**Regression Analysis**: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.

**Logistic Models**: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.

**Risk Factors**: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.

**Linear Models**: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.

**Cross-Sectional Studies**: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

**Multivariate Analysis**: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.

**Prospective Studies**: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

**Cohort Studies**: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

**Retrospective Studies**: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.

**Questionnaires**: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.

**Age Factors**: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.

**Predictive Value of Tests**: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.

**Odds Ratio**: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.

**Case-Control Studies**: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.

**Time Factors**: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.

**Follow-Up Studies**: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.

**Sex Factors**: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.

**Prognosis**: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.

**Prevalence**: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.

**Treatment Outcome**: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.

**Socioeconomic Factors**: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.

**Risk Assessment**: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)

**Severity of Illness Index**: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

**Neoplasm Regression, Spontaneous**: Disappearance of a neoplasm or neoplastic state without the intervention of therapy.

**Body Mass Index**: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

**Proportional Hazards Models**: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.

**United States**

**Japan**

**Biological Markers**: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.

**Longitudinal Studies**: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.

**Smoking**: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.

**Pregnancy**: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

**Incidence**: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.

**Infant, Newborn**: An infant during the first month after birth.

**China**: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.

**Reproducibility of Results**: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.

**ROC Curve**: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.

**Chi-Square Distribution**: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

**Analysis of Variance**: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.

**Comorbidity**: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.

**Confidence Intervals**: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.

**Sensitivity and Specificity**: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

**Genotype**: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.

**Survival Analysis**: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.

**Educational Status**: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

**Obesity**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).

**Netherlands**: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.

**Health Status**: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.

**European Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.

**Health Surveys**: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.

**Reference Values**: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.

**Epidemiologic Methods**: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.

**Models, Statistical**: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.

**Disease Progression**: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.

**Poisson Distribution**: A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.

**Survival Rate**: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.

**Blood Pressure**: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.

**Asian Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.

**Depression**: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.

**Hypertension**: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.

**Risk**: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.

**Sex Distribution**: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**Kaplan-Meier Estimate**: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)

**Age Distribution**: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.

**African Americans**: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.

**Demography**: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

**Taiwan**

**Alcohol Drinking**: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.

**Quality of Life**: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.

**Anthropometry**: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.

**Urban Population**: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.

**Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2**: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.

**Registries**: The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.

**Norway**

**Body Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Aging**: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.

**Chronic Disease**: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)

**Statistics as Topic**: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.

**Diet**: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.

**Social Class**: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.

**Cardiovascular Diseases**: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.

**Genetic Predisposition to Disease**: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

**Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide**: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.

**Stress, Psychological**: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.

**Residence Characteristics**: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.

**Rural Population**: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.

**Occupational Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.

**C-Reactive Protein**: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.

**Gestational Age**: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.

**Regression (Psychology)**: A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).

**Stroke**: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)

**Republic of Korea**: The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.

**Statistics, Nonparametric**: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

**Least-Squares Analysis**: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

**Brazil**

**Polymorphism, Genetic**: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

**Data Interpretation, Statistical**: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.

**Breast Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.

**Denmark**

**Magnetic Resonance Imaging**: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.

**Germany**

**Coronary Artery Disease**: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.

**Life Style**: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

**Hospitalization**: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.

**Sweden**

**Recurrence**: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.

**Probability**: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.

**Algorithms**: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.

**Birth Weight**: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

**Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice**: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).

**Hispanic Americans**: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.

**Blood Glucose**: Glucose in blood.

**HIV Infections**: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

**Postoperative Complications**: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.

**Kidney Failure, Chronic**: The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.

**Renal Dialysis**: Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.

**Diabetes Mellitus**: A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.

**Activities of Daily Living**: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.

**Hospital Mortality**: A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.

**Occupational Diseases**: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.

**Italy**

**Employment**: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.

**Self Report**: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.

**Data Collection**: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.

**Forecasting**: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.

**Neoplasm Staging**: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.

**Sex Characteristics**: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.

**African Continental Ancestry Group**: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.

**Health Status Indicators**: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.

**Body Composition**: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.

**India**

**Social Support**: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.

**California**

**Health Behavior**: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.

**Outcome Assessment (Health Care)**: Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).

**Environmental Exposure**: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.

**Finland**

**Tomography, X-Ray Computed**: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.

**Body Height**: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.

**Income**: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.

**Spain**: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.

**Myocardial Infarction**: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).

**Mothers**: Female parents, human or animal.

**Creatinine**

**Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)**: Factors that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest, are not intermediate variables, and are not associated with the factor(s) under investigation. They give rise to situations in which the effects of two processes are not separated, or the contribution of causal factors cannot be separated, or the measure of the effect of exposure or risk is distorted because of its association with other factors influencing the outcome of the study.

