Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Hematologic Tests: Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.Respiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity: The amount of a gas taken up, by the pulmonary capillary blood from the alveolar gas, per minute per unit of average pressure of the gradient of the gas across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Hemoglobinometry: Measurement of hemoglobin concentration in blood.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Total Lung Capacity: The volume of air contained in the lungs at the end of a maximal inspiration. It is the equivalent to each of the following sums: VITAL CAPACITY plus RESIDUAL VOLUME; INSPIRATORY CAPACITY plus FUNCTIONAL RESIDUAL CAPACITY; TIDAL VOLUME plus INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus functional residual capacity; or tidal volume plus inspiratory reserve volume plus EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME plus residual volume.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Tachypnea: Increased RESPIRATORY RATE.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.BrazilObserver Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Respiratory Physiological Phenomena: Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Algeria: A country in northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between MOROCCO and TUNISIA. Its capital is Algiers.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Hippurates: Salts and esters of hippuric acid.Immunoradiometric Assay: Form of radioimmunoassay in which excess specific labeled antibody is added directly to the test antigen being measured.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.Echocardiography, Doppler, Pulsed: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.SwitzerlandEnvironmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Hematology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with morphology, physiology, and pathology of the blood and blood-forming tissues.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Lung Volume Measurements: Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.CreatinineAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Population Groups: Individuals classified according to their sex, racial origin, religion, common place of living, financial or social status, or some other cultural or behavioral attribute. (UMLS, 2003)Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.JapanBlood Cell Count: The number of LEUKOCYTES and ERYTHROCYTES per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD. A complete blood count (CBC) also includes measurement of the HEMOGLOBIN; HEMATOCRIT; and ERYTHROCYTE INDICES.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Crown-Rump Length: In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)Erythrocyte Indices: ERYTHROCYTE size and HEMOGLOBIN content or concentration, usually derived from ERYTHROCYTE COUNT; BLOOD hemoglobin concentration; and HEMATOCRIT. The indices include the mean corpuscular volume (MCV), the mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC).Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Electric Impedance: The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.EuropeIodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Breath Tests: Any tests done on exhaled air.GermanyCalcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.BelgiumMonitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Asian Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.ItalyHeart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Erythrocyte Count: The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.United StatesRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Exercise Tolerance: The exercise capacity of an individual as measured by endurance (maximal exercise duration and/or maximal attained work load) during an EXERCISE TEST.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.PolandImaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Cardiovascular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Oscillometry: The measurement of frequency or oscillation changes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Toluene: A widely used industrial solvent.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.IranSerum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.FinlandSmoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.

*  Lab Reference Range Flashcards - Cram.com

Study Flashcards On Lab Reference Range at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy ... Lab Reference Range. by rachel.murff9, Mar. 2006 Subjects: lab range reference values ... ":"Lab Reference Range","payreferer_url":"\/flashcards\/copy\/lab-reference-range-343636","isGuest":true,"ga_id":"UA-272909-1 ...
cram.com/flashcards/lab-reference-range-343636

*  Primitive and reference values

... primitive values and reference values. Reference values are objects stored in memory. ' ------------- So.. primitive values are ... primitive values and reference values. Reference values are objects stored in memory. '. -------------. So.. primitive values ... Primitive and reference values This is a fragment from the book 'Professional Javascript for Web Developers 3rd edition' ...
webdeveloper.com/forum/showthread.php?364839-Primitive-and&s=c4fc027bb01b3363da655150900dbbff

*  Patent US20050193217 - Autonomous memory checker for runtime security assurance and method therefore - Google Patents

The runtime reference values are compared against memory reference values stored in the memory reference file. The memory ... An error signal is generated when the runtime reference values are not identical to the memory reference values thereby ... The autonomous memory checker generates runtime reference values corresponding to trusted information stored in memory. ... reference values are generated from the trusted information stored in memory. ...
google.com/patents/US20050193217?dq=7,007,239

