Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Regional Medical Programs: Coordination of activities and programs among health care institutions within defined geographic areas for the purpose of improving delivery and quality of medical care to the patients. These programs are mandated under U.S. Public Law 89-239.Health Information Systems: A system for the collection and/or processing of data from various sources, and using the information for policy making and management of health services. It could be paper-based or electronic. (From http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTHEALTHNUTRITIONANDPOPULATION/EXTHSD/0,,contentMDK:22239824~menuPK:376799~pagePK:148956~piPK:216618~theSitePK:376793,00.html. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/en/)Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.IdahoEnglandPublic Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Manitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Alberta: A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Great BritainPrimary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).ItalyEnvironmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.BrazilHealth Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.United StatesHealth Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Health Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Prepaid Health Plans: Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Health Transition: Demographic and epidemiologic changes that have occurred in the last five decades in many developing countries and that are characterized by major growth in the number and proportion of middle-aged and elderly persons and in the frequency of the diseases that occur in these age groups. The health transition is the result of efforts to improve maternal and child health via primary care and outreach services and such efforts have been responsible for a decrease in the birth rate; reduced maternal mortality; improved preventive services; reduced infant mortality, and the increased life expectancy that defines the transition. (From Ann Intern Med 1992 Mar 15;116(6):499-504)Occupational Health Nursing: The practice of nursing in the work environment.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Social Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Dental Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to dental or oral health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.National Health Insurance, United StatesEmployment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Medically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Health Education, Dental: Education which increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of dental health on a personal or community basis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Personal Health Services: Health care provided to individuals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Health Facility Administration: Management of the organization of HEALTH FACILITIES.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.

*  Regional Public Health Plan | Alexandrina Council

Regional Public Health Plan. Live , Environmental Health , Regional Public Health Plan. Under the Public Health Act 2011, ... Alexandrina Council participated in a regional partnership to develop a regional public health plan with Southern and Hills ... councils are required to have an approved regional public health plan.. ... The plan consists of a background report with supporting research and a directions report which includes action plans specific ...
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*  Health Insurance: Choosing the Plan That's Right for You | Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point | Hudson, FL

Choosing the Plan That's Right for You at Regional Medical Center Bayonet Point Whether you are buying insurance or your ... Different Types of Plans. There is a large and confusing variety of health plans available. Most of them fall into 3 basic ... Mental health and substance-abuse coverage varies widely among plans.. *Does the plan cover other healthcare options that you ... Common Points Among Plans. Generally, health plans will cover only those products and services they deem as medically necessary ...
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*  Planning a Safe Summer Camping Trip | LewisGale Regional Health System

Learn more about Planning a Safe Summer Camping Trip at LewisGale Regional Health System For many people, warm weather means ... Arrive early. Plan to arrive at your destination early. Arriving when there is still plenty of daylight will allow you to get a ... With careful planning, you can have a safe camping trip that will lead to an enjoyable experience for everyone. ... Camping health and safety tips and packing checklist. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https ...
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*  Strategic Management as a tool for Italian NHS policies: the implementation of Regional Health Services' "cost-cutting" plans. ...

Strategic Management as a tool for Italian NHS policies: the implementation of Regional Health Services' "cost-cutting" plans. ... Strategic Management as a tool for Italian NHS policies: the implementation of Regional Health Services' "cost-cutting" plans. ...
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Regional Health Improvement Plan Council 9:00 am - 12:00 pm 17 October 2017 ... SW Washington Accountable Community of Health Board 9:00 am - 12:00 pm ...
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8114 Regional Health Planning. *7629 National Health Programs. *. дальше Дата выпуска. *65903 2000 - 2017 ... Regional strategy for the improvement of civil registration and vital statistics systems. ( 2013 ). ... Provisional agenda for and duration of the thirty-fourth World Health Assembly: draft preliminary daily timetable for the ... and is significantly higher than in other Member States of the World Health Organization's Eastern Mediterranean Region. Urdu- ...
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12 Regional Health Planning. *11 Malaria. *9 Developing Countries. *9 Economic Development ... Regional Committee for Africa: report on sixth session. Executive Board, 19 ( 1956 ). ... breakdown of estimated costs of regional office and field activities in 1957 and 1958. Executive Board, 19 ( 1957 ). ...
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*  WHO IRIS: Home

