Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Lac Repressors: Bacterial repressor proteins that bind to the LAC OPERON and thereby prevent the synthesis of proteins involved in catabolism of LACTOSE. When lactose levels are high lac repressors undergo an allosteric change that causes their release from the DNA and the resumption of lac operon transcription.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histone Deacetylases: Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.Enzyme Repression: The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Alcohol Oxidoreductases: A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator: Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.PhosphoproteinsIron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Helix-Turn-Helix Motifs: The first DNA-binding protein motif to be recognized. Helix-turn-helix motifs were originally identified in bacterial proteins but have since been found in hundreds of DNA-BINDING PROTEINS from both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. They are constructed from two alpha helices connected by a short extended chain of amino acids, which constitute the "turn." The two helices are held at a fixed angle, primarily through interactions between the two helices. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p408-9)Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Regulon: In eukaryotes, a genetic unit consisting of a noncontiguous group of genes under the control of a single regulator gene. In bacteria, regulons are global regulatory systems involved in the interplay of pleiotropic regulatory domains and consist of several OPERONS.Co-Repressor Proteins: A subclass of repressor proteins that do not directly bind DNA. Instead, co-repressors generally act via their interaction with DNA-BINDING PROTEINS such as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCING FACTORS or NUCLEAR RECEPTORS.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.

*  MXD4 Gene - GeneCards | MAD4 Protein | MAD4 Antibody

Protein Coding), MAX Dimerization Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Transcriptional repressor. Binds with MAX to form a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex which recognizes the core ... Protein Symbol:. Q14582-MAD4_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Max dimerization protein 4 Protein Accession:. Q14582. Secondary ... Transcriptional repressor. Binds with MAX to form a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex which recognizes the core ...

*  MLX - Max-like protein X - Homo sapiens (Human) - MLX gene & protein

TCFL4-WBSCR14 complexes are transcriptional repressors. Plays a role in transcriptional activation of glycolytic target genes. ... Forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex with MAD1, MAD4, MNT, WBSCR14 and MLXIP which recognizes the core ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q9UH92. G3R5L7. H2QD25. Homo sapiens (Human). ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ...

*  Structure Cluster - 1IGQ: C-terminal Domain of Transcriptional Repressor Protein KorB 3D Similarity Report Page

An Src homology 3-like domain is responsible for dimerization of the repressor protein KorB encoded by the promiscuous IncP ... Pre-calculated protein structure alignments at the RCSB PDB website. Bioinformatics 26: 2983-2985 ...

*  'repressor proteins' Protocols and Video...

Resolving Affinity Purified Protein Complexes by Blue Native PAGE and Protein Correlation Profiling', 'Design and Construction ... Investigating Protein-protein Interactions in Live Cells Using Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer', 'Engineering 'Golden ... Inducible LAP-tagged Stable Cell Lines for Investigating Protein Function, Spatiotemporal Localization and Protein Interaction ... Reporter-based Growth Assay for Systematic Analysis of Protein Degradation', 'Recombinant Protein Expression for Structural ...

*  Inducers and induction of the tetracycline repressor protein [Elektronische Ressource] : computational studies / vorgelegt von...

Inducers and Induction of the Tetracycline Repressor Protein: Computational Studies Den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten der ... Inducers and induction of the tetracycline repressor protein [Elektronische Ressource] : computational studies / vorgelegt von ... TetR Tetracycline Repressor Protein TetA Tetracycline Antiporter Protein Tc, 1 Tetracycline (Figure 1, left; page 3) ATc, 2 5a, ... Repressor Protein Dr. Nico van Eikema Hommes danke ich für die schnelle Hilfe bei Hard- und Softwareproblemen Bei Dr. Frank ' ...

*  SAP155-Mediated Splicing of FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor Serves as a Molecular Switch for c-myc Gene Expression |...

SAP155-Mediated Splicing of FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor Serves as a Molecular Switch for c-myc Gene Expression. ... SAP155-Mediated Splicing of FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor Serves as a Molecular Switch for c-myc Gene Expression ... SAP155-Mediated Splicing of FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor Serves as a Molecular Switch for c-myc Gene Expression ... SAP155-Mediated Splicing of FUSE-Binding Protein-Interacting Repressor Serves as a Molecular Switch for c-myc Gene Expression ...

*  lexA - LexA repressor - Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 14067 - lexA gene & protein

Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. A0A0F6WQV6. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A4QET8. A0A1Q6BII1. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A0A072Z841. Q8NP86. A0A0S2T5F8. R0J9C2. ...


THE DNA BINDING PARAMETERS OF HYBRID TETRAMERS OF LACTOSE REPRESSOR AND THE TRYPSIN-RESISTANT CORE PROTEIN: A MODEL FOR ... The nonspecific DNA binding capacity of the lac repressor protein has been assessed by two different methods. Boundary ... sedimentation of repressor and calf thymus DNA fragmented by shearing yielded dissociation constants in good agreement with ...

*  A model for extradenticle function as a switch that changes HOX proteins from repressors to activators | The EMBO Journal

HOX proteins apparently act with the help of cofactors in larger nucleoprotein complexes (Mann, 1995). The protein-protein ... A model for extradenticle function as a switch that changes HOX proteins from repressors to activators. Julia Pinsonneault, ... The second part of the model proposes that when HOX proteins act as repressors they do not require exd function. This explains ... The partially purified protein was aliquoted and stored at −80°C. DFD protein was produced in E.coli and partially purified ...