*  Reference values from the best orchestra halls

Case for an in-depth discussion in this video Reference values from the best orchestra halls, part of Audio Foundations: Reverb ... Join Alex U. Case for an in-depth discussion in this video Reference values from the best orchestra halls, part of Audio ... the desired values for each…of the parameters. With so many possibilities, where do we start?…I find it helpful to compare ...
https://lynda.com/Logic-Pro-tutorials/Reference-values-from-best-orchestra-halls/89707/119087-4.html?w=0

*  Authentication Method Reference Values

claim value returned may contain a single Authentication Method Reference value. For example, the following amr. claim value ... claim value returned may contain multiple Authentication Method Reference values. For example, the following amr. claim value ... claim array element values. The registry records the Authentication Method Reference value and a reference to the specification ... 2. Authentication Method Reference Values. The following is a list of Authentication Method Reference values defined by this ...
self-issued.info/docs/draft-ietf-oauth-amr-values-04.html

*  Reference Values of Renal Excretion of Fluoride

a href="https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1981.19.10.1039",https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm.1981.19.10.1039,/a ...
https://edoc.hu-berlin.de/handle/18452/10273

*  Reference Values For Thyroxine, total in Pregnancy

Home , Reference , Reference Values , Thyroxine, total. Please enable JavaScript to view all features on this site.. Thyroxine ... Pregnancy and laboratory studies: a reference table for clinicians. Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec;114(6):1326-31. PMID:19935037. 2. ...
perinatology.com/Reference/Reference Ranges/Thyroxine, total.htm

*  Pediatric Test Reference Values - Mayo Medical Laboratories

1995-2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. All Rights Reserved ...
https://mayomedicallaboratories.com/test-info/pediatric/refvalues/index.html?alpha=Z

*  Nutrient reference values - Healthy Kids

Nutrient reference values. Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) are a set of recommended daily nutrient targets based on current ...
https://healthy-kids.com.au/food-nutrition/guidelines-recommended-intakes/nutrient-reference-values/

*  Reference Values For Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) in Pregnancy

Home , Reference , Reference Values , Vitamin E ,alpha-tocopherol. Please enable JavaScript to view all features on this site. ... Laboratory reference values. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1548-15632. PMID:15470219 2. Lockitch G. Handbook of Diagnostic ... Reference Values For Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) ...
perinatology.com/Reference/Reference Ranges/Vitamin E.htm

*  Reference values of nonword repetition test for Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children

CONCLUSIONS: The reference values obtained indicated an improvement in performance with the increase of age of children, ... OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to obtain reference values in the Nonword Repetition Test (NWRT) in order to investigate ... The achievement of reference values for national evaluation tools is fundamental for the advancement of research in Brazil, ... The reference values obtained indicated that the performance improves with the increase in age of children, indicating an ...
scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1678-77572009000700011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

*  Essential Bible Reference Value Pack | Free Delivery @ Eden.co.uk

Essential Bible Reference Value Pack (EDENBUNDLE-1090): Free Delivery at Eden.co.uk ... Essential Bible Reference Value Pack. Full Product Description. Essential Bible Reference Value Pack is published by Eden ... Essential Bible Reference Value Pack In Stock - Order before 4pm for same day dispatchWant it on Wednesday 18 October?. Order ... Reviews of Essential Bible Reference Value Pack Customer reviews and testimonials Write a review. Be the first to review ...
eden.co.uk/shop/essential-bible-reference-bundle-3702195.html

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Publications : Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European...

For all other elements indicative values are suggested. In addition to the mean value and the "reference range", a "range of ... Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community I. A study of 46 elements in urine, blood ... Trace element reference values in tissues from inhabitants of the European Community I. A study of 46 elements in urine, blood ... The results allow the proposal of reference values for various elements determined in more than 350 healthy subjects, these ...
cordis.europa.eu/publication/rcn/199011412_en.html

*  Passing Arguments (reference vs value)

This means that the value outside of the function is copied into an argument on the inside of the function the same way a value ... All function arguments in ECMAScript are passed by value. ... reference vs value). This might be a simple concept, but I have ... If the value is primitive, then it acts just like a primitive variable copy, and if the value is a reference, it acts just like ... Because the reference is considered a value, when you come to the line 'obj = new Object();', obj gets a new value (an empty ...
webdeveloper.com/forum/showthread.php?364841-Passing-Arguments&s=c4fc027bb01b3363da655150900dbbff