8114 Regional Health Planning. *7628 National Health Programs. *. Next Issue date. *65887 2000 - 2017 ... Together on the road to universal health coverage: a call to action. World Health Organization. ... Fifty-fifth World Health Assembly, Geneva, 13-18 May 2002: verbatim records of plenary meetings and list of participants = ...
apps.who.int/iris/?locale=en

*  Library | PolicyLink

Regional Planning for Health Equity. This brief introduces strategies for planning for health equity at a regional scale and ... It draws from the experiences of regional equity coalitions and metropolitan planning organizations to identify five important ... and presents ways in which those involved in local and regional planning can achieve EJ in their communities. ... and presents ways in which those involved in local and regional planning can achieve EJ in their communities. ...
policylink.org/FindResources/Library?f[0]=field_resource_category:538&f[1]=field_resource_type:69

*  Library | PolicyLink

Regional Planning for Health Equity. This brief introduces strategies for planning for health equity at a regional scale and ... It draws from the experiences of regional equity coalitions and metropolitan planning organizations to identify five important ... Strategies for Health-Care Workforce Development. This brief identifies a number of promising programs and practices in the ... People need to live in places where they can get a good job; feel safe; be near quality schools, health clinics, libraries, ...
policylink.org/FindResources/Library?f[1]=field_resource_category:538

*  Contra Costa Health Plan Dermatologists: Book Online By Insurance, Reviews & ZIP

Dermatologists that take Contra Costa Health Plan, See Reviews and Book Online Instantly. It's free! All appointment times are ... Dermatologists and other providers in Wichita, KS , Contra Costa Health Plan - Regional Medical Center Network ...
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*  UAB - Archives - Heath Science Subjects

Alabama Regional Medical Program Records, John M. Packard Files, MC62. Birmingham Regional Health Planning Commission Records, ... Community Health Planning Commission Records, MC54. Health Organizations Collection, MC29. Heldman, Max, Original Drawings from ... Jefferson County Health Department Scrapbooks, MC32 Jenner, Edward, Letter, MC85. Kimbrough, Thomas G., Collection, MC106. ... Jefferson County Health Department Scrapbooks, MC32. Jefferson County Medical Society Archives Reprint Files, MC53. Jefferson ...
uab.edu/archives/collections/manu-coll/139-hssubj

*  Research | Institute for Child Health Policy | NSU

Funded by the Health Foundation of South Florida and the Broward Regional Health Planning Council (BRHCP) (2006), the Institute ... Our partners and collaborators include the Broward Regional Health Planning Council, Broward Health System (NBHD) and the ... Broward Regional Health Planning Council and the Institute for Child Health Policy at Nova Southeastern University. ... The PQI is a program developed under the leadership of Broward Regional Health Planning Council (BRHPC) to help reduce ...
nova.edu/ichp/research/index.html

*  ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆಯ ಸರದಿ ನಿರ್ಧಾರ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ

"Code Orange Plan (Assiniboine Regional Health Authority)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-12-05. Retrieved 2008 ... "Chapter 8: Clinical and Public Health Systems Issues Arising from the Outbreak of Sars in Toronto (Public Health Agency of ... Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 25. ISBN 0-7817-6262-6.. CS1 maint: Multiple names: ...
https://kn.wikipedia.org/wiki/ಚಿಕಿತ್ಸೆಯ_ಸರದಿ_ನಿರ್ಧಾರ

*  Court Confirmed Validity of Termination of Agreement to Operate a Residential Care Facility - Lexology

