Refuse Disposal: The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Treatment Refusal: Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Jehovah's Witnesses: Members of a religious denomination founded in the United States during the late 19th century in which active evangelism is practiced, the imminent approach of the millennium is preached, and war and organized government authority in matters of conscience are strongly opposed (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). Jehovah's Witnesses generally refuse blood transfusions and other blood-based treatments based on religious belief.Right to Die: The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.Refusal to Participate: Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.Refusal to Treat: Refusal of the health professional to initiate or continue treatment of a patient or group of patients. The refusal can be based on any reason. The concept is differentiated from PATIENT REFUSAL OF TREATMENT see TREATMENT REFUSAL which originates with the patient and not the health professional.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Judicial Role: The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Paternalism: Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Wills: Legal documents that are declarations of individuals' wishes regarding the disposal of their property or estate after death; esp: written instruments, legally executed, by which dispositions are made of estates. LIVING WILLS are written declarations regarding prolongation of life by extraordinary means.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Moral Obligations: Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Radioactive Waste: Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Conscience: The cognitive and affective processes which constitute an internalized moral governor over an individual's moral conduct.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Dissent and Disputes: Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.Hazardous Waste: Waste products which threaten life, health, or the environment when improperly treated, stored, transported, disposed of, or otherwise managed.Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Carduus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain arctiin and onopordopicrin.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Medical Waste: Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.Euthanasia, Passive: Failing to prevent death from natural causes, for reasons of mercy by the withdrawal or withholding of life-prolonging treatment.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Withholding Treatment: Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.Environmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Beneficence: The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Religion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Coal: A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.Third-Party Consent: Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.Ethics, Professional: The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

*  Borough of Chambersburg, PA Solid Waste

The cost of the collection, transporting and disposal of refuse and recyclables under this chapter shall be paid by a ... Special refuse problems.. (1) Contagious disease refuse. The removal of wearing apparel, bedding or other refuse from homes or ... REFUSE. Garbage, rubbish and/or ashes as herein defined.. REFUSE RECEPTACLE. The equipment used by the owner or occupant to ... 248-5 Storage of refuse. A. No person shall place any refuse in any street, alley or other public place or upon any private ...

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*  1959 House Bill 1290. An Act Prohibiting The Disposal Of Refuse, Rubbish Or Silt On The Banks Of The Neponset River In The City...

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*  Patent US7137261 - Systems and methods for freezing, mixing and thawing biopharmaceutical material - Google Patents

Refuse disposal apparatus. US4077228. 16 Aug 1976. 7 Mar 1978. Emhart Industries, Inc.. Refrigerated display case. ...

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Refuse disposal apparatus. US3885119. 18 avr. 1974. 20 mai 1975. Ralph G Sargeant. Apparatus for agglomerating and/or drying ... Refuse sterilization system. US3551090. 29 juil. 1968. 29 d c. 1970. Brumfield Robert C. Microwave reactor and process for ... Medical waste disposal is of urgent concern because the waste may cause infection. Such infectious waste is a by-product of ... Solid waste disposal. US5204001. 9 oct. 1991. 20 avr. 1993. Zenon Environmental Inc.. Membrane bioreactor system for treating ...

*  Township of Springfield, PA Food Establishments

The licensor shall conduct periodic inspections of all food establishments licensed under this ordinance and keep accurate records of such inspections. The Board or its authorized representative shall have the right to enter any food establishment in order to conduct inspections and obtain samples to determine compliance with the requirements of this ordinance and other provisions of this Code. Any license issued under this ordinance shall be immediately suspended in the event an authorized representative of the licensor, after presenting proper identification, is denied entry to any area of any food establishment when the establishment is open to the public or during other reasonable hours. Such suspension shall continue until entry is allowed to the authorized representative of the licensor, an inspection is completed and conditions are found to be satisfactory. In the event that entry is denied for seven or more consecutive days, the license may be revoked ...