*  Pass by Const Reference or Value

s) or less by value. With this approach, complex numbers would primarily be passed by value, not by reference as they are in ... More importantly, value parameters are sliced and const reference parameters are not, so the virtual semantics of such ... The progammer's choice of passing a given argument by const reference or by value is one of those compromises. That compromise ... Pass by Const Reference or Value. ISO/IEC JTC1 SC22 WG21 N3538 - 2013-03-06 ...
open-std.org/jtc1/sc22/WG21/docs/papers/2013/n3538.html

*  The GNU Awk User's Guide: Pass By Value/Reference

9.2.3.3 Passing Function Arguments by Value Or by Reference. In awk. , when you declare a function, there is no way to declare ... it does not change the value of foo. in the caller. The role of foo. in calling myfunc(). ended when its value (. 'bar'. ) was ... Otherwise, the argument is passed by value. Passing an argument by value means that when a function is called, it is given a ... Instead, think of the argument as the string value 'bar'. . If the function myfunc(). alters the values of its local variables ...
gnu.org/software/gawk/manual/html_node/Pass-By-Value_002fReference.html

*  How do you maintain normal lipid profile values? | Reference.com

... losing weight and consuming enough omega-3 fatty acids are some recommended ways to maintain normal lipid profile values, ... losing weight and consuming enough omega-3 fatty acids are some recommended ways to maintain normal lipid profile values, ... help to reduce these risk factors and lower lipid profile values, reports WebMD. Eating fewer carbohydrates, drinking less ...
https://reference.com/health/maintain-normal-lipid-profile-values-8d1eee40f97a2afc

*  Multiple Values - Guile Reference Manual

... but several distinct values. The primitive procedures for handling multiple values are values. and call-with-values. . values. ... call-with-values. procedure, all continuations take exactly one value. The effect of passing no value or more than one value to ... call-with-values. . (call-with-values (lambda () (values 4 5)) (lambda (a b) b)) ⇒ 5 (call-with-values * -) ⇒ -1 ... call-with-values. is unspecified. For scm_values. , args. is a list of arguments and the return is a multiple-values object ...
gnu.org/software/guile/docs/docs-1.8/guile-ref/Multiple-Values.html

*  Has Access Values - GNAT Reference Manual

Has_Access_Values. The prefix of the Has_Access_Values. attribute is a type. The result is a Boolean value which is True if the ... Next: Has_Discriminants, Previous: Fixed_Value, Up: Implementation Defined Attributes ... it indicates whether or not the corresponding actual type has access values. ...
gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.7/gnat_rm/Has_005fAccess_005fValues.html

*  What quarters are worth more than their face value? | Reference.com

Several types of quarters carry more value than their face value of 25 cents, as of 2014, including Washington quarters minted ... How do you value gold state quarters?. A: Gold-plated state quarters are worth approximately 25 cents, or the face value of the ... Several types of quarters carry more value than their face value of 25 cents, as of 2014, including Washington quarters minted ... What is the value of a gold-plated 1999 Liberty quarter stamped "Georgia 1788" on the back with the Georgia state logo?. A: ...
https://reference.com/hobbies-games/quarters-worth-face-value-aeb57d47bd8e7302

*  Where can you get the detailed history of the S&P 500 closing values? | Reference.com

Poor's 500 closing values is available at the websites of Nasdaq and MarketWatch. Nasdaq offers daily historical data of the S& ... How do you find out the current value of Apple stock?. A: Consumers can find the current value of Apple stock in any reliable ... To view the closing value of a particular date, users must select the date for entering into the "Enter Date" box and click on ... MarketWatch offers daily historical data of the S&P 500 with account of day's closing value, high and low together with a graph ...
https://reference.com/business-finance/can-detailed-history-s-p-500-closing-values-21bbb41f50ed2be7