Injunction application in relation to the termination of agreement to operate a residential care facility pursuant to Health ... pursuant to the Health Authorities Act to implement a regional health plan and allocate funding for the delivery of health ... Fraser Health Authority determined it wanted to assign the beds allocated to Burquitlam to the third party and requested ... The Fraser Health Authority advised Burquitlam that it would be issuing a 365-day notice to terminate the agreement. ...
https://lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=b974a2c1-bee1-4f8c-8c10-aae4d615f56d

*  Kaiser Permanente Salary | PayScale

Kaiser Permanente is made up of three distinct groups of entities: the Kaiser Foundation Health Plan and its regional operating ...
https://payscale.com/research/US/Employer=Kaiser_Permanente/Salary

*  Bariatric surgery Risks - Mayo Clinic

Check with your health insurance plan or your regional Medicare or Medicaid office to find out if your policy covers such ... You may also need to prepare by planning ahead for your recovery after surgery. For instance, arrange for help at home if you ... Your BMI is 35 to 39.9 (obesity), and you have a serious weight-related health problem, such as type 2 diabetes, high blood ... If a weight-loss procedure doesn't work right or stops working, you may not lose weight and you may develop serious health ...
mayoclinic.org/tests-procedures/bariatric-surgery/basics/risks/prc-20019138?mc_id=comlinkpilot&placement=bottom&p=1

*  SelectedWorks - Thomas Wuerzer

In consultation with the Central District Health Department, the Community and Regional Planning program conducted a bike share ... In consultation with the Central District Health Department, the Community and Regional Planning program conducted a bike share ... Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Wildfires, Planning for Fire, Land Use Planning, Smart Growth and Growth Management, and ... As part of a larger interdisciplinary study on "Fire, GIS, and Planning" we seek to provide the fire-planning resources needed ...
https://works.bepress.com/thomas_wuerzer/

*  Norwalk, California - Wikipedia

It serves the public and other County departments such as the Assessor, Health Services, Public Social Services and Regional ... Planning. The office processes 2 million real and personal property documents and 750,000 birth, death and marriage records ... The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Whittier Health Center in Whittier, serving Norwalk.[23] ... "Whittier Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010. ...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norwalk,_California

*  Long-term central venous catheter complications reviewed

Regional and health plan variation in long-term CVC insertion suggests that some of their use reflects provider- or institution ... health plans (65% to 70%), and insurance coverage (63% to 68%). After propensity score matching, the adjusted hazard ratio for ... METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using health insurance claims between January 2006 and October 2013. The ...
ivteam.com/intravenous-literature/long-term-central-venous-catheter-complications-reviewed/

*  Medicaid Health Plans of America Jobs & Careers | Monster.com

Examine the company profile of Medicaid Health Plans of America and learn about Medicaid Health Plans of America jobs and ... Regional Tanker Truck Driver Up to $12,000 Sign-on Bonus Schneider Athens, GA ...
https://monster.com/jobs/search/Medicaid__20Health__20Plans__20of__20America_6

*  CONTESTS 16 MAY 2009

009276 KAUSER R, SHAHEEN R, SALEEM-UR-REHMAN (Regional Institute of Health and Family Planning Dhobiwan, Kashmir. , E-Mail : ... 009596 NAIDU L G K, VADIVELU S (National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning, Regional Centre, Bellary Road. , Hebbal, ... Probiotics in health - A bug for what is bugging you. JK Sci 2007 , 9(3), 116-19. 009325 OM PRAKASH, SINGH J (A.H. & Dairying ... Regional Research Station, Uchani, Karna-131 001) : Efficacy of non-purine and purine cytokinins on shoot regeneration in vitro ...
niscair.res.in/sciencecommunication/AbstractingJournals/isa/isa2k9/isa_16may09.asp

*  High Point Regional Health SystemNews

He attended the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing, China and plans to attend the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in the United ... REGIONAL HEALTH FOUNDATION RECEIVES GRANT FROM DELTA DENTAL TO EXPAND HEALTH EDUCATION PROGRAMMING AT MILLIS REGIONAL HEALTH ... Step Into Better Health with High Point Regional - Free Community Health Event for Women and Men. 4/24/2014. ... High Point Regional Named 2014 HEALTHSTRONG Hospital. 6/10/2014. High Point Regional has been named by iVantage Health ...
highpointregional.com/NewsListing.aspx?id=545