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Seismic response of landfill: Solid waste landfills can be affected by seismic activity. The tension in a landfill liner rises significantly during an earthquake, and can lead to stretching or tearing of the material.Garbage disposal unit: A garbage disposal unit or waste disposal unit is a device, usually electrically powered, installed under a kitchen sink between the sink's drain and the trap. The disposal unit shreds food waste into pieces small enough—generally less than —to pass through plumbing.Biomedical waste: Biomedical waste is waste that is either putrescible or potentially infectious.Reinhardt, Peter A.Prince (musician)Edinburgh SkepticsCarbonization: Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the term for the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation. It is often used in organic chemistry with reference to the generation of coal gas and coal tar from raw coal.Archie MorrisIndustrial waste: Industrial waste is the waste produced by industrial activity which includes any material that is rendered useless during a manufacturing process such as that of factories, mills, and mining operations. It has existed since the start of the Industrial Revolution.Motivations for joining the Special OlympicsTestamentary capacity: In the common law tradition, testamentary capacity is the legal term of art used to describe a person's legal and mental ability to make or alter a valid will. This concept has also been called sound mind and memory or disposing mind and memory.Mark Siegler: Mark Siegler (born June 20, 1941) is an American physician who specializes in internal medicine. He is the Lindy Bergman Distinguished Service Professor of Medicine and Surgery at the University of Chicago.Erga omnes: Erga omnes is a Latin phrase which means "towards all" or "towards everyone". In legal terminology, erga omnes rights or obligations are owed toward all.Glucose clamp technique: Glucose clamp technique is a method for quantifying insulin secretion and resistance. It is used to measure either how well an individual metabolizes glucose or how sensitive an individual is to insulin.High-level radioactive waste management: High-level radioactive waste management concerns management and disposal of highly radioactive materials created during production of nuclear power and nuclear weapons. Radioactive waste contains a mixture of short-lived and long-lived nuclides, as well as non-radioactive nuclides.Science and Conscience: Science and Conscience is a Canadian current affairs television miniseries which aired on CBC Television in 1968.Insulin signal transduction pathway and regulation of blood glucose: The insulin transduction pathway is an important biochemical pathway beginning at the cellular level affecting homeostasis. This pathway is also influenced by fed versus fasting states, stress levels, and a variety of other hormones.Never Come UndoneList of Superfund sites in the United States: These are lists of Superfund sites in the United States, designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980. Superfund sites are polluted locations requiring a long-term response to clean up hazardous material contaminations.Legal status of tattooing in the United States: In the United States, there is no federal law regulating the practice of tattooing. However, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have statutory laws requiring a person receiving a tattoo be 18 years of age or older.Glucose transporterThomas Brasbridge: Thomas Brasbridge (1547–1593) was an English divine and author.Patient advocacyMedical Waste Tracking ActEllen Lewis Herndon Arthur: Ellen Lewis Herndon Arthur (August 30, 1837 – January 12, 1880) was the wife of the 21st President of the United States, Chester A. Arthur I.Blood glucose monitoring: Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'.Index of waste management articles: Articles related to waste management include:Deer Island Waste Water Treatment PlantPolarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Angang Sewage Disposal Plant: The Angang Sewage Disposal Plant is a sewage treatment plant located in the city of Gyeongju, North Gyeongsang province, South Korea. It began operating in April, 2005 by the co-investment of the Government of North Gyeongsang and Gyeongju City with a fund of 44,300,000,000 won to install the facilities to prevent the pollution of Hyeongsan River which is a main water source for Gyeongju and Pohang residents.Daesun Jinrihoe: Daesun Jinrihoe (Also transliterated as Daesunjinrihoe, Daesun Chillihoe, Taesunchillihoe, Daesoonjinrihoe, Daesoon Jinrihoe and Taesŏn Chillihoe) is a Korean new religious movement, founded in April 1969 by Park Han-gyeong (박한경) (1918–96). It is a splinter of the syncretic religion founded by Gang Il-Sun (1871–1909, also known as Chungsan Kang).Briquette: A briquette (or briquet) is a compressed block of coal dust"briquette, n. 2.

(1/363) Detection of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in suspended organic waste by nucleic acid extraction and PCR.

A nucleic acid-based method for the detection of the bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in biological waste was developed. The detection limits were less than 10 cells per ml of biological waste. The method does not include a phenol extraction step and can be easily performed in 1 to 2 days.  (+info)

(2/363) Evaluation of dehydrated restaurant food waste products as feedstuffs for finishing pigs.