*  Bug 129418 - [WSphere] strange default values for reference bindings

... Summary: [WSphere] strange default values for reference ... which seem more appropriate to the Ejb Reference Bindings than the Resource Reference ones. So I added an Ejb Reference Binding ... numeric reference to the end, when the Resource Reference Binding didn't? The JNDI Name, however, was also 'EjbReferenceBinding ... Two things struck me: the Name in Web.xml 'ResourceRef_', when I checked web.xml there was no ID on the resource reference to ...
https://netbeans.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=129418

*  Value chain - Oxford Reference

The series of activities that create and add value as a product or service progresses from concept into the hands ... value chain. Source:. A Dictionary of Business and Management in India. Author(s):. Peter Enderwick. value chain The series of ... The concept of the value chain was introduced by Michael Porter in his 1985 book Competitive Advantage. Value chains are ... Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single entry from a reference work in OR ...
oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780191829000.001.0001/acref-9780191829000-e-0205

*  What does "street value" mean? | Reference.com

Street value refers to the black-market price of an illicit or illegally obtained item. The term especially applies to drugs, ... How do you find out the value of items that have stamped EPNS?. A: A collector can determine the value of an item marked "EPNS ... How do you calculate fair market value?. A: According to the Internal Revenue Service, fair market value can be calculated ... Street value acknowledges that an item may be worth a significant sum if it is illegal to sell in an open market. Cocaine, for ...
https://reference.com/government-politics/street-value-mean-379787bfb672bd76