**Exercise**: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.

**Length of Stay**: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.

**Students**: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.

**Overweight**: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".

**Seasons**: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)

**Neuropsychological Tests**: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.

**Adaptation, Psychological**: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)

**Texas**

**Cognition Disorders**: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.

**Parity**: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.

**Poverty**: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.

**Neoplasms**: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

**Coronary Disease**: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.

**Motor Activity**: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.

**Urban Health**: The status of health in urban populations.

**Mortality**: All deaths reported in a given population.

**Population Surveillance**: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.

**Substance-Related Disorders**: Disorders related to substance abuse.

**Self Concept**: A person's view of himself.

**Maternal Age**: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.

**Cholesterol, HDL**: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.

**Family Characteristics**: Size and composition of the family.

**Disability Evaluation**: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.

**Remission, Spontaneous**: A spontaneous diminution or abatement of a disease over time, without formal treatment.

**Parents**: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.

**Acute Disease**: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.

**Tumor Markers, Biological**: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.

**Interviews as Topic**: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.

**Marital Status**: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.

**Glomerular Filtration Rate**: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.

**Area Under Curve**: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)

**Anxiety**: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.

**Psychiatric Status Rating Scales**: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.

**Waist Circumference**: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.

**Hemoglobin A, Glycosylated**: Minor hemoglobin components of human erythrocytes designated A1a, A1b, and A1c. Hemoglobin A1c is most important since its sugar moiety is glucose covalently bound to the terminal amino acid of the beta chain. Since normal glycohemoglobin concentrations exclude marked blood glucose fluctuations over the preceding three to four weeks, the concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin A is a more reliable index of the blood sugar average over a long period of time.

**Occupations**: Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.

**Workplace**: Place or physical location of work or employment.

**Turkey**

**Cause of Death**: Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.

**Adolescent Behavior**: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.

**Attitude to Health**: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.

**Canada**: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.

**Patient Acceptance of Health Care**: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.

**Metabolic Syndrome X**: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)

**Body Weights and Measures**: Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.

**Health Services Accessibility**: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.

**Biometry**: The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.

**Nutritional Status**: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.

**Lung Neoplasms**: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.

**Lipids**: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

**Insulin Resistance**: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.

**Health Care Surveys**: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.

**Continental Population Groups**: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.

**Causality**: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.

**Alleles**: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.

**Pregnancy Outcome**: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.

#### Applied **Regression** **Analysis**

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#### SAS Training in the United States -- Categorical Data **Analysis** Using Logistic **Regression**

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#### The Prediction of Peptide Detectability in MS Data **Analysis** Using Logistic **Regression** - IEEE Conference Publication

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#### **Analysis** of variance

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**Regression dilution**: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.

**QRISK**: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.

**Closed-ended question**: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.

**Age adjustment**: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.

**Nested case-control study**: A nested case control (NCC) study is a variation of a case-control study in which only a subset of controls from the cohort are compared to the incident cases. In a case-cohort study, all incident cases in the cohort are compared to a random subset of participants who do not develop the disease of interest.

**Temporal analysis of products**: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studying

**Global Risks Report**: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.

**Jim Sinclair (activist)**: Jim Sinclair is an autism rights activist who, together with fellow autistics Kathy Lissner Grant and Donna Williams, formed Autism Network International (ANI) in 1992. Being the only one of the three with an internet connection, Sinclair became the original coordinator of ANI.

**List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent**: The ceremonial county of Kent,

**Niigata University**

**Biomarkers of aging**: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.

**Prenatal nutrition**: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.

**Incidence (epidemiology)**: Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.

**Layout of the Port of Tianjin**: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).

**Generalizability theory**: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.

**Comorbidity**: In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional disorders (or diseases) co-occurring with a primary disease or disorder; or the effect of such additional disorders or diseases. The additional disorder may also be a behavioral or mental disorder.

