 had sarcoidosis of the upper respiratory tract (SURT). In nine patients these features coexisted. A patient presenting with SURT carried a 50% risk of developing LP although one feature could be present without the other. Both were disorders of women of the child-bearing years of life. SURT, like LP, was an indicator of chronic fibrotic sarcoidosis, developing insidiously and progressing indolently over the years. It was complicated by ulceration, septal perforation, and LP. Three patients had nasal septal perforations, in two instances following submucous resection. This operation is contraindicated in patients with active sarcoidosis, particularly when granulomas are found on nasal biopsy. The Kveim-Siltzbach skin test was positive in all patients with SURT, making it invaluable in the differential diagnosis of granuloma of the nasal cavity.  (+info)


  • Patients suffering from heart or lung diseases may find their condition to be a contributing factor to pulmonary embolism. (
  • The investigators plan to enroll about 20 subjects who are at least 40 years old and have Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). (
  • These include people without a history of lung disease as well as patients with any of the following: lymphangioleiomyomatosis, asthma, sarcoidosis, other chronic or genetic lung disease (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis or eosinophilic granuloma). (
  • The objectives of this exploratory protocol are to procure gastrointestinal, oropharyngeal, lung and/or blood specimens from healthy research volunteers and subjects with lung disease (e.g., lymphangioleiomyomatosis, asthma, sarcoidosis, pulmonary fibrosis) and to analyze these specimens for H. pylori, VacA toxin, and other toxins. (


  • The subject's degree of dyspnea will be captured on the British Medical Research Council (MRC) questionnaire, and severity will be determined by the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) spirometric criteria. (


  • Recent clinical trials in adults and term infants have shown that NAVA is more synchronous than conventional pressure support ventilation, and that NAVA delivers lower mean airway pressures to achieve the same ventilation and respiratory muscle unloading. (


  • Excess urinary tract cancer and respiratory disease mortality among styrene workers in high-exposure departments. (
  • Kidney cancer and respiratory disease mortality may be associated with exposure to higher levels of styrene. (
  • Dose-response associations of silica with nonmalignant respiratory disease and lung cancer mortality in the diatomaceous earth industry. (
  • A study of mortality of workers in the diatomaceous-earth (DE) industry was conducted to examine possible associations between crystalline silica (14808607) exposure and lung cancer and nonmalignant respiratory disease (NMRD) risk among DE industry workers. (


  • In an individual cat, identification of the aetiological agent(s) responsible for URTD, especially in acute disease, may not be required. (

lung disease

  • We hypothesize that the toxins may have a role in the pathogenesis of lung disease and in the subclinical decline in lung function seen with aging. (


  • After receiving single low-dose cyclophosphamide, subjects will receive 8 consecutive weekly subcutaneous vaccinations with 1000 microgram (mcg) of tecemotide (L-BLP25) at weeks 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 followed by maintenance vaccinations (1000 mcg of tecemotide [L-BLP at 6-week intervals, commencing at Week 13, until disease progression is documented. (


  • Rationale Our aim is to conduct a prospective study to assess the patients referred for rhinosinusitis to a tertiary rhinologic practice whose symptoms include headache/facial pain, but have no evidence of significant rhinologic disease and determine whether a neurologic etiology is responsible for headaches or facial pressure/pain symptoms. (
  • This study will examine bacteria and toxins in the mouth, lung and digestive system that may be the cause of various diseases or symptoms. (


  • Quantification of FHV or FCV copy number on quantitative PCR assays can help interpretation of results, as high viral loads in clinical specimens suggest active viral replication and involvement in the disease process, whereas lower loads may be more consistent with asymptomatic carrier status. (
  • PFS was defined as duration from first administration of trial treatment until progressive disease [PD] (radiological or clinical, if radiological progression is not available) or death due to any cause. (


  • Any known factor or disease that might interfere with treatment compliance, study conduct or interpretation of the results, such as drug or alcohol dependence, or psychiatric disease. (


  • The anticipated time on study treatment is until disease progression or intolerable toxicity, and the target sample size is 100-500 individuals. (

severe disease

  • If several ill cats are being dealt with, the household is a breeding cattery or shelter, or chronic or severe disease is present, identification of agent(s) may become more important to direct specific management. (


  • Among 2,062 highly exposed workers who ever worked in high-exposure departments, urinary tract cancer (n=6, SMR=3.1O, CI 1.13-6.75) and pneumoconioses and other respiratory diseases (n=12, SMR=2.56, CI 1.32-4.47) were significantly elevated. (
  • the exposure-response relationship for "other respiratory diseases" showed no clear trend. (


  • People 18 years of age and older with or without gastrointestinal disease may be eligible for this study. (


  • Bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract. (
  • Most people recover from primary TB infection without further evidence of the disease. (
  • In some cases, the disease becomes active within weeks after the primary infection. (
  • However, if TB bacteria become active in the body and multiply, the person will go from having latent TB infection to being sick with TB disease. (
  • Many people who have latent TB infection never develop TB disease. (


  • This study will examine specimens collected from the mouth, teeth, lung, digestive tract and blood to measure H. pylori and its toxins and their effects on cells. (
  • Analyses of gastrointestinal, oropharyngeal, lung and blood specimens will improve the understanding of H. pylori, VacA toxin, and other toxins as well as their potential role in pathophysiology of disease. (


  • This 2 arm study will evaluate the management of Tarceva-induced skin rash in patients with non-small cell lung cancer who have failed first-line chemotherapy for advanced disease. (


  • When TB bacteria are active (multiplying in your body), this is called TB disease. (


  • The following will be monitored and recorded for 20 min at 1 hour intervals: Phasic EAdi, tonic EAdi, tidal volume, ventilator-delivered pressure, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, end tidal PCO2, and heart rate. (


  • and B. bronchiseptica can be found in normal cats, but have also been associated with disease. (
  • We hypothesize that H. pylori, VacA toxin, and other toxins within the gastrointestinal tract and/or oropharynx are also found in the lung and may contribute to decline in lung function. (


  • FHV can cause more severe URTD, especially in young kittens, 1 whilst FCV-associated disease is often mild and varies with strain involved. (


  • This research registry will allow us to tap into this resource and address important, unanswered questions about the disease process and new therapies. (


  • People with TB disease are sick. (
  • Some people develop TB disease soon after becoming infected (within weeks) before their immune system can fight the TB bacteria. (


  • The influenza virus, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by RNA viruses. (