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

Beware Small Reference Pools. Kirk doesn't traverse more than a handful of miles of his own part of Iowa. Are you saying there ... There is a value called the Schwarzschild radius that describes how small a space a particular mass has to be compressed into. ... Alan Dean Foster's novelization makes reference to government officials from Washington, Beijing and Moscow junketing to Iowa ... it's just that your seconds are shorter than those in other reference frames, and b) you don't need to orbit something massive ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Certified reference materials: Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are ‘controls’ or standards used to check the quality and metrological traceability of products, to validate analytical measurement methods, or for the calibration of instruments.Spirometer: A spirometer is an apparatus for measuring the volume of air inspired and expired by the lungs. A spirometer measures ventilation, the movement of air into and out of the lungs.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Serum-separating tube: Serum-separating tubes, also known as serum separator tubes or SSTs, are used in medical clinical chemistry tests requiring blood serum.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Waterladder pumpClinical Biochemistry: Clinical Biochemistry is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the analytical and clinical investigation of laboratory tests in humans used for diagnosis, molecular biology and genetics, prognosis, treatment and therapy, and monitoring of disease ; the discipline of clinical biochemistry. It is the official journal of the Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Gestational age: Gestational age (or menstrual age) is a measure of the age of a pregnancy where the origin is the woman's last normal menstrual period (LMP), or the corresponding age as estimated by other methods. Such methods include adding 14 days to a known duration since fertilization (as is possible in in vitro fertilization), or by obstetric ultrasonography.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Healthy eating pyramid: The healthy eating pyramid is a nutrition guide developed by the Harvard School of Public Health, suggesting quantities of each food category that a human should eat each day. The healthy eating pyramid is intended to provide a superior eating guide than the widespread food guide pyramid created by the USDA.Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Turbidimetry: Turbidimetry (the name being derived from turbidity) is the process of measuring the loss of intensity of transmitted light due to the scattering effect of particles suspended in it. Light is passed through a filter creating a light of known wavelength which is then passed through a cuvette containing a solution.University of CampinasElectron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Biomarkers of aging: Biomarkers of aging are biomarkers that better predict functional capacity at a later age than chronological age. Stated another way, biomarkers of aging would give the true "biological age", which may be different from the chronological age.Immunoassay: An immunoassay is a biochemical test that measures the presence or concentration of a macromolecule in a solution through the use of an antibody or immunoglobulin. The macromolecule detected by the immunoassay is often referred to as an "analyte" and is in many cases a protein.List of butterflies of Algeria: This is a list of butterflies of Algeria. About 121 species are known from Algeria.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Lake MarathonLausanne Marathon: The Lausanne Marathon or Marathon of Lausanne is an annual marathon race held in the Swiss city of Lausanne since 1993. This road running takes place in autumn (October) and the 20 km of Lausanne takes place in spring (April).Hematology-Oncology and Stem Cell Transplantation Research CenterNetherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaCalibrationCreatinineOccupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Superficial velocity: Superficial velocity (or superficial flow velocity), in engineering of multiphase flows and flows in porous media, is a hypothetical (artificial) flow velocity calculated as if the given phase or fluid were the only one flowing or present in a given cross sectional area. Other phases, particles, the skeleton of the porous medium, etc.Layout of the Port of Tianjin: The Port of Tianjin is divided into nine areas: the three core (“Tianjin Xingang”) areas of Beijiang, Nanjiang, and Dongjiang around the Xingang fairway; the Haihe area along the river; the Beitang port area around the Beitangkou estuary; the Dagukou port area in the estuary of the Haihe River; and three areas under construction (Hanggu, Gaoshaling, Nangang).Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingVacutainer: A Vacutainer blood collection tube is a sterile glass or plastic tube with a closure that is evacuated to create a vacuum inside the tube facilitating the draw of a predetermined volume of liquid. Most commonly used to collect blood samples in venipuncture, they are also used as urine collection tubes and as serum separator tubes.Hemoglobin, alpha 2: Hemoglobin, alpha 2 also known as HBA2 is a gene that in humans codes for the alpha globin chain of hemoglobin.Treadmill: A treadmill is a device generally for walking or running while staying in the same place. Treadmills were introduced before the development of powered machines, to harness the power of animals or humans to do work, often a type of mill that was operated by a person or animal treading steps of a treadwheel to grind grain.Lung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Colorimetry (chemical method): In physical and analytical chemistry, colorimetry or colourimetry is a technique "used to determine the concentration of colored compounds in solution."Niigata UniversityBlood cell: A blood cell, also called a hemocyte, hematocyte, or hematopoietic cell, is a cell produced through hematopoiesis and is normally found in blood. In mammals, these fall into three general categories:High-performance liquid chromatography: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC; formerly referred to as high-pressure liquid chromatography), is a technique in analytical chemistry used to separate, identify, and quantify each component in a mixture. It relies on pumps to pass a pressurized liquid solvent containing the sample mixture through a column filled with a solid adsorbent material.Trace metal: Trace metals are metals that can be present in animal and plant cells and tissue and are a necessary part of nutrition and physiology. Ingestion of, or exposure to, excessive quantities can be toxic.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Automated analyser: An automated analyser is a medical laboratory instrument designed to measure different chemicals and other characteristics in a number of biological samples quickly, with minimal human assistance.Clonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Bioline Reagents: Bioline Reagents is a primary manufacturer and developerBioline: The PCR Company | Company Profile of a wide range of specialised molecular biology products for the life science industry and research markets. It manufactures reagents including ultra-pure nucleotides, DNA polymerases and mixes, DNA markers, competent cells, products for RNA analysis and other general reagents for molecular biology.Circumpolar Health Bibliographic DatabaseRed blood cell distribution width: right|frame|Human red blood cellsAtomic absorption spectroscopy: Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) is a spectroanalytical procedure for the quantitative determination of chemical elements using the absorption of optical radiation (light) by free atoms in the gaseous state.Spermaturia: Spermaturia is a human disease characterized by the presence of sperm in the urine.Pedersen, J.Jakob SegalGA²LENIodine deficiencyFeasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.

(1/21969) Abnormal calcium metabolism in normocalcaemic sarcoidosis.

In studies of calcium metabolism in 13 unselected patients with untreated sarcoidosis all were normocalcaemic but five had hypercalcuria. All had normal renal function. Calcium absorption was indexed by a double isotope test. 45Ca hyperabsorption occurred in six patients. Ten kinetic studies were carried out with 47Ca and in six bone turnover was increased. 45Ca absorption correlated well with the calculated bone uptake rate of calcium, and with urine calcium excretion. These results suggest that in sarcoidosis abnormalities in calcium metabolism are fairly common although they rarely result in sustained hypercalcaemia.  (+info)

(2/21969) Urinary lithium: distribution shape, reference values, and evaluation of exposure by inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry.