**Assay sensitivity**: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.

**Classification of obesity**: Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health.WHO 2000 p.

**Netherlands national rollball team**: Vishwaraj Jadeja

**Self-rated health**: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.

**Epidemiological method**: The science of epidemiology has matured significantly from the times of Hippocrates and John Snow. The techniques for gathering and analyzing epidemiological data vary depending on the type of disease being monitored but each study will have overarching similarities.

**Inverse probability weighting**: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.

**Tumor progression**: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.

**Cancer survival rates**: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.

**Aortic pressure**: Central aortic blood pressure (CAP or CASP) is the blood pressure at the root of aorta. Studies have shown the importance of central aortic pressure and its implications in assessing the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment with respect to cardiovascular risk factors.

**Rating scales for depression**: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.

**Hypertension**

**African-American family structure**: The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.Moynihan's War on Poverty report A 1965 report by Daniel Patrick Moynihan, known as The Moynihan Report, examined the link between black poverty and family structure.

**National Taiwan University Hospital**: The National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH; ) started operations under Japanese rule in Daitōtei (today's Dadaocheng) on June 18, 1895, and moved to its present location in 1898. The Hospital was later annexed to the Medical School of Taihoku Imperial University and renamed Taihoku Imperial University Medical School Affiliated Hospital in 1937.

**Alcohol and cardiovascular disease**: Excessive alcohol intake is associated with an elevated risk of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), heart failure, some cancers, and accidental injury, and is a leading cause of preventable death in industrialized countries. However, extensive research has shown that moderate alcohol intake is associated with health benefits, including less cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, and lower all-cause mortality.

**Time-trade-off**: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:

**Outline of diabetes**: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to diabetes:

**Disease registry**: Disease or patient registries are collections of secondary data related to patients with a specific diagnosis, condition, or procedure, and they play an important role in post marketing surveillance of pharmaceuticals. Registries are different from indexes in that they contain more extensive data.

**Hospital of Southern Norway**: [[Sørlandet Hospital Arendal, seen from the north.|thumb|200px]]

**Non-communicable disease**: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.

**Regularized canonical correlation analysis**: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.

**Mayo Clinic Diet**: The Mayo Clinic Diet is a diet created by Mayo Clinic. Prior to this, use of that term was generally connected to fad diets which had no association with Mayo Clinic.

**Relative index of inequality**: The relative index of inequality (RII) is a regression-based index which summarizes the magnitude of socio-economic status (SES) as a source of inequalities in health. RII is useful because it takes into account the size of the population and the relative disadvantage experienced by different groups.

**HeartScore**: HeartScore is a cardiovascular disease risk assessment and management tool developed by the European Society of Cardiology, aimed at supporting clinicians in optimising individual cardiovascular risk reduction.

**WGAViewer**: WGAViewer is a bioinformatics software tool which is designed to visualize, annotate, and help interpret the results generated from a genome wide association study (GWAS). Alongside the P values of association, WGAViewer allows a researcher to visualize and consider other supporting evidence, such as the genomic context of the SNP, linkage disequilibrium (LD) with ungenotyped SNPs, gene expression database, and the evidence from other GWAS projects, when determining the potential importance of an individual SNP.

**Stressor**: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.

**Neighbourhood**: A neighbourhood (Commonwealth English), or neighborhood (American English), is a geographically localised community within a larger city, town, suburb or rural area. Neighbourhoods are often social communities with considerable face-to-face interaction among members.

**Occupational hygiene**: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.

**Gestational age**: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.

**Sylvain Chavanel**

**List of kanji by stroke count**: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.

**Rainbow (South Korean band)**

**The Unscrambler**: The Unscrambler® X is a commercial software product for multivariate data analysis, used for calibration of multivariate data which is often in the application of analytical data such as near infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, and development of predictive models for use in real-time spectroscopic analysis of materials. The software was originally developed in 1986 by Harald MartensHarald Martens, Terje Karstang, Tormod Næs (1987) Improved selectivity in spectroscopy by multivariate calibration Journal of Chemometrics 1(4):201-219 and later by CAMO Software.

**University of Campinas**

**Gene polymorphism**

**Breast cancer classification**: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.

**Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences (Aarhus University)**: The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences is a faculty of Aarhus University. The Aarhus Faculty of Health Sciences became a reality after Aarhus University was divided into four new main academic areas which came into effect on 1 January 2011.