*  lexA - LexA repressor - Shewanella loihica (strain ATCC BAA-1088 / PV-4) - lexA gene & protein

Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A3Q951. B8CUX0. B0TNT3. A8H9S0. UPI000490B52E. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. A3Q951. P0A153. P0A154. A0A179RFM6. I3UQ15. ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Pfam protein domain database. More...Pfami. View protein in Pfam. PF01726. LexA_DNA_bind. 1 hit. PF00717. Peptidase_S24. 1 hit ...

*  DAPK2 | Cancer Genetics Web

Tumor Suppressor Proteins. *Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases. *Repressor Proteins. *p53 Protein ... protein autophosphorylation - protein kinase activity - protein phosphorylation - protein serine/threonine kinase activity - ... This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family. This protein contains a N-terminal ... Phosphorylation of proteins was evaluated by reverse phase protein array and immunoblotting.. RESULTS: Increases of colony ...

*  Direct conversion of C. elegans germ cells into specific neuron types.

0/LIN-53 protein, C elegans; 0/Nuclear Proteins; 0/Repressor Proteins; 0/Transcription Factors; 0/unc-3 protein, C elegans; 0/ ... Nuclear Proteins / genetics, metabolism. RNA Interference. Repressor Proteins / genetics, physiology*. Sensory Receptor Cells ... 0/CHE-1 protein, C elegans; 0/Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0/Chromatin; 0/Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0/Histones; 0/ ... Homeodomain Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Mitosis. Motor Neurons / cytology, metabolism. Muscle Cells / cytology, metabolism ...

*  Sequence Similarity - 1KCA: Crystal Structure of the lambda Repressor C-terminal Domain Octamer Sequence Similarity...

Crystal structure of the lambda repressor C-terminal domain octamer. ... REPRESSOR PROTEIN CI C-TERMINAL DOMAIN 10710 2 1KCA 1 A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H REPRESSOR PROTEIN CI C-terminal domain (residues ... REPRESSOR PROTEIN CI protein, length: 109 (BLAST) Sequence Similarity Cutoff. Rank. Chains in Cluster. Cluster ID / Name. ... Structures of protein chains with identical sequences (sequence identity > 95%) are aligned, superimposed and clustered. ...

*  GIS1 - Transcriptional activator/repressor GIS1 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) - GIS1...

Can act as a transcriptional activator (e.g. of stress genes like SSA3, HSP12 and HSP26) as well as a repressor (e.g. of ... pyrophosphate phosphatase DPP1). GIS1 also acts as a DNA damage-responsive transcriptional repressor of photolyase PHR1. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q03833. C7GVP2. B5VFZ2. A0A250W9G7. G2WAK0. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q03833. C8Z514. A0A250W9G7. G2WAK0. N1PAD2. ...

*  Biology | Free Full-Text | Transcriptional Regulation of the Mitochondrial Citrate and Carnitine/Acylcarnitine Transporters:...

Repressors. ZNF224. By affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry, a zinc finger protein, ZNF224, that binds to the −595/− ... Urrutia, R. KRAB-containing zinc-finger repressor proteins. Genome Biol. 2003, 4, 231. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] ... CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins a and b are transcriptiona activators of the brown fat uncoupling protein gene promoter. ... Siu, F.; Chen, C.; Zhong, C.; Kilberg, M.S. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta is a mediator of the nutrient-sensing response ...

*  HDAC9 peptide (ab124130) | Abcam

MEF2 interacting transcription repressor MITR. *MEF2 interacting transcription repressor protein. *MEF2-interacting ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex miRNA assays. By ... The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) in 2010. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D142-D148 (2010) . ... Translocation t(1;7)(q41;p21) with TGFB2 resulting in lack of HDAC9 protein. ...

*  Patent US5858777 - Methods and reagents for regulating telomere length and telomerase activity - Google Patents

Purified and recombinant proteins TPC2 and TPC3 and recombinant or synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to those proteins ... Telomerase expression repressor proteins and methods of using the same. US20030171326 *. Jan 7, 2003. Sep 11, 2003. Andrews ... The ribosomal protein L22 is a protein component of the large ribosomal subunit that, in E. coli, binds 23S rRNA; the protein ... Such proteins include telomerase, the protein components of telomerase, proteins that selectively bind nucleic acids containing ...

*  The E2F Family and Transcriptional Control of the Mammalian Cell Cycle | HSTalks

Interaction with tumour repressor proteins. *Interaction with chromatin modifying enzymes. *Study using microarray technology ...

*  EMBOSS: msbar

XX KW acetyltransferase; beta-D-galactosidase; galactosidase; lac operon; KW lac repressor protein; lacA gene; lacI gene; ... "Lactose operator sequences and the action of lac repressor"; RL (in) Sund H., Blauer G. (Eds.); RL PROTEIN-LIGAND INTERACTIONS: ... Codon (not applicable in proteins) *Block of sequence (of a specified minimum and maximum random size) If the sequence is ... Sequence is protein -slower1 boolean Make lower case -supper1 boolean Make upper case -sformat1 string Input sequence format - ...