Inductively coupled plasma argon-emission spectrometry (ICPAES) was used to evaluate the lithium content of undiluted urine samples. The method can be performed with 1 mL of urine in a single tube using a routine ICPAES analysis for rapid and convenient assessment of lithium exposure in humans. Urine samples obtained from male workers (n = 86) who had not been exposed to lithium were used for the determination of this element by ICPAES. The obtained concentrations were corrected using a specific gravity of 1.024. The particular frequency distribution resulted in a log-normal distribution diagram for anatomical spread. Geometric mean value for urinary lithium in the nonexposed male workers was 23.5 microg/L, and the confidence interval from a log-normal distribution was 11.0 to 50.5 microg/L. Taking into consideration a short biological half-life and the massive urine excretion of lithium, urinary lithium was considered to be a useful index for monitoring of exposure. Calibration curves obtained for lithium standards had good sensitivity and linearity. Good reproducibility was assessed by lithium addition to urine samples. It was concluded that the obtained lithium reference values would be useful for the early diagnosis of lithium intoxication or in the assessment of the degree of exposure to lithium in subjects at risk.  (+info)

(3/21969) Physiological characteristics of capacity constraints in working memory as revealed by functional MRI.

A fundamental characteristic of working memory is that its capacity to handle information is limited. While there have been many brain mapping studies of working memory, the physiological basis of its capacity limitation has not been explained. We identified characteristics of working memory capacity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in healthy subjects. Working memory capacity was studied using a parametric 'n-back' working memory task involving increasing cognitive load and ultimately decreasing task performance. Loci within dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) evinced exclusively an 'inverted-U' shaped neurophysiological response from lowest to highest load, consistent with a capacity-constrained response. Regions outside of DLPFC, in contrast, were more heterogeneous in response and often showed early plateau or continuously increasing responses, which did not reflect capacity constraints. However, sporadic loci, including in the premotor cortex, thalamus and superior parietal lobule, also demonstrated putative capacity-constrained responses, perhaps arising as an upstream effect of DLPFC limitations or as part of a broader network-wide capacity limitation. These results demonstrate that regionally specific nodes within the working memory network are capacity-constrained in the physiological domain, providing a missing link in current explorations of the capacity characteristics of working memory.  (+info)

(4/21969) The functional anatomy of the normal human auditory system: responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz tones at varied intensities.

Most functional imaging studies of the auditory system have employed complex stimuli. We used positron emission tomography to map neural responses to 0.5 and 4.0 kHz sine-wave tones presented to the right ear at 30, 50, 70 and 90 dB HL and found activation in a complex neural network of elements traditionally associated with the auditory system as well as non-traditional sites such as the posterior cingulate cortex. Cingulate activity was maximal at low stimulus intensities, suggesting that it may function as a gain control center. In the right temporal lobe, the location of the maximal response varied with the intensity, but not with the frequency of the stimuli. In the left temporal lobe, there was evidence for tonotopic organization: a site lateral to the left primary auditory cortex was activated equally by both tones while a second site in primary auditory cortex was more responsive to the higher frequency. Infratentorial activations were contralateral to the stimulated ear and included the lateral cerebellum, the lateral pontine tegmentum, the midbrain and the medial geniculate. Contrary to predictions based on cochlear membrane mechanics, at each intensity, 4.0 kHz stimuli were more potent activators of the brain than the 0.5 kHz stimuli.  (+info)

(5/21969) A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals.