*  acronynms - Genesee Finger Lakes Regional Planning Council

NYS DOH New York State Department of Health. NYS DOT New York State Department of Transportation. NYSERDA New York State Energy ... STERPDB Southern Tier East Regional Planning & Development Board. STCRPDB Southern Tier Central Regional Planning & Development ... G/FLRPC Genesee/Finger Lakes Regional Planning Council. GOSC Governors Office for Small Cities. GPS Global Positioning System. ... CNYRPDB Central New York Regional Planning & Development Board. COB Close of Business. COMIDA County of Monroe Industrial ...
gflrpc.org/acronynms.html

*  Regional Director Jobs in Austin, TX | Glassdoor

395 open jobs in Austin for Regional Director. Average Salary: $100,003. ... Regional Medical Director. FirstCare Health Plans. Austin, TX. $158k-$251k. Regional Director. Manpower Solutions. Austin, TX. ... regional director of operations, regional manager, regional sales director, regional operations manager, district manager, ... Top Companies for regional director in Austin, TX: General Assembly, Trupanion, HomeAway, FirstCare Health Plans, Synergy ...
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Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Global Health Delivery ProjectSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lost streams of IdahoRed Moss, Greater Manchester: Red Moss is a wetland mossland in Greater Manchester, located south of Horwich and east of Blackrod. (Grid Reference ).Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Manitoba Chess Association: The Manitoba Chess Association, headquartered in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada is the official organization for rated chess tournaments in Manitoba.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: The Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS®) provides clinicians and researchers access to reliable, valid, and flexible measures of health status that assess physical, mental, and social well–being from the patient perspective. PROMIS measures are standardized, allowing for assessment of many patient-reported outcome domains—including pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical functioning and social role participation—based on common metrics that allow for comparisons across domains, across chronic diseases, and with the general population.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Acknowledgement (data networks): In data networking, an acknowledgement (or acknowledgment) is a signal passed between communicating processes or computers to signify acknowledgement, or receipt of response, as part of a communications protocol. For instance, ACK packets are used in the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) to acknowledge the receipt of SYN packets when establishing a connection, data packets while a connection is being used, and FIN packets when terminating a connection.Integrated catchment management: Integrated catchment management is a subset of environmental planning which approaches sustainable resource management from a catchment perspective, in contrast to a piecemeal approach that artificially separates land management from water management.Alberta Hospital EdmontonNational Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Halfdan T. MahlerToyota NZ engine: The Toyota NZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The 1NZ series uses aluminum engine blocks and DOHC cylinder heads.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Triangle of death (Italy): The triangle of death (Italian: Triangolo della morte) is an area in the Italian province of Campania comprising the municipalities of Acerra, Nola and Marigliano. The region has recently experienced increasing deaths caused by cancer and other diseases that exceeds the Italian national average.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Referral (medicine): In medicine, referral is the transfer of care for a patient from one clinician to another.García Olmos L, Gervas Camacho J, Otero A, Pérez Fernández M.Standard evaluation frameworkWHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Canadian Organ Replacement Registry: The Canadian Organ Replacement Registry CORR is a health organisation was started by Canadian nephrologists and kidney transplant surgeons in 1985 in order to develop the care of patients with renal failure. In the early 1990s data on liver and heart transplantation were added to the registry.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.University of CampinasComprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Minati SenList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Northeast Community Health CentreIncidence (epidemiology): Incidence is a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator.Maternal Health Task ForceDenplanBasic Occupational Health Services: The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year 1978 as the “essential health care based on practical scientifically sound and socially accepted methods, (…) it is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work (…)”.

(1/273) Strengthening health management: experience of district teams in The Gambia.