*  EMBOSS: remap

XX KW acetyltransferase; beta-D-galactosidase; galactosidase; lac operon; KW lac repressor protein; lacA gene; lacI gene; ... Back-translate a protein sequence to ambiguous nucleotide sequence. backtranseq. Back-translate a protein sequence to a ... "Lactose operator sequences and the action of lac repressor"; RL (in) Sund H., Blauer G. (Eds.); RL PROTEIN-LIGAND INTERACTIONS: ... Display protein sequences in three-letter code. Boolean value Yes/No. No. ...

*  EMBOSS: chaos

XX KW acetyltransferase; beta-D-galactosidase; galactosidase; lac operon; KW lac repressor protein; lacA gene; lacI gene; ... "Lactose operator sequences and the action of lac repressor"; RL (in) Sund H., Blauer G. (Eds.); RL PROTEIN-LIGAND INTERACTIONS: ... Sequence is protein -slower1 boolean Make lower case -supper1 boolean Make upper case -scircular1 boolean Sequence is circular ...

*  EMBOSS: supermatcher

XX KW acetyltransferase; beta-D-galactosidase; galactosidase; lac operon; KW lac repressor protein; lacA gene; lacI gene; ... "Lactose operator sequences and the action of lac repressor"; RL (in) Sund H., Blauer G. (Eds.); RL PROTEIN-LIGAND INTERACTIONS: ... They must both be protein or both be nucleic acid sequences. Input files for usage example 'tembl:j01636' is a sequence entry ... For protein sequences EBLOSUM62 is used for the substitution matrix. For nucleotide sequence, EDNAMAT is used. Others can be ...

*  MolviZ.Org

LAC REPRESSOR - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --> Lac Repressor JSmol See how the repressor protein ... Knots in Proteins! Are protein chains ever knotted? It's rare but it does happen-. get a good look at some Knots in Proteins!. ... calcium-binding proteins, lipid bilayers, integral membrane proteins, myristoylated proteins, DNA, RNA, virus capsids, toxins, ... Color proteins by evolutionary conservation, automatically, at ConSurf JSmol *Create publication-quality figures, and ...

*  anus cancer stage 0 2005:2010[pubdate] *count=100 - BioMedLib™ search engine

Oncogene Proteins, Viral / genetics. Open Reading Frames. Repressor Proteins / genetics. *[Email] Email this result item Email ... E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Repressor Proteins ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E2 protein, Human papillomavirus type 16; 0 / ... Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Helminth Proteins; 0 / Oligopeptides; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 9076-44-2 / chymostatin; EC 3.4 ...

*  Combinatorial depletion analysis to assemble the network architecture of the SAGA and ADA chromatin remodeling complexes |...

Identification of native complexes containing the yeast coactivator/repressor proteins NGG1/ADA3 and ADA2. J Biol Chem 272: ... Regarding the baits, we TAP‐tagged SPT proteins, proteins from the HAT module, proteins from the DUB module and TAF proteins, ... tagged protein in different deletion strains followed by mass spectrometry (i.e. proteins dependent on the deleted protein no ... Yatherajam G, Zhang L, Kraemer SM, Stargell LA (2003) Proteinprotein interaction map for yeast TFIID. Nucleic Acids Res 31: ...