Accumulation of carotenoids varies greatly among animal species and is not fully characterized. Circulating carotenoid concentration data in captive wild animals are limited and may be useful for their management. Serum carotenoid concentrations and dietary intakes were surveyed and the extent of accumulation categorized for 76 species of captive wild animals at Brookfield Zoo. Blood samples were obtained opportunistically from 275 individual animals immobilized for a variety of reasons; serum was analyzed for alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein + zeaxanthin, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin and canthaxanthin. Total carotenoid content of diets was calculated from tables and chemical analyses of commonly consumed dietary components. Diets were categorized as low, moderate or high in carotenoid content as were total serum carotenoid concentrations. Animals were classified as unknown, high, moderate or low (non-) accumulators of dietary cartenoids. Nonaccumulators had total serum carotenoid concentrations of 0-101 nmol/L, whereas accumulators had concentrations that ranged widely, from 225 to 35,351 nmol/L. Primates were uniquely distinguished by the widest range of type and concentration of carotenoids in their sera. Most were classified as high to moderate accumulators. Felids had high accumulation of beta-carotene regardless of dietary intake, whereas a wide range of exotic birds accumulated only the xanthophylls, lutein + zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin or cryptoxanthin. The exotic ungulates, with the exception of the bovids, had negligible or nondetectable carotenoid serum concentrations despite moderate intakes. Bovids accumulated only beta-carotene despite moderately high lutein + zeaxanthin intakes. Wild captive species demonstrated a wide variety of carotenoid accumulation patterns, which could be exploited to answer remaining questions concerning carotenoid metabolism and function.  (+info)

(6/21969) Sensitivity of [11C]phenylephrine kinetics to monoamine oxidase activity in normal human heart.

Phenylephrine labeled with 11C was developed as a radiotracer for imaging studies of cardiac sympathetic nerves with PET. A structural analog of norepinephrine, (-)-[11C]phenylephrine (PHEN) is transported into cardiac sympathetic nerve varicosities by the neuronal norepinephrine transporter and stored in vesicles. PHEN is also a substrate for monoamine oxidase (MAO). The goal of this study was to assess the importance of neuronal MAO activity on the kinetics of PHEN in the normal human heart. MAO metabolism of PHEN was inhibited at the tracer level by substituting deuterium atoms for the two hydrogen atoms at the alpha-carbon side chain position to yield the MAO-resistant analog D2-PHEN. METHODS: Paired PET studies of PHEN and D2-PHEN were performed in six normal volunteers. Hemodynamic and electrocardiographic responses were monitored. Blood levels of intact radiotracer and radiolabeled metabolites were measured in venous samples taken during the 60 min dynamic PET study. Myocardial retention of the tracers was regionally quantified as a retention index. Tracer efflux between 6 and 50 min after tracer injection was fit to a single exponential process to obtain a washout half-time for all left ventricular regions. RESULTS: Although initial heart uptake of the two tracers was similar, D2-PHEN cleared from the heart 2.6 times more slowly than PHEN (mean half-time 155+/-52 versus 55+/-10 min, respectively; P < 0.01). Correspondingly, heart retention of D2-PHEN at 40-60 min after tracer injection was higher than PHEN (mean retention indices 0.086+/-0.018 versus 0.066+/-0.011 mL blood/ min/mL tissue, respectively; P < 0.003). CONCLUSION: Efflux of radioactivity from normal human heart after uptake of PHEN is primarily due to metabolism of the tracer by neuronal MAO. Related mechanistic studies in the isolated rat heart indicate that vesicular storage of PHEN protects the tracer from rapid metabolism by neuronal MAO, suggesting that MAO metabolism of PHEN leaking from storage vesicles leads to the gradual loss of PHEN from the neurons. Thus, although MAO metabolism influences the rate of clearance of PHEN from the neurons, MAO metabolism is not the rate-determining step in the observed efflux rate under normal conditions. Rather, the rate at which PHEN leaks from storage vesicles is likely to be the rate-limiting step in the observed efflux rate.  (+info)

(7/21969) Anatomic validation of spatial normalization methods for PET.