**Hyperintensity**

(1/22207)

**Surgery-related factors and local recurrence of Wilms tumor in National Wilms Tumor Study 4.**

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic factors for local recurrence in Wilms tumor. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Current therapy for Wilms tumor has evolved through four studies of the National Wilms Tumor Study Group. As adverse prognostic factors were identified, treatment of children with Wilms tumor has been tailored based on these factors. Two-year relapse-free survival of children in the fourth study (NWTS-4) exceeded 91%. Factors once of prognostic import for local recurrence may lose their significance as more effective therapeutic regimens are devised. METHODS: Children evaluated were drawn from the records of NWTS-4. A total of 2482 randomized or followed patients were identified. Local recurrence, defined as recurrence in the original tumor bed, retroperitoneum, or within the abdominal cavity or pelvis, occurred in 100 children. Using a nested case-control study design, 182 matched controls were selected. Factors were analyzed for their association with local failure. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, taking into account the matching. RESULTS: The largest relative risks for local recurrence were observed in patients with stage III disease, those with unfavorable histology (especially diffuse anaplasia), and those reported to have tumor spillage during surgery. Multiple regression analysis adjusting for the combined effects of histology, lymph node involvement, and age revealed that tumor spillage remained significant. The relative risk of local recurrence from spill was largest in children with stage II disease. The absence of lymph node biopsy was also associated with an increased relative risk of recurrence, which was largest in children with stage I disease. The survival of children after local recurrence is poor, with an average survival rate at 2 years after relapse of 43%. Survival was dependent on initial stage: those who received more therapy before relapse had a worse prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that surgical rupture of the tumor must be prevented by the surgeon, because spills produce an increased risk of local relapse. Both local and diffuse spills produce this risk. Stage II children with local spill appear to require more aggressive therapy than that used in NWTS-4. The continued critical importance of lymph node sampling in conjunction with nephrectomy for Wilms tumor is also established. Absence of lymph node biopsy may result in understaging and inadequate treatment of the child and may produce an increased risk of local recurrence. (+info)

(2/22207)

**Prolonged mating in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) increases likelihood of ovulation and embryo number.**

Prairie voles are induced ovulators that mate frequently in brief bouts over a period of approximately 24 h. We examined 1) impact of mating duration on ovulation and embryo number, 2) incidence of fertilization, 3) temporal pattern of embryo development, 4) embryo progression through the reproductive tract over time, and 5) embryo development in culture. Mating was videotaped to determine first copulation, and the ovaries were examined and the reproductive tracts flushed at 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h and 2, 3, and 4 days after first copulation. The number of mature follicles and fresh corpora lutea and the number and developmental stage of embryos were quantified. One, two-, and four-cell embryos were cultured in Whitten's medium. Mature follicles were present at the earliest time examined (6 h). Thirty-eight percent of females that had been paired for < 12 h after the first copulation ovulated, whereas all females paired >/= 12 h after the first copulation ovulated. Virtually all (> 99%) oocytes recovered from females paired for >/= 12 h after first copulation were fertilized. Pairing time after first copulation and mean copulation-bout duration were significant (p < 0.05) determinants of embryo number. Embryos entered the uterine horns and implanted on Days 3 and 4, respectively, after first copulation (Day 0). Embryos cultured in vitro underwent approximately one cell division per day, a rate similar to that in vivo. We conclude that prairie voles ovulate reliably after pairing for >/= 12 h, although some females showed exceptional sensitivity not predicted by the variables quantified. Prolonged mating for longer than 12 h increased the total embryos produced. This mechanism likely has adaptive significance for increasing offspring number. (+info)

(3/22207)

**Geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic variations in the investigation and management of coronary heart disease in Scotland.**

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether age, sex, level of deprivation, and area of residence affect the likelihood of investigation and treatment of patients with coronary heart disease. DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: Routine discharge data were used to identify patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) between 1991 and 1993 inclusive. Record linkage provided the proportion undergoing angiography, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) over the following two years. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine whether age, sex, deprivation, and area of residence were independently associated with progression to investigation and revascularisation. SETTING: Mainland Scotland 1991 to 1995 inclusive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Two year incidence of angiography, PTCA, and CABG. Results-36 838 patients were admitted with AMI. 4831 (13%) underwent angiography, 587 (2%) PTCA, and 1825 (5%) CABG. Women were significantly less likely to undergo angiography (p < 0.001) and CABG (p < 0.001) but more likely to undergo PTCA (p < 0.05). Older patients were less likely to undergo all three procedures (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic deprivation was associated with a reduced likelihood of both angiography and CABG (p < 0.001). There were significant geographic variations in all three modalities (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Variations in investigation and management were demonstrated by age, sex, geography, and socioeconomic deprivation. These are unlikely to be accounted for by differences in need; differences in clinical practice are, therefore, likely. (+info)