The lack of basic management skills of district-level health teams is often described as a major constraint to implementation of primary health care in developing countries. To improve district-level management in The Gambia, a 'management strengthening' project was implemented in two out of the three health regions. Against a background of health sector decentralization policy the project had two main objectives: to improve health team management skills and to improve resources management under specially-trained administrators. The project used a problem-solving and participatory strategy for planning and implementing activities. The project resulted in some improvements in the management of district-level health services, particularly in the quality of team planning and coordination, and the management of the limited available resources. However, the project demonstrated that though health teams had better management skills and systems, their effectiveness was often limited by the policy and practice of the national level government and donor agencies. In particular, they were limited by the degree to which decision making was centralized on issues of staffing, budgeting, and planning, and by the extent to which national level managers have lacked skills and motivation for management change. They were also limited by the extent to which donor-supported programmes were still based on standardized models which did not allow for varying and complex environments at district level. These are common problems despite growing advocacy for more devolution of decision making to the local level.  (+info)

(2/273) Improving the quality of health care through contracting: a study of health authority practice.

OBJECTIVES: To investigate approaches of district health authorities to quality in contracting. DESIGN: Descriptive survey. SETTING: All district health authorities in one health region of England in a National Health Service accounting year. MATERIAL: 129 quality specifications used in contracting for services in six specialties (eight general quality specifications and 121 service specific quality specifications) MAIN MEASURES: Evaluation of the use of quality specifications; their scope and content in relation to established criteria of healthcare quality. RESULTS: Most district health authorities developed quality specifications which would be applicable to their local hospital. When purchasing care outside their boundaries they adopted the quality specifications developed by other health authorities. The service specific quality specifications were more limited in scope than the general quality specifications. The quality of clinical care was referred to in 75% of general and 43% of service specific quality specifications. Both types of specification considered quality issues in superficial and broad terms only. Established features of quality improvement were rarely included. Prerequisites to ensure provider accountability and satisfactory delivery of service specifications were not routinely included in contracts. CONCLUSION: Quality specifications within service contracts are commonly used by health authorities. This study shows that their use of this approach to quality improvement is inconsistent and unlikely to achieve desired quality goals. Continued reliance on the current approach is holding back a more fundamental debate on how to create effective management of quality improvement through the interaction between purchasers and providers of health care.  (+info)

(3/273) Health authority commissioning for quality in contraception services.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the commissioning of contraception services by London health authorities with accepted models of good practice. DESIGN: Combined interview and postal surveys of all health authorities and National Health Service (NHS) trusts responsible for running family planning clinics in the Greater London area. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Health authority commissioning was assessed on the presence of four key elements of good practice--strategies, coordination, service specifications, and quality standards in contracts--by monitoring activity and quality. RESULTS: Less than half the health authorities surveyed had written strategies or service specifications for contraception services. Arrangements for coordination of services were limited and monitoring was underdeveloped. CONCLUSION: The process of commissioning services for contraception seems to be relatively underdeveloped despite the importance of health problems associated with unplanned pregnancy in London. These findings raise questions about the capacity of health authorities to improve the quality of these services through the commissioning process.  (+info)

(4/273) Developing a model to reduce blindness in India: The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care.

With the continuing high magnitude of blindness in India, fresh approaches are needed to effectively deal with this burden on society. The International Centre for Advancement of Rural Eye Care (ICARE) has been established at the L.V. Prasad Eye Institute in Hyderabad to develop such an approach. This paper describes how ICARE functions to meet its objective. The three major functions of ICARE are design and implementation of rural eye-care centres, human resource development for eye care, and community eye-health planning. ICARE works with existing eye-care centres, as well as those being planned, in underserved areas of India and other parts of the developing world. The approach being developed by ICARE, along with its partners, to reduce blindness is that of comprehensive eye care with due emphasis on preventive, curative and rehabilitative aspects. This approach involves the community in which blindness is sought to be reduced by understanding how the people perceive eye health and the barriers to eye care, thereby enabling development of strategies to prevent blindness. Emphasis is placed on providing good-quality eye care with attention to reasonable infrastructure and equipment, developing a resource of adequately trained eye-care professionals of all cadres, developing a professional environment satisfactory for patients as well as eye-care providers, and the concept of good management and financial self-sustainability. Community-based rehabilitation of those with incurable blindness is also part of this approach. ICARE plans to work intensively with its partners and develop these concepts further, thereby effectively bringing into practice the concept of comprehensive eye care for the community in underserved parts of India, and later in other parts of the developing world. In addition, ICARE is involved in assessing the current situation regarding the various aspects of blindness through well-designed epidemiologic studies, and projecting the eye-care needs for the future with the help of reliable information. With balanced attention to infrastructure, manpower, financial self-sustenance, and future planning, ICARE intends to develop a practical model to effectively reduce blindness in India on a long-term basis.  (+info)