Two dehydrated restaurant food waste (DFW) products were evaluated as potential feedstuffs for finishing pigs. For each product, fresh food wastes were obtained from food service operations at a resort complex in central Florida. The wastes were mostly leftover food and plate scrapings. The wastes were minced, blended with a feed stock (soy hulls and wheat flour [DFW1] or soy hulls and ground corn [DFW2]), pelleted, and dried. The dried product was then blended with additional minced fresh food wastes and dried; this process was then repeated. The final DFW products contained approximately 60% dried food wastes. The DFW1 and DFW2 products contained 11.4 and 8.4% moisture, 15.0 and 14.4% CP, 13.8 and 16.0% crude fat, 10.4 and 14.5% crude fiber, 5.8 and 4.7% ash, .63 and .64% lysine, .54 and .63% Ca, .34 and .38% P, .69 and .86% Cl, and .35 and .47% Na, respectively. Two feeding trials with 48 and 72 finishing pigs (56 to 112 kg), respectively, were conducted comparing diets without (control) or with the DFW product included at 40% of the diet (DFW1) for Trial 1 and 40 or 80% of the diet (DFW2) for Trial 2. Pigs fed the DFW diets in both trials had ADG that were similar (P > . 10) to and average gain:feed ratios that were superior (P = .06, Trial 1; P < .01; linear, Trial 2) to those for control pigs. Carcass lean content and lean quality scores were not reduced (P > . 10) by feeding pigs the DFW diets in either trial. Carcass fat became softer (P < .01; linear) with increasing amount of DFW2 in the diet in Trial 2. Thus, dehydrated restaurant food wastes have the potential to produce a nutritious feedstuff for pigs while offering a viable solid waste disposal option.  (+info)

(3/363) Exposure to airborne microorganisms and volatile organic compounds in different types of waste handling.

Occupational exposure of workers to airborne microorganisms and volatile organic compounds (VOC) in different types of waste treatment situations was examined during summer time. Microorganisms were collected as stationary samples using a six-stage Andersen impactor, while for VOCs both personal and stationary sampling was conducted. The exposure at the waste handling facility was considerably greater than at landfill sites or in waste collection. The concentrations of viable fungi were maximally 10(5) cfu/m3, and the concentrations of both total culturable bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria exceeded the proposed occupational exposure limit values (OELV), being 10(4) and 10(3) cfu/m3, respectively. Exposure to VOCs in the waste handling facility was three times higher than at the landfill sites, being at highest 3000 microg/m3, considered to be the limit for discomfort. The use of personal protective equipment at work, thorough hand washing and changing clothes after the work shift are strongly recommended in the waste handling facility and the landfill sites.  (+info)

(4/363) Talking trash: the economic and environmental issues of landfills.

The U.S. per-capita figure for garbage production has topped four pounds per person per day, and that amount is rising at roughly 5% per year. In the past, municipal solid waste was sent to the nearest local landfill or incinerator. But in 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency instituted the first federal standards for landfills, designed to make them safer. Over 10,000 small municipal landfills have since been consolidated into an estimated 3,500 newer, safer landfills, some of which are "megafills" that can handle up to 10,000 tons of waste a day. The new landfills are outfitted to prevent air and water pollution and limit the spread of disease by scavengers. Although the new landfills provide better controls against air and water pollution as well as an alternate source of municipal income, they are not entirely problem-free. Some experts believe the new landfill technology has not been properly tested and will therefore not provide protection in the long run. Others feel that poorer, less well-informed communities are targeted as sites for new landfills. In addition, many people that live near megafills, which may draw garbarge from several states, are unhappy about the noise, truck traffic, odors, and pests caused by the facilities.  (+info)

(5/363) Trading trash: why the U.S. won't sign on to the Basel convention.

Environmentalists worry that hazardous wastes produced in industrialized nations are being dumped in cash-starved developing countries--the countries with the least political or economic clout to resist and the fewest resources for managing these toxic imports. Imported waste can pose a serious threat to the health of human populations and ecosystems if not managed appropriately. In 1989, the international community initiated efforts to reduce the flow of hazardous wastes from industrialized countries to developing countries by drafting a treaty known as the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Wastes and their Disposal. The convention's mission is to strictly regulate the international transfer of hazardous wastes and to ensure that wastes are managed and disposed of in an environmentally sound manner. Although the United States supports the convention in theory, it remains the only industrialized country within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development yet to ratify it. However, legislation drafted by the Clinton administration that is soon to go before the 106th Congress could make the United States a party to the convention.  (+info)

(6/363) Thauera mechernichensis sp. nov., an aerobic denitrifier from a leachate treatment plant.