(4/22207)

**Regional patterns of myocardial sympathetic denervation in dilated cardiomyopathy: an analysis using carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine and positron emission tomography.**

OBJECTIVE: To assess presynaptic function of cardiac autonomic innervation in patients with advanced congestive heart failure using positron emission tomography (PET) and the recently developed radiolabelled catecholamine analogue carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine (HED) as a marker for neuronal catecholamine uptake function. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 29 patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy with moderate to severe heart failure were compared with eight healthy controls. Perfusion scan was followed by HED dynamic PET imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation. The scintigraphic results were compared with markers of disease severity and the degree of sympathetic dysfunction assessed by means of heart rate variability. RESULTS: In contrast to nearly normal perfusions, mean (SD) HED retention in dilated cardiomyopathy patients was abnormal in 64 (32)% of the left ventricle. Absolute myocardial HED retention was 10.7 (1.0)%/min in controls v 6.2 (1.6)%/min in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant regional reduction of HED retention was demonstrated in apical and inferoapical segments. HED retention was significantly correlated with New York Heart Association functional class (r = -0.55, p = 0. 002) and ejection fraction (r = 0.63, p < 0.001), but not, however, with plasma noradrenaline concentrations as well as parameters of heart rate variability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, using PET in combination with HED in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, not only global reduction but also regional abnormalities of cardiac sympathetic tracer uptake were demonstrated. The degree of abnormality was positively correlated to markers of severity of heart failure. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the regional differences of neuronal damage as well as the prognostic significance of these findings remain to be defined. (+info)

(5/22207)

**QT dispersion in patients with chronic heart failure: beta blockers are associated with a reduction in QT dispersion.**

OBJECTIVE: To compare QT dispersion in patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function and in matched control patients with normal left ventricular systolic function. DESIGN: A retrospective, case-control study with controls matched 4:1 for age, sex, previous myocardial infarction, and diuretic and beta blocker treatment. SETTING: A regional cardiology centre and a university teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 25 patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function and 100 patients with normal left ventricular systolic function. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: QT and QTc dispersion measured by three methods: the difference between maximum and minimum QT and QTc intervals, the standard deviation of QT and QTc intervals, and the "lead adjusted" QT and QTc dispersion. RESULTS: All measures of QT/QTc dispersion were closely interrelated (r values 0.86 to 0.99; all p < 0.001). All measures of QT and QTc dispersion were significantly increased in the patients with impaired left ventricular systolic function v controls (p < 0.001): 71.9 (6.5) (mean (SEM)) v 46.9 (1.7) ms for QT dispersion, and 83.6 (7.6) v 54.3 (2.1) ms(-1-2) for QTc dispersion. All six dispersion parameters were reduced in patients taking beta blockers (p < 0.05), regardless of whether left ventricular function was normal or impaired-by 9.4 (4.6) ms for QT dispersion (p < 0.05) and by 13.8 (6. 5) ms(-1-2) for QTc dispersion (p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: QT and QTc dispersion are increased in patients with systolic heart failure in comparison with matched controls, regardless of the method of measurement and independently of possible confounding factors. beta Blockers are associated with a reduction in both QT and QTc dispersion, raising the possibility that a reduction in dispersion of ventricular repolarisation may be an important antiarrhythmic mechanism of beta blockade. (+info)

(6/22207)

**Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression.**

Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification. (+info)

(7/22207)