(5/273) Changing patterns of resource allocation in a London teaching district.

The health plans of the Tower Hamlets district management team were studied to determine what effects the report of the Resource Allocation Working Party and the White Paper "Priorities in the Health and Social Services" have had on resource allocation in a teaching district. The study showed that at present acute services are allocated a greater proportion of the district budget than occurs nationally, while geriatrics, mental health, and community services receive proportionately less. In the next three years spending on acute services is expected to decrease, while spending on geriatric facilities and community services will increase. Nevertheless, cuts in acute services will take place mainly through a reduction in the number of beds serving a community function, concentrating all acute services in the teaching hospital. Services to the district might be better maintained by creating a community hospital to meet the needs of patients who would otherwise need to be accommodated in acute beds with unnecessarily expensive support services.  (+info)

(6/273) An experience of utilization review in Europe: sequel to a BIOMED project.

OBJECTIVE: To develop and test a utilization review screening tool for use in European hospitals. SETTING: In 1993 a group of researchers financed by a European Union grant reviewed the use of utilization review in Europe. They quickly noticed a lack of specifically designed instruments able to take into account the health care and cultural differences across Europe, and available for use in different health care systems. Hence, they embarked upon the task of developing and testing a utilization review screening tool for use in European hospitals. RESULTS: The European Union-Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol's list of reasons was developed and assessed. This is a common taxonomy that classifies days identified as unnecessary and provides a list of levels of care to identify patients' needs. This new protocol not only substitutes for the multiple previous local versions of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol, but will also facilitate comparisons of the varying experiences in European countries. MAIN FINDINGS: Development of utilization review in Europe has been carried out mostly on a voluntary basis and the main objective was not control. The experience varies widely: from France, where utilization review is still developing and research has been implemented by local teams, to Portugal, where utilization review programmes have been initiated by government authorities. At this point different initiatives in quality improvement, and more specifically in utilization review, are being developed within the European context.  (+info)

(7/273) Introducing management principles into the supply and distribution of medicines in Tunisia.

A number of strategies have been proposed by various organizations and governments for rationalizing the use of drugs in developing countries. Such strategies include the use of essential drug lists, generic prescribing, and training in rational prescribing. None of these require doctors to become actively involved in the management of the drug supply to their health centres. In 1997, in the Kasserine region of Tunisia, the regional health authorities piloted a radically different strategy. This involved the theoretical allocation of a proportion of the regional drug budget to each district and subsequently to each health centre according to estimated demand. Medical staff were given responsibility for the management of these budgets, allowing them to control the nature and quantities of drugs supplied to the health centres in which they worked. This paper outlines the process by which this strategy was successfully implemented in the Foussana district of Kasserine region, and explores the problems encountered. It describes now the theoretical budgets were allocated to each district and how the costs of individual drugs and the consumption of drugs in the previous year were calculated. It then continues by giving an account of the training of the staff of the health centres, the preparation of a drug order form and the method of allocation of the theoretical budgets to each of the health centres. The results give an account of how the prescribing habits of doctors were changed as a result of the strategy, in order to take into account the costs of the drugs that they prescribed. They show how the health centres were able to manage their budgets, spending overall 99.8% of the budget allocated to the district. They outline some of the changes in the prescribing habits that took place, demonstrating a greater use of appropriate and essential drugs. The paper concludes that doctors and paramedical staff can successfully manage a theoretical drug budget, and that their involvement in this process leads to more rational prescribing within existing resource constraints. This has a consequence of benefiting patients, satisfying doctors and pleasing administrators.  (+info)

(8/273) Family planning funding through four federal-state programs, FY 1997.