Repressor: In molecular genetics, a repressor is a DNA- or RNA-binding protein that inhibits the expression of one or more genes by binding to the operator or associated silencers. A DNA-binding repressor blocks the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter, thus preventing transcription of the genes into messenger RNA.Operator (biology): In genetics, an operator is a segment of DNA to which a transcription factor binds to regulate gene expression. The transcription factor is a repressor, which can bind to the operator to prevent transcription.Coles PhillipsPituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.DNA-binding proteinSymmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.Ferric uptake regulator family: In molecular biology, the ferric uptake regulator (FUR) family of proteins includes metal ion uptake regulator proteins. These are responsible for controlling the intracellular concentration of iron in many bacteria.Operon: In genetics, an operon is a functioning unit of genomic DNA containing a cluster of genes under the control of a single promoter. The genes are transcribed together into an mRNA strand and either translated together in the cytoplasm, or undergo trans-splicing to create monocistronic mRNAs that are translated separately, i.Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranosideEukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Cro repressor family: In molecular biology, the Cro repressor family of proteins includes the bacteriophage lambda Cro repressor.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Triparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Escherichia coli (molecular biology): Escherichia coli (; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gammaproteobacterium commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).DNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Lambda phageZinc fingerAntitermination: Antitermination is the prokaryotic cell's aid to fix premature termination of RNA synthesis during the transcription of RNA. It occurs when the RNA polymerase ignores the termination signal, and it provides a mechanism whereby one or more genes at the end of an operon can be switched either on or off, depending on the polymerase either recognizing or not recognizing the termination signal.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.AllolactoseHistone deacetylaseMature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Enterobacteria phage G4: Enterobacteria phage G4 is a bacteriophage capable of infecting susceptible bacterial cells. The phage was originally isolated from samples of raw sewage and infects E.Hypersensitive site: In genetics a hypersensitive site is a short region of chromatin and is detected by its super sensitivity to cleavage by DNase I and other various nucleases (DNase II and micrococcal nucleases). In a hypersensitive site, the nucleosomal structure is less compacted, increasing the availability of the DNA to binding by proteins, such as transcription factors and DNase I.Two-hybrid screeningFERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Spatiotemporal gene expressionChemically induced dimerization: Chemically Induced Dimerization (CID) is a biological mechanism in which two proteins bind only in the presence of a certain small molecule, enzyme or other dimerizing agent. Genetically engineered CID systems are used in biological research to control protein localization, to manipulate signalling pathways and to induce protein activation.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.BESS domain: In molecular biology, the BESS domain is a protein domain which has been named after the three proteins that originally defined the domain: BEAF (Boundary element associated factor 32), Suvar(3)7 and Stonewall ). The BESS domain is 40 amino acid residues long and is predicted to be composed of three alpha helices, as such it might be related to the myb/SANT HTH domain.Database of protein conformational diversity: The Database of protein conformational diversity (PCDB) is a database of diversity of protein tertiary structures within protein domains as determined by X-ray crystallography. Proteins are inherently flexible and this database collects information on this subject for use in molecular research.Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase: Senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal or SABG) is a hypothetical hydrolase enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-galactosides into monosaccharides only in senescent cells.RNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.CS-BLASTIroquois homeobox factor: Iroquois homeobox factors are a family of homeodomain transcription factors that play a role in many developmental processes.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Reaction coordinateZuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".RNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.Drosophila embryogenesis: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for geneticists and developmental biologists studying embryogenesis. The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic studies.Tryptophan operon leaderSporulation in Bacillus subtilis: Bacillus subtilis is a rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that is naturally found in soil and vegetation, and is known for its ability to form a small, tough, protective and metabolically dormant endospore. B.Composite transposon: A composite transposon is similar in function to simple transposons and Insertion Sequence (IS) elements in that it has protein coding DNA segments flanked by inverted, repeated sequences that can be recognized by transposase enzymes. A composite transposon, however, is flanked by two separate IS elements which may or may not be exact replicas.Phenotype microarray: The phenotype microarray approach is a technology for high-throughput phenotyping of cells.ATF/CREB: The ATF/CREB family is a group of transcription factors, consisting of different ATFs (Activating transcription factors), CREB (cAMP response element binding protein), CREM (cAMP response element modulator) and related proteins.Targeted mutation of the CREB gene: Compensation within the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors EDITH HUMMLER, TIMOTHY J.Matrix model: == Mathematics and physics ==Ethyl groupAllosteric regulation

(1/21399) The surface ectoderm is essential for nephric duct formation in intermediate mesoderm.

The nephric duct is the first epithelial tubule to differentiate from intermediate mesoderm that is essential for all further urogenital development. In this study we identify the domain of intermediate mesoderm that gives rise to the nephric duct and demonstrate that the surface ectoderm is required for its differentiation. Removal of the surface ectoderm resulted in decreased levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in mesenchymal nephric duct progenitors, and caused inhibition of nephric duct formation and subsequent kidney development. The surface ectoderm expresses BMP-4 and we show that it is required for the maintenance of high-level BMP-4 expression in lateral plate mesoderm. Addition of a BMP-4-coated bead to embryos lacking the surface ectoderm restored normal levels of Sim-1 and Pax-2 mRNA expression in nephric duct progenitors, nephric duct formation and the initiation of nephrogenesis. Thus, BMP-4 signaling can substitute for the surface ectoderm in supporting nephric duct morphogenesis. Collectively, these data suggest that inductive interactions between the surface ectoderm, lateral mesoderm and intermediate mesoderm are essential for nephric duct formation and the initiation of urogenital development.  (+info)

(2/21399) Apontic binds the translational repressor Bruno and is implicated in regulation of oskar mRNA translation.

The product of the oskar gene directs posterior patterning in the Drosophila oocyte, where it must be deployed specifically at the posterior pole. Proper expression relies on the coordinated localization and translational control of the oskar mRNA. Translational repression prior to localization of the transcript is mediated, in part, by the Bruno protein, which binds to discrete sites in the 3' untranslated region of the oskar mRNA. To begin to understand how Bruno acts in translational repression, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify Bruno-interacting proteins. One interactor, described here, is the product of the apontic gene. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments lend biochemical support to the idea that Bruno and Apontic proteins physically interact in Drosophila. Genetic experiments using mutants defective in apontic and bruno reveal a functional interaction between these genes. Given this interaction, Apontic is likely to act together with Bruno in translational repression of oskar mRNA. Interestingly, Apontic, like Bruno, is an RNA-binding protein and specifically binds certain regions of the oskar mRNA 3' untranslated region.  (+info)

(3/21399) Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient.

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

(4/21399) Sonic hedgehog signaling by the patched-smoothened receptor complex.