**Microvascular function relates to insulin sensitivity and blood pressure in normal subjects.**

BACKGROUND: A strong but presently unexplained inverse association between blood pressure and insulin sensitivity has been reported. Microvascular vasodilator capacity may be a common antecedent linking insulin sensitivity to blood pressure. To test this hypothesis, we studied 18 normotensive and glucose-tolerant subjects showing a wide range in insulin sensitivity as assessed with the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamp technique. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure was measured by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Videomicroscopy was used to measure skin capillary density and capillary recruitment after arterial occlusion. Skin blood flow responses after iontophoresis of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside were evaluated by laser Doppler flowmetry. Insulin sensitivity correlated with 24-hour systolic blood pressure (24-hour SBP; r=-0.50, P<0.05). Capillary recruitment and acetylcholine-mediated vasodilatation were strongly and positively related to insulin sensitivity (r=0.84, P<0.001; r=0.78, P<0.001, respectively), and capillary recruitment was inversely related to 24-hour SBP (r=-0.53, P<0.05). Waist-to-hip ratio showed strong associations with insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and the measures of microvascular function but did not confound the associations between these variables. Subsequent regression analysis showed that the association between insulin sensitivity and blood pressure was not independent of the estimates of microvascular function, and part of the variation in both blood pressure (R2=38%) and insulin sensitivity (R2=71%) could be explained by microvascular function. CONCLUSIONS: Insulin sensitivity and blood pressure are associated well within the physiological range. Microvascular function strongly relates to both, consistent with a central role in linking these variables. (+info)

(8/22207)

**Modeling breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting.**

This paper presents a mathematical model to predict breathing-zone concentrations of airborne contaminants generated during compressed air spray painting in cross-flow ventilated booths. The model focuses on characterizing the generation and transport of overspray mist. It extends previous work on conventional spray guns to include exposures generated by HVLP guns. Dimensional analysis and scale model wind-tunnel studies are employed using non-volatile oils, instead of paint, to produce empirical equations for estimating exposure to total mass. Results indicate that a dimensionless breathing zone concentration is a nonlinear function of the ratio of momentum flux of air from the spray gun to the momentum flux of air passing through the projected area of the worker's body. The orientation of the spraying operation within the booth is also very significant. The exposure model requires an estimate of the contaminant generation rate, which is approximated by a simple impactor model. The results represent an initial step in the construction of more realistic models capable of predicting exposure as a mathematical function of the governing parameters. (+info)

#### covers linear regression

- have completed a course in statistics that covers linear regression and logistic regression, which you can achieve by completing the Statistics 1: Introduction to ANOVA, Regression, and Logistic Regression course. (sas.com)
- Chapter 1 covers linear regression analysis including regression with an interaction, multiple-group analysis, missing data on covariates, and heteroscedasticity modeling. (statmodel.com)

#### logistic regression

- Please see the schedule for the new Categorical Data Analysis Using Logistic Regression course. (sas.com)

#### Correlation

- or Excel when performing a linear regression , correlation or multiple regressions . (brainmass.com)
- For the above data, do a correlation and regression analysis to predict restaurant chain sales by its number of units. (brainmass.com)
- Step by step method for correlation and regression analysis for cost of construction. (brainmass.com)
- This solution mainly discussed the Correlation Matrix and Regression Analysis . (brainmass.com)
- the calculation of correlation coefficient, correlation testing and regression analysis . (brainmass.com)
- In addition to several intuitive interaction capabilities, this framework offers a rich set of graphical statistical indicators, interactive regression analysis, visual correlation mining, automated axis arrangements and filtering, and data classification techniques. (unt.edu)

#### categorical

- Chapter 5 covers regression analysis for categorical dependent variables including binary, ordinal, and nominal variables. (statmodel.com)

#### ordinal

- Chapter 8 covers causal inference for mediation analysis with a binary outcome and a continuous mediator, a count outcome and a continuous mediator, a two- part outcome and a continuous mediator, a binary and an ordinal mediator, a nominal mediator, and a mediator with measurement error. (statmodel.com)

#### dependent variables

- 1) Explain how we test independent against dependent variables in a regression analysis ? (brainmass.com)

#### statistical

- Meta-analysis is the statistical analysis of previously published, or reported, research findings on a given hypothesis, empirical effect, phenomenon, or policy intervention. (routledge.com)

#### outcomes

- 16 Meta-analysis allows one to (1) improve power for primary outcomes and subgroup analyses, (2) help resolve uncertainty when studies disagree, (3) improve estimates of treatment effectiveness, and (4) answer questions not posed at the start of individual trials. (ahajournals.org)

#### Excel

- Using Excel,develop a multiple regression equation for these data. (brainmass.com)
- Supplemented with EXCEL output, this step-by-step explanation of this complicated topic provides students with a clear perspective of Regression Analysis. (brainmass.com)

#### Conclusions

- 16 Meta-analysis is a quantitative approach in which individual studies addressing a common problem are statistically combined to arrive at conclusions about a body of research. (ahajournals.org)