CONTEXT: The maternal and child health (MCH) and the social services block grants have long played an important role in the provision of family planning services in the United States. The extent to which states have incorporated family planning services into the newer federally funded, but state-controlled, programs--Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP)--has yet to be identified. METHODS: The health and social services agencies in all U.S. states, the District of Columbia and five federal jurisdictions were queried regarding their family planning expenditures and activities through the MCH and social services block grants and the TANF program in FY 1997. In addition, the states' CHIP plans were analyzed following their approval by the federal government. Because of differences in methodology, these findings cannot be compared with those of previous attempts to determine public expenditures for contraceptive services and supplies. RESULTS: In FY 1997, 42 states, the District of Columbia and two federal jurisdictions spent $41 million on family planning through the MCH program. Fifteen states reported spending $27 million through the social services block grant. Most of these jurisdictions indicated that they provide direct patient care services, most frequently contraceptive services and supplies. Indirect services--most often population-based efforts such as outreach and public education--were reported to have been provided more often through the MCH program than through the social services program. MCH block grant funds were more likely to go to local health departments, while social services block grant funds were more likely to be channeled through Planned Parenthood affiliates. Four states reported family planning activities funded under TANF in FY 1997, the first year of the program's operation. Virtually all state plans for the implementation of the CHIP program appear to include coverage of family planning services and supplies for the adolescents covered under the program, even when not specifically required to do so by federal law. CONCLUSIONS: Joining two existing--but frequently overlooked--block grants, two new, largely state-controlled programs are poised to become important sources of support for publicly funded family planning services. Now more than ever, supporters of family planning services need to look beyond the traditional sources of support--Title X and Medicaid--as well as beyond the federal level to the states, where important program decisions are increasingly being made.  (+info)



preferred provider orga


  • Managed care plans include health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and preferred provider organizations (PPOs). (rmchealth.com)

council


  • Alexandrina Council participated in a regional partnership to develop a regional public health plan with Southern and Hills Local Government Association. (sa.gov.au)
  • The plan consists of a background report with supporting research and a directions report which includes action plans specific to each participating council. (sa.gov.au)

Generally


  • Generally, health plans will cover only those products and services they deem as medically necessary, such as preventive care, medications and needed surgery. (rmchealth.com)
  • The application, and Burquitlam's claim generally, was not about whether the Fraser Health Authority was taking the best steps to meet the public's needs pursuant to its statutory authority. (lexology.com)

care


  • Most of them fall into 3 basic categories: indemnity, managed care, and health savings accounts. (rmchealth.com)
  • Managed care plans may provide payment only for doctors, labs, clinics, and hospitals within the plan's network. (rmchealth.com)
  • Some plans require that you select a primary care doctor, whose referral you must obtain before the plan will cover you to see a specialist. (rmchealth.com)
  • This brief identifies a number of promising programs and practices in the health-care sector that promotes access to economic opportunities for people of color and other individuals facing barriers to opportunity. (policylink.org)
  • Over 20 health care centers and services for the community. (nova.edu)
  • This meeting's purpose was to gain input into the development of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy on 1) reducing HIV incidence among youth, 2) increasing access to care and optimizing health outcomes for youth, and 3) reducing HIV-related health disparities. (nova.edu)
  • HIV community planning is an ongoing and ever evolving process whereby state and local HIV prevention and care organizations share responsibilities for developing a comprehensive HIV prevention and care plan with other state and local agencies, community based organizations and representatives of communities and groups at risk for or affected by HIV. (nova.edu)
  • Injunction application in relation to the termination of agreement to operate a residential care facility pursuant to Health Authorities Act . (lexology.com)
  • The agreement provided that it shall remain in force as long as Burquitlam continued to operate a health care facility, subject to either party giving the other 365 days' written notice that the agreement is to end. (lexology.com)
  • If you qualify for gastric bypass or other weight-loss surgeries, your health care team gives you instructions on how to prepare for your specific type of surgery. (mayoclinic.org)