BACKGROUND: The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins is involved in a number of developmental processes as well as in cancer. Genetic and biochemical data suggest that the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) receptor is composed of at least two proteins: the tumor suppressor protein Patched (Ptc) and the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo). RESULTS: Using a biochemical assay for activation of the transcription factor Gli, a downstream component of the Hh pathway, we show here that Smo functions as the signaling component of the Shh receptor, and that this activity can be blocked by Ptc. The inhibition of Smo by Ptc can be relieved by the addition of Shh. Furthermore, oncogenic forms of Smo are insensitive to Ptc repression in this assay. Mapping of the Smo domains required for binding to Ptc and for signaling revealed that the Smo-Ptc interaction involves mainly the amino terminus of Smo, and that the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain are required for signaling. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that Smo is the signaling component of a multicomponent Hh receptor complex and that Ptc is a ligand-regulated inhibitor of Smo. Different domains of Smo are involved in Ptc binding and activation of a Gli reporter construct. The latter requires the third intracellular loop and the seventh transmembrane domain of Smo, regions often involved in coupling to G proteins. No changes in the levels of cyclic AMP or calcium associated with such pathways could be detected following receptor activation, however.  (+info)

(5/21399) Four dimers of lambda repressor bound to two suitably spaced pairs of lambda operators form octamers and DNA loops over large distances.

Transcription factors that are bound specifically to DNA often interact with each other over thousands of base pairs [1] [2]. Large DNA loops resulting from such interactions have been observed in Escherichia coli with the transcription factors deoR [3] and NtrC [4], but such interactions are not, as yet, well understood. We propose that unique protein complexes, that are not present in solution, may form specifically on DNA. Their uniqueness would make it possible for them to interact tightly and specifically with each other. We used the repressor and operators of coliphage lambda to construct a model system in which to test our proposition. lambda repressor is a dimer at physiological concentrations, but forms tetramers and octamers at a hundredfold higher concentration. We predict that two lambda repressor dimers form a tetramer in vitro when bound to two lambda operators spaced 24 bp apart and that two such tetramers interact to form an octamer. We examined, in vitro, relaxed circular plasmid DNA in which such operator pairs were separated by 2,850 bp and 2,470 bp. Of these molecules, 29% formed loops as seen by electron microscopy (EM). The loop increased the tightness of binding of lambda repressor to lambda operator. Consequently, repression of the lambda PR promoter in vivo was increased fourfold by the presence of a second pair of lambda operators, separated by a distance of 3,600 bp.  (+info)

(6/21399) C-myc overexpression and p53 loss cooperate to promote genomic instability.

p53 monitors genomic integrity at the G1 and G2/M cell cycle checkpoints. Cells lacking p53 may show gene amplification as well as the polyploidy or aneuploidy typical of many tumors. The pathways through which this develops, however, are not well defined. We demonstrate here that the combination of p53 inactivation and c-myc overexpression in diploid cells markedly accelerates the spontaneous development of tetraploidy. This is not seen with either N-myc or L-myc. Tetraploidy is accompanied by significantly higher levels of cyclin B and its associated cdc2 kinase activity. Mitotic spindle poisons accelerate the appearance of tetraploidy in cells either lacking functional p53 or overexpressing c-myc whereas the combination is additive. Restoration of p53 function in cells overexpressing c-myc causing rapid apoptosis, indicating that cells yet to become tetraploid have nonetheless suffered irreversible genomic and/or mitotic spindle damage. In the face of normal p53 function, such damage would either be repaired or trigger apoptotis. We propose that loss of p53 and overexpression of c-myc permits the emergence and survival of cells with increasingly severe damage and the eventual development of tetraploidy.  (+info)

(7/21399) TIF1gamma, a novel member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family.

We report the cloning and characterization of a novel member of the Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 1 (TIF1) gene family, human TIF1gamma. Similar to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, the structure of TIF1beta is characterized by multiple domains: RING finger, B boxes, Coiled coil, PHD/TTC, and bromodomain. Although structurally related to TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, TIF1gamma presents several functional differences. In contrast to TIF1alpha, but like TIF1beta, TIF1 does not interact with nuclear receptors in yeast two-hybrid or GST pull-down assays and does not interfere with retinoic acid response in transfected mammalian cells. Whereas TIF1alpha and TIF1beta were previously found to interact with the KRAB silencing domain of KOX1 and with the HP1alpha, MODI (HP1beta) and MOD2 (HP1gamma) heterochromatinic proteins, suggesting that they may participate in a complex involved in heterochromatin-induced gene repression, TIF1gamma does not interact with either the KRAB domain of KOX1 or the HP1 proteins. Nevertheless, TIF1gamma, like TIF1alpha and TIF1beta, exhibits a strong silencing activity when tethered to a promoter. Since deletion of a novel motif unique to the three TIF1 proteins, called TIF1 signature sequence (TSS), abrogates transcriptional repression by TIF1gamma, this motif likely participates in TIF1 dependent repression.  (+info)

(8/21399) The role of RBF in the introduction of G1 regulation during Drosophila embryogenesis.

The first appearance of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis, at cell cycle 17, is accompanied by the down-regulation of E2F-dependent transcription. Mutant alleles of rbf were generated and analyzed to determine the role of RBF in this process. Embryos lacking both maternal and zygotic RBF products show constitutive expression of PCNA and RNR2, two E2F-regulated genes, indicating that RBF is required for their transcriptional repression. Despite the ubiquitous expression of E2F target genes, most epidermal cells enter G1 normally. Rather than pausing in G1 until the appropriate time for cell cycle progression, many of these cells enter an ectopic S-phase. These results indicate that the repression of E2F target genes by RBF is necessary for the maintenance but not the initiation of a G1 phase. The phenotype of RBF-deficient embryos suggests that rbf has a function that is complementary to the roles of dacapo and fizzy-related in the introduction of G1 during Drosophila embryogenesis.  (+info)