#### linear

- 1. The following results were obtained as part of a simple linear regression analysis . (brainmass.com)
- Develop a linear regression model for these data and forecast carpet sales if 30 constructive permits for new homes are filed. (brainmass.com)

#### develop

- Using the attached spreadsheet help develop the following 3 regressions . (brainmass.com)

#### sensitivity

- These include Monte Carlo simulation studies of mediation and moderated mediation, model misspecification due to omitted variables and confounders, instrumental variable estimation, sensitivity analysis, multiple group analysis of moderated mediation, and measurement error. (statmodel.com)

#### methods

- However, research in economics and business is often fundamentally different from what is found in the sciences and thereby requires different methods for its synthesis-meta-regression analysis. (routledge.com)

#### Approach

- However, a need exists for additional studies that limit enrollment to hypertensive subjects as well as analysis of data with an intention-to-treat approach before the effectiveness of progressive resistance exercise as a nonpharmacological intervention can be determined. (ahajournals.org)

#### summaries

- This Study Guide consists of approximately 39 pages of chapter summaries, quotes, character analysis, themes, and more - everything you need to sharpen your knowledge of Friedman's Fables. (bookrags.com)
- This book does not attempt to replace these books but rather to give useful and manageable summaries of these topics and show how the analyses are implemented in Mplus. (statmodel.com)

#### Search

- Find more on Regression analysis Or get search suggestion and latest updates . (dailyfreecode.com)

#### Models

- Chapter 6 covers regression analysis for a count dependent variable including the following models: Poisson, Poisson with a random intercept, zero-inflated Poisson, negative binomial, zero-inflated negative binomial, two-part (hurdle) with zero-truncation, and varying-exposure. (statmodel.com)
- Chapter 7 covers regression analysis for a censored dependent variable including the following models: censored-normal (tobit), censored-inflated, sample selection (Heckman), two-part, and switching regressions. (statmodel.com)

#### meta-analysis

- The purpose of this book is to introduce novice researchers to the tools of meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis and to summarize the state of the art for existing practitioners. (routledge.com)

#### Topics

- Chapter 3 covers special topics in mediation analysis that are not normally found in books on mediation analysis. (statmodel.com)

#### example

- Give an example of how regression analysis can be used in your work to make a business decision. (brainmass.com)
- Concentrating on Panola College regression analysis, for example, you may gain an advantage in corporate job recruiting on-campus. (panolacollege.net)

#### Find

- Find information about Panola College regression analysis, and registering for discussion sections. (panolacollege.net)

#### Multiple

- 1. Conduct a regression analysis and a multivariate multiple regression analysis using the data in the table. (brainmass.com)

#### Data Analysis

- Data Analysis and Decision Making - Imagine you are a real estate investor presented with a regression analysis of home sales in the neighborhood of one of your investment properties. (brainmass.com)
- and missing data analysis have entire books devoted to them. (statmodel.com)

#### Statistics

- Statistics Questions - Regression Analysis . (brainmass.com)
- The technical level is kept at a minimum but still requires an introductory statistics background and a good background in regression. (statmodel.com)

#### help

- 0.0354 -0.0309 0.0001 0.047029 0.046929 Need help constructing a regression analysis . (brainmass.com)

#### perform

- We perform a regression analysis . (brainmass.com)

#### basic

- Hi, this is an interesting problem to teach you about very basic regression analysis . (brainmass.com)

#### business

- Meta-regression analysis addresses the rising "Tower of Babel" that current economics and business research has become. (routledge.com)

#### power

- After reading the previous discussion on the rumored 8:02 M3 time, and the recent discussion on the 7:38 GT-R time, I did a regression analysis for weight/power vs. ring laptimes. (m3post.com)

#### course

- Check with the mathematics department for course registration deadlines, and regression theory program requirements. (panolacollege.net)

#### chapter

- Chapter 2 covers mediation analysis with a continuous mediator and a continuous outcome including moderated mediation. (statmodel.com)
- Chapter 4 covers causal inference based on counterfactuals for mediation analysis with a continuous mediator and a continuous outcome. (statmodel.com)
- Chapter 9 discusses Bayesian analysis and uses it to estimate several mediation examples which show how it can be used as an alternative to maximum likelihood estimation. (statmodel.com)

#### shown

- A total of 140 analyses are shown. (statmodel.com)