insurance


  • Whether you are buying insurance or your company is offering you a selection, you need to know how much health insurance you can afford each month, what amount you can pay out of pocket, and what services you need. (rmchealth.com)
  • When there were only one or two insurance plans to choose from, medical decisions were left entirely up to doctors and other health professionals. (rmchealth.com)
  • Increasingly, however, providers are facing the fact that they must participate in multiple insurance plans to stay in business, which is increasing the choice of providers. (rmchealth.com)
  • Check with your health insurance plan or your regional Medicare or Medicaid office to find out if your policy covers such surgery. (mayoclinic.org)
  • METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using health insurance claims between January 2006 and October 2013. (ivteam.com)

services


  • Strategic Management as a tool for Italian NHS policies: the implementation of Regional Health Services' "cost-cutting" plans. (supsi.ch)
  • The respondent Fraser Health Authority, a statutory agency of the provincial government, was authorized pursuant to the Health Authorities Act to implement a regional health plan and allocate funding for the delivery of health services in the 'Fraser Health' region. (lexology.com)

Community


  • Broward's CRUSHH has carefully considered the cultural make-up of the community, identified a realistic project target population based on the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration's objectives, corroborated by community needs assessments and focus group results. (nova.edu)

long term


  • You may be required to participate in long-term follow-up plans that include monitoring your nutrition, your lifestyle and behavior, and your medical conditions. (mayoclinic.org)
  • As with any major surgery, gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries pose potential health risks, both in the short term and long term. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Regional and health plan variation in long-term CVC insertion suggests that some of their use reflects provider- or institution-driven variation in practice. (ivteam.com)

Development


  • Extensive planning occurred, engaging stakeholders, policy makers, funders, consumers and included consultation with evaluators throughout the application development process. (nova.edu)

help


  • Now, employers and health plans require patients to participate in making those choices to help keep costs down. (rmchealth.com)

local


  • Explains why addressing environmental justice (EJ) is a key aspect of creating sustainable regions, and presents ways in which those involved in local and regional planning can achieve EJ in their communities. (policylink.org)

variety


  • There is a large and confusing variety of health plans available. (rmchealth.com)

action


  • Burquitlam commenced an action against Fraser Health Authority and filed an injunction application. (lexology.com)

expensive


  • These plans are frequently less expensive than fee-for-service plans, but they have a more limited choice of doctors and hospitals. (rmchealth.com)

Find


  • The chambers judge concluded he was unable to find a serious question to be tried that the Fraser Health Authority offended the principle in Bhasin that parties to a contract must not lie or otherwise knowingly mislead each other about matters directly linked to the performance of the contract. (lexology.com)

Types


  • In some cases, you may qualify for certain types of weight-loss surgery if your BMI is 30 to 34 and you have serious weight-related health problems. (mayoclinic.org)

surgery


  • You may also need to prepare by planning ahead for your recovery after surgery. (mayoclinic.org)

comprehensive


  • Does the plan you are considering provide comprehensive treatment for chronic conditions? (rmchealth.com)

doctor


  • These plans allow you to select any doctor or hospital you like, and the insurer pays a percentage of what they consider usual and customary charges. (rmchealth.com)

medical


  • You usually have to pay a deductible, for example, the first $300 of medical costs per year, before the plan kicks in. (rmchealth.com)
  • A health savings account (HSA) is a tax-exempt account that reimburses you for certain medical expenses. (rmchealth.com)

conditions


  • It draws from the experiences of regional equity coalitions and metropolitan planning organizations to identify five important conditions that must be met to achieve effective results. (policylink.org)