  • An example of a regulator gene is a gene that codes for a repressor protein that inhibits the activity of an operator gene (a gene which binds repressor proteins thus inhibiting the translation of RNA to protein via RNA polymerase). (
  • In terms of the lac operon, the negative regulator would be the lac repressor which binds to the promoter in the same site that RNA polymerase normally binds. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene binds to the AML1-MTG8 complex and may be important in promoting leukemogenesis. (
  • The repressor in turn binds to a gene promoter (a sequence of DNA adjacent to the regulated gene), thereby blocking transcription of that gene. (
  • In eukaryotes, a corepressor is a protein that binds to transcription factors. (
  • Operator - a segment of DNA that a repressor binds to. (
  • The 5' UTR binds the ribosome, which translates the protein-coding region into a string of amino acids that fold to form the final protein product. (
  • The encoded protein acts as a transcriptional repressor that binds to E-box motifs and is also likely to repress E-cadherin transcription in breast carcinoma. (


  • Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific Genes or Operons . (
  • The HOX proteins are homeodomain‐containing transcription factors, which regulate the expression of many downstream target genes ( Botas, 1993 ). (
  • Can act as a transcriptional activator (e.g. of stress genes like SSA3, HSP12 and HSP26) as well as a repressor (e.g. of pyrophosphate phosphatase DPP1). (
  • In an important embodiment, the invention provides oligonucleotide probes and primers, polynucleotide plasmids, peptides, proteins, antibodies, and enzymes relating to genes and gene products that regulate telomere length and telomerase activity in mammalian cells. (
  • Then there's the repressor protein that turns genes off. (
  • The inducer can remove this repressor, turning genes back on. (
  • A regulator gene may encode a protein, or it may work at the level of RNA, as in the case of genes encoding microRNAs. (
  • In prokaryotes, regulator genes often code for repressor proteins. (
  • Other regulatory genes code for activator proteins. (
  • The binding of the lac repressor to RNA polymerase's binding site inhibits the transcription of the lac genes. (
  • Only when a corepressor is bound to the lac repressor will the binding site be free for RNA polymerase to carry out transcription of the lac genes. (
  • The expression of tc resistance genes is regulated by Tet Repressor Protein. (
  • TetR protein family members are mostly transcriptional repressors, meaning that they prevent the expression of certain genes at the DNA level. (
  • These proteins can act on genes with various functions including antibiotic resistance, biosynthesis and metabolism, bacterial pathogenesis, and response to cell stress. (
  • The repressor protein physically obstructs the RNA polymerase from transcribing the genes. (
  • A corepressor downregulates (or represses) the expression of genes by binding to and activating a repressor transcription factor. (
  • This theory suggested that in all cases, genes within an operon are negatively controlled by a repressor acting at a single operator located before the first gene. (
  • It is defined as a set of adjacent structural genes, plus the adjacent regulatory signals that affect transcription of the structural genes.5 The regulators of a given operon, including repressors, corepressors, and activators, are not necessarily coded for by that operon. (
  • whereas operons contain a set of genes regulated by the same operator, regulons contain a set of genes under regulation by a single regulatory protein, and stimulons contain a set of genes under regulation by a single cell stimulus. (
  • An operon contains one or more structural genes which are generally transcribed into one polycistronic mRNA (a single mRNA molecule that codes for more than one protein). (
  • Usually these genes encode proteins which will work together in the same pathway, such as a metabolic pathway. (
  • In RNA synthesis, promoters indicate which genes should be used for messenger RNA creation - and, by extension, control which proteins the cell produces. (
  • Genes may be regulated by multiple enhancer and silencer sequences that further modify the activity of promoters by binding activator or repressor proteins. (
  • The core promoter of prokaryotic genes, conversely, is sufficient for strong expression and is regulated by repressors. (
  • An additional layer of regulation occurs for protein coding genes after the mRNA has been processed to prepare it for translation to protein. (


  • This study aims to study the significance of the FIR-SAP155 interaction for the coordination of c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and c-Myc protein modification, as well as to interrogate FIRΔexon2 for other functions relating to altered FIR pre-mRNA splicing. (
  • Knockdown of SAP155 or FIR was used to investigate their reciprocal influence on each other and on c-myc transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, and protein expression. (
  • Instead, like many other eukaryotic transcription factors that act through distant enhancers, HOX proteins apparently act with the help of cofactors in larger nucleoprotein complexes ( Mann, 1995 ). (
  • Inducers cause repressor proteins to change shape or otherwise become unable to bind DNA, allowing RNA polymerase to continue transcription. (
  • The general dogma is that these regulatory elements get activated by the binding of transcription factors, proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences, and control mRNA transcription. (
  • In addition, several other proteins, called transcription cofactors, bind to the transcription factors themselves to control transcription. (
  • The Jun dimerization protein is a member of the AP-1 family of transcription factors. (
  • JDP2 functions as a transcription activator or repressor depending on the leucine zipper protein member it is associated with. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a putative zinc finger transcription factor and oncoprotein. (
  • Repressors bind to operators to prevent transcription. (
  • For example, the E. coli tryptophan repressor (TrpR) is only able to bind to DNA and repress transcription of the trp operon when its corepressor tryptophan is bound to it. (
  • The MECOM protein contains 2 domains characterized by 7 zinc finger motifs followed by a proline-rich transcription repression domain, 3 more zinc finger motifs and an acidic C-terminus. (
  • An ERG (ets-related gene)-associated histone methyltransferase interacts with histone deacetylases 1/2 and transcription co-repressors mSin3A/B". The Biochemical Journal. (
  • The core promoter marks the start site for transcription by binding RNA polymerase and other proteins necessary for copying DNA to RNA. (
  • Binding of activators and repressors to multiple regulatory sequences has a cooperative effect on transcription initiation. (