A heterotrophic bacterial strain TL1T capable of aerobic denitrification was previously enriched in continuous culture from a landfill leachate treatment plant and isolated as a pure culture. The taxonomic position of this isolate within the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria was determined by 16S rDNA sequence analysis and by conventional taxonomy including substrate spectrum, quinone type (ubiquinone Q-8) and cellular fatty acid composition. Detection of the specific polyamine 2-hydroxyputrescine supports the membership of strain TL1T in the beta-subclass of the Proteobacteria. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the strain clustered with, but was separate from, Thauera aromatica and Thauera selenatis. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments indicated that the new isolate represents a new species of the genus, for which the name Thauera mechernichensis is proposed; the type strain is DSM 12266T.  (+info)

(7/363) Evaluation of nitrogen and organic matter balance in the feedlot as affected by level and source of dietary fiber.

A trial was conducted to determine the effect of level and source of dietary fiber on N and OM excretion by cattle on finishing diets. One hundred twenty steers were stratified by weight and allotted to one of the following treatments: 7.5% roughage (7.5% R), wet corn gluten feed (WCGF; 41.5% of dietary DM), and all-concentrate (All Con) diet. Cattle were fed for 87 d during the summer with 23.7 m2 of pen area per animal. Steers fed the WCGF diet had heavier final weights, greater DMI, and higher ADG (P < .01) than the 7.5% R and All Con treatments. Steers fed All Con had lower (P < .01) DMI than the other two treatments. Nitrogen and OM mass balances in the feedlot were quantified. Main components were nutrient input, retention, and excretion. Nitrogen and OM intake of steers fed WCGF were greater (P < .05) than those of steers fed the other treatments. The WCGF treatment had a greater percentage of fecal N output (P < .05). The All Con treatment had a greater (P < .01) percentage of urinary N than WCGF and 7.5% R diets. Steers fed the WCGF treatment excreted more (P < .01) OM compared with the other treatments, which led to more N and OM being removed in manure at cleaning. The All Con treatment had more (P < .01) N and OM in runoff than the other treatments. Nutrition can change site of fermentation, which affects the composition of excreted material; however, total amount of N excreted may be more important than route of excretion in decreasing N losses to the environment and maximizing recovery in manure.  (+info)

(8/363) Exposure-response relationship between gastrointestinal problems among waste collectors and bioaerosol exposure.

OBJECTIVES: A high frequency of gastrointestinal problems has previously been reported for waste collectors. The present study relates the gastrointestinal problems to measurements of the bioaerosols that waste collectors are exposed to during work. METHODS: A job-exposure matrix was constructed from a combination of questionnaire data and field measurements. The questionnaire data were collected from 1747 male waste collectors and a comparison group of 1111 male municipal workers. Moreover a total of 189 full-shift personal samples was collected. The samples were used for characterizing the bioaerosol exposure described by viable fungi, total count of fungal spores, microorganisms, and endotoxins. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, high exposure to endotoxins was associated with nausea [prevalence proportion ratio (PPR) 1.60], and the risk of reporting nausea decreased with decreasing exposure so that workers with low exposure had the fewest reports (PPR 1.39) in the comparison with the unexposed group. High exposure to endotoxins was also associated with reports of diarrhea (PPR 5.60), and the risk of reporting diarrhea decreased with decreasing exposure so that the workers with low exposure had the fewest reports (PPR 3.02). The same pattern existed for exposure to fungi, for which high exposure resulted in the most reports (PPR = 4.59), and for diarrhea, for which low exposure resulted in the fewest reports (PPR = 3.15). CONCLUSIONS: An exposure-response relationship was found between nausea and endotoxin exposure and between diarrhea and exposure to both endotoxins and viable fungi.  (+info)


  • Refuse includes garbage and rubbish. (
  • Domestic refuse (municipal solid waste) includes garbage and rubbish. (
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  • Refuse disposal system , technique for the collection, treatment, and disposal of the solid wastes of a community . (
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