Spatial normalization methods, which are indispensable for intersubject analysis in current PET studies, have been improved in many aspects. These methods have not necessarily been evaluated as anatomic normalization methods because PET images are functional images. However, in view of the close relation between brain function and morphology, it is very intriguing how precisely normalized brains coincide with each other. In this report, the anatomic precision of spatial normalization is validated with three different methods. METHODS: Four PET centers in Japan participated in this study. In each center, six normal subjects were recruited for both H2(15)O-PET and high-resolution MRI studies. Variations in the location of the anterior commissure (AC) and size and contours of the brain and the courses of major sulci were measured in spatially normalized MR images for each method. Spatial normalization was performed as follows. (a) Linear: The AC-posterior commissure and midsagittal plane were identified on MRI and the size of the brain was adjusted to the Talairach space in each axis using linear parameters. (b) Human brain atlas (HBA): Atlas structures were manually adjusted to MRI to determine linear and nonlinear transformation parameters and then MRI was transformed with the inverse of these parameters. (c) Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 95: PET images were transformed into the template PET image with linear and nonlinear parameters in a least-squares manner. Then, coregistered MR images were transformed with the same parameters used for the PET transformation. RESULTS: The AC was well registered in all methods. The size of the brain normalized with SPM95 varied to a greater extent than with other approaches. Larger variance in contours was observed with the linear method. Only SPM95 showed significant superiority to the linear method when the courses of major sulci were compared. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that SPM95 is as effective a spatial normalization as HBA, although it does not use anatomic images. Large variance in structures other than the AC and size of the brain in the linear method suggests the necessity of nonlinear transformations for effective spatial normalization. Operator dependency of HBA also must be considered.  (+info)

(8/21969) Energy cost of sport rock climbing in elite performers.

OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen uptake (VO2), blood lactate concentration ([La(b)]), and heart rate (HR) response during indoor and outdoor sport climbing. METHODS: Seven climbers aged 25 (SE 1) years, with a personal best ascent without preview or fall (on sight) ranging from 6b to 7a were assessed using an indoor vertical treadmill with artificial rock hand/foot holds and a discontinuous protocol with climbing velocity incremented until voluntary fatigue. On a separate occasion the subjects performed a 23.4 m outdoor rock climb graded 5c and taking 7 min 36 s (SE 33 s) to complete. Cardiorespiratory parameters were measured using a telemetry system and [La(b)] collected at rest and after climbing. RESULTS: Indoor climbing elicited a peak oxygen uptake (VO2climb-peak) and peak HR (HRpeak) of 43.8 (SE 2.2) ml/kg/min and 190 (SE 4) bpm, respectively and increased blood lactate concentration [La(b)] from 1.4 (0.1) to 10.2 (0.6) mmol/l (p < 0.05). During outdoor climbing VO2 and HR increased to about 75% and 83% of VO2climb-peak and HRpeak, respectively. [La(b)] increased from 1.3 (0.1) at rest to 4.5 mmol/l (p < 0.05) at 2 min 32 s (8 s) after completion of the climb. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that for elite climbers outdoor sport rock climbs of five to 10 minutes' duration and moderate difficulty require a significant portion of the VO2climb-peak. The higher HR and VO2 for outdoor climbing and the increased [La(b)] could be the result of repeated isometric contractions, particularly from the arm and forearm muscles.  (+info)



file


  • Development Tools - Sending reports and timestamped file by emailing 1.0 main executing reference usage: usage_send_mail.mIllustrates email sending with multiple separate files or single timestamped tar file. (filetransit.com)
  • The autonomous memory checker comprises a controller, a memory reference file coupled to the controller, and an authentication engine coupled to the controller. (google.com)
  • The runtime reference values are compared against memory reference values stored in the memory reference file. (google.com)
  • 4 . The electronic device as recited in claim 1 further including a clock control block coupled to said authentication engine, said memory reference file, and said controller. (google.com)
  • 7 . The electronic device as recited in claim 1 wherein said memory reference value is generated corresponding to trusted information stored in memory and wherein said memory reference value is stored in said memory reference file. (google.com)

control


  • Suitable reference materials and reference measurement procedures are used to assign traceable values to calibrator and control materials, allowing the implementation of standardization of laboratory measurements, assuring interchangeability of results over time and space, significantly contributing to improvements in healthcare since results of clinical studies undertaken in different locations or times could be universally applied. (enerca.org)