  • The chimeric protein is thought to associate with the nuclear corepressor/histone deacetylase complex to block hematopoietic differentiation. (
  • Alternatively, a corepressor can bind to the repressor to allow its binding to the operator site. (
  • A corepressor does not directly bind to DNA, but instead indirectly regulates gene expression by binding to repressors. (
  • In prokaryotes, the term corepressor is used to denote the activating ligand of a repressor protein. (

activators and repressors

  • In the regulation of gene expression, studied in evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo), both activators and repressors play important roles. (
  • Regulatory elements can overlap one another, with a section of DNA able to interact with many competing activators and repressors as well as RNA polymerase. (


  • Although the selection of a specific target gene by a HOX protein versus another may be explained in some cases by the selective modulation of HOX binding specificity by EXD, we favor the idea that EXD interacts in a more general sense with most HOX proteins to switch them into a state where they are capable of transcriptional activation. (
  • The protein directly interacts with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is a limiting component of the multisubunit complex that recruits 40S ribosomal subunits to the 5' end of mRNAs. (


  • The protein-protein contacts within these complexes are believed to include crucial interactions that allow HOX proteins to discriminate among target regulatory elements. (
  • Lastly, the regulatory gene is the gene for the repressor protein. (
  • It contains putative SUMO modification of lysine (Lys) residue at position 65, and recruits interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein 1 (IRF2BP1), which acts as an E3 ligase. (
  • Other proteins such as interferon regulatory factor-2-binding protein-1 (IRF2BP1). (
  • MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 3 (PRDM3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MECOM gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional regulatory protein. (
  • This includes the sequence that actually encodes the functional protein or ncRNA, as well as multiple regulatory sequence regions. (

preventing RNA polymerase

  • Repressor proteins bind to operators or promoters, preventing RNA polymerase from transcribing RNA. (


  • For example, some repressor proteins can bind to the core promoter to prevent polymerase binding. (


  • HHEX has been shown to interact with Promyelocytic leukemia protein. (


  • In prokaryotes, corepressors are small molecules whereas in eukaryotes, corepressors are proteins. (
  • In humans several dozen to several hundred corepressors are known, depending on the level of confidence with which the characterisation of a protein as a corepressors can be made. (


  • Interaction of this protein with eIF4E inhibits complex assembly and represses translation. (
  • SAP30 proteins provide the first example in which the DNA and PIs seem to stand in a mutually antagonizing interrelationship in regard to their interaction with zinc finger proteins and thus exemplifies the molecular mechanism how these lipids can contribute for gene regulation. (


  • Phosphorylation of Thr at position 148 is detected in response to various stress conditions such as UV irradiation, oxidative stress, and anisomycin treatment or JDP2 is also regulated by other kinases such as p38 MAPK and doublecortin like protein kinase. (


  • This gene encodes a protein that belongs to the serine/threonine protein kinase family. (
  • This protein contains a N-terminal protein kinase domain followed by a conserved calmodulin-binding domain with significant similarity to that of death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1), a positive regulator of programmed cell death. (
  • The loss of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) gene expression through promoter methylation is involved in many tumors. (


  • Inducers and Induction of the Tetracycline Repressor Protein: Computational Studies Den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades vorgelegt von Olaf G. Othersen aus Bamberg Als Dissertation genehmigt von den Naturwissenschaftlichen Fakultäten der Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 19.12.2006 Vorsitzender der Promotionskommission: Professor Dr. E. Bänsch Erstberichterstatter: Professor Dr. T. Clark Zweitberichterstatter: Professor DrA. (


  • Mouse p53 protein negatively regulates the JDP2 promoter in F9 cells as part of the JDP2˗p53 autoregulatory circuit. (


  • This gene encodes one member of a family of translation repressor proteins. (
  • The gene spans 60 kilobases and encodes 16 exons, 10 of which are protein-coding. (
  • Although DNA is a double-stranded molecule, typically only one of the strands encodes information that the RNA polymerase reads to produce protein-coding mRNA or non-coding RNA. (
  • Only the region between the start and stop codons encodes the final protein product. (


  • RUNX1T1 has been shown to interact with: CBFA2T2, CBFA2T3, Calcitriol receptor GFI1, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 1, Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2, PRKAR2A, and Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16. (
  • The nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 also known as thyroid-hormone- and retinoic-acid-receptor-associated co-repressor 1 (TRAC-1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NCOR1 gene. (
  • NCOR1 is a transcriptional coregulatory protein which contains several nuclear receptor interacting domains. (
  • the other human protein that is a member of that family is Nuclear receptor co-repressor 2. (
  • The DNA binding of SAP30 proteins is regulated by the nuclear signalling lipids, phosphoinositides (PI). (


  • SAP30 proteins have sequence-independent contact with DNA by their N-terminal zinc-dependent module and their acidic central region contributes to histone and nucleosome interactions. (
  • It contains paired amphipathic helix (PAH) domains, which are important for protein-protein interactions and may mediate repression by the Mad-Max complex. (


  • Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene, and a brefeldin A-sensitive association of RII-alpha protein with one of the isoforms has been demonstrated in the Golgi apparatus. (
  • A large number of transcript variations exist, encoding different isoforms or chimeric proteins. (


  • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (also known as 4E-BP1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF4EBP1 gene. (


  • Based on the types of homeotic transformations and changes in gene expression observed in exd mutant embryos, we propose a new model for EXD/PBX action in which these proteins are required for HOX protein transcriptional activation functions, but dispensable for HOX transcriptional repression functions. (
  • Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression. (
  • Longer time control involves transcriptional regulation that affects the expression levels of key proteins. (
  • More specifically, TetR represses the expression of TetA, a membrane protein that pumps out substances toxic to the bacteria, by binding the TetA operator. (
  • Expression in specific hematopoietic lineages suggests that this protein may play a role in hematopoietic differentiation. (


  • Our data suggest that the EXD and DFD proteins directly activate this element in maxillary cells without cooperatively binding to a specialized heterodimer binding site. (
  • Isoform 3 is present in human bladder carcinoma cells (at protein level). (
  • Purified and recombinant proteins TPC2 and TPC3 and recombinant or synthetic oligonucleotides corresponding to those proteins or fragments thereof can be used to detect regulators of telomere length and telomerase activity in mammalian cells and for a variety of related diagnostic and therapeutic pu. (
  • said nucleotide sequence characterized in coding for an protein that regulates telomere length or modulates telomerase activity and is present in human or mammalian cells that expresses telomerase activity. (
  • Δ324 found at low levels in human and mouse cells - an alternative splice variant encoding an 88kDa protein lacking zinc fingers 6 and 7 Δ105 variant is unique to mice, and results in a protein truncated by 105 amino acids at the acidic C-terminus. (

transcriptional repression

  • The Far UpStream Element (FUSE)-binding protein-interacting repressor (FIR), a c-myc transcriptional suppressor, is alternatively spliced removing the transcriptional repression domain within exon 2 (FIRΔexon2) in colorectal cancers. (


  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (


  • Sin3A-associated protein, 30kDa, also known as SAP30, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the SAP30 gene. (
  • Proteins of the SAP30 family (SAP30 proteins) have a functional nucleolar localization signal and they are able to target Sin3A to the nucleolus. (
  • Paired amphipathic helix protein Sin3a is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIN3A gene. (


  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (


  • They are usually constantly expressed so the cell always has a supply of repressor molecules on hand. (


  • Within each A/P domain, a different HOX protein assigns positional identities which are eventually realized in diverse morphological structures on the segmented A/P axis of the Drosophila embryo ( McGinnis and Krumlauf, 1992 ). (

humans is encoded

  • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. (
  • Protein CBFA2T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RUNX1T1 gene. (
  • Protein CBFA2T2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CBFA2T2 gene. (


  • An inducer (small molecule) can displace a repressor (protein) from the operator site (DNA), resulting in an uninhibited operon. (


  • This protein is phosphorylated in response to various signals including UV irradiation and insulin signaling, resulting in its dissociation from eIF4E and activation of cap-dependent mRNA translation. (
  • A gene is transcribed (copied) from DNA into RNA, which can either be non-coding (ncRNA) with a direct function, or an intermediate messenger (mRNA) that is then translated into protein. (
  • Most of these relate to post-transcriptional modification of pre-mRNAs to produce mature mRNA ready for translation into protein. (


  • The protein JDP2 has 163 amino acids, belongs to the family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP), and shows high homology with the ATF3 bZIP domain. (
  • TetR is one of many proteins in the TetR protein family, which is so named because TetR is the most well characterized member. (
  • These domains mainly consist of a helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif that is common in TetR protein family members (see below). (
  • As of December 2004, this family of proteins has about 2,353 members that are transcriptional regulators. (
  • In the majority of the family members, this motif is on the N-terminal end of the protein and is highly conserved. (
  • TGF-β, along with other TGF-β family ligands such as bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and activin are involved in regulating important cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and matrix production. (
  • SAP30 and SAP30L together constitute a well-conserved SAP30 protein family. (


  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein gamma (C/EBPγ), HDAC3 and HDAC6 have also been demonstrated to associate with JDP2. (


  • Mutations that change the affinity of a small autoactivation element for EXD protein result in corresponding changes in the element's embryonic activity. (


  • The enzymatic steps involved in the elongation process are principally the same as those carried out by FAS, but the four principal successive steps of the elongation are performed by individual proteins, which may be physically associated. (

zinc fingers

  • p>This subsection of the 'Function' section specifies the position(s) and type(s) of zinc fingers within the protein. (


  • Boundary sedimentation of repressor and calf thymus DNA fragmented by shearing yielded dissociation constants in good agreement with values previously reported in the literature. (


  • HHEX serves to repress VEGFA, another protein which is important in endothelial cell development. (


  • Tc normally kills bacteria by binding to the bacterial ribosome and halting protein synthesis. (