Receptors, KIR3DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-B ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR: A family of receptors found on NK CELLS that have specificity for a variety of HLA ANTIGENS. KIR receptors contain up to three different extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains referred to as D0, D1, and D2 and play an important role in blocking NK cell activation against cells expressing the appropriate HLA antigens thus preventing cell lysis. Although they are often referred to as being inhibitory receptors, a subset of KIR receptors may also play an activating role in NK cells.Receptors, KIR2DL4: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-G antigen. It contains D0 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR2DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL1 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, KIR2DL3: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTORS and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, KIR3DS1: An activating KIR receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a short cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR3DL2: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-A3 ANTIGEN. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D0, D1, and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Receptors, KIR2DL1: A KIR receptor that has specificity for HLA-C ANTIGENS. It is an inhibitory receptor that contains D1 and D2 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail. It is similar in structure and function to the KIR2DL2 RECEPTOR and the KIR2DL3 RECEPTORS.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Receptors, KIR2DL5: An inhibitory KIR receptor that contains D0 and D1 extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains and a long cytoplasmic tail.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Sulfonylurea CompoundsPotassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate: A phosphoinositide present in all eukaryotic cells, particularly in the plasma membrane. It is the major substrate for receptor-stimulated phosphoinositidase C, with the consequent formation of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglycerol, and probably also for receptor-stimulated inositol phospholipid 3-kinase. (Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Andersen Syndrome: A form of inherited long QT syndrome (or LQT7) that is characterized by a triad of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis, VENTRICULAR ECTOPIC BEATS, and abnormal features such as short stature, low-set ears, and SCOLIOSIS. It results from mutations of KCNJ2 gene which encodes a channel protein (INWARD RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNELS) that regulates resting membrane potential.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Spermine: A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Pinacidil: A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Hypokalemic Periodic Paralysis: An autosomal dominant familial disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of skeletal muscle weakness associated with falls in serum potassium levels. The condition usually presents in the first or second decade of life with attacks of trunk and leg paresis during sleep or shortly after awakening. Symptoms may persist for hours to days and generally are precipitated by exercise or a meal high in carbohydrates. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1483)Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Paralyses, Familial Periodic: A heterogenous group of inherited disorders characterized by recurring attacks of rapidly progressive flaccid paralysis or myotonia. These conditions have in common a mutation of the gene encoding the alpha subunit of the sodium channel in skeletal muscle. They are frequently associated with fluctuations in serum potassium levels. Periodic paralysis may also occur as a non-familial process secondary to THYROTOXICOSIS and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1481)Congenital Hyperinsulinism: A familial, nontransient HYPOGLYCEMIA with defects in negative feedback of GLUCOSE-regulated INSULIN release. Clinical phenotypes include HYPOGLYCEMIA; HYPERINSULINEMIA; SEIZURES; COMA; and often large BIRTH WEIGHT. Several sub-types exist with the most common, type 1, associated with mutations on an ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS (subfamily C, member 8).Thyroid Crisis: A dangerous life-threatening hypermetabolic condition characterized by high FEVER and dysfunction of the cardiovascular, the nervous, and the gastrointestinal systems.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily D: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with a variety of members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY C to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.Uridine Diphosphate: A uracil nucleotide containing a pyrophosphate group esterified to C5 of the sugar moiety.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Receptors, Natural Killer Cell: Receptors that are specifically found on the surface of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They play an important role in regulating the cellular component of INNATE IMMUNITY.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Rubidium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.Immunogenetic Phenomena: GENETIC PHENOMENA characterizing IMMUNITY and the immune response.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins: A class of monomeric, low molecular weight (20-25 kDa) GTP-binding proteins that regulate a variety of intracellular processes. The GTP bound form of the protein is active and limited by its inherent GTPase activity, which is controlled by an array of GTPase activators, GDP dissociation inhibitors, and guanine nucleotide exchange factors. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Ependymoglial Cells: The macroglial cells of EPENDYMA. They are characterized by bipolar cell body shape and processes that contact BASAL LAMINA around blood vessels and/or the PIA MATER and the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Guanylate Kinase: Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Lysosomal-Associated Membrane Protein 1: An abundant lysosomal-associated membrane protein that has been found to shuttle between LYSOSOMES; ENDOSOMES; and the PLASMA MEMBRANE. In PLATELETS and T-LYMPHOCYTES it may play a role in the cellular degranulation process.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.HLA-A11 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele family.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Extracellular Fluid: The fluid of the body that is outside of CELLS. It is the external environment for the cells.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Clathrin Heavy Chains: The heavy chain subunits of clathrin.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Satellite Cells, Perineuronal: The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Basal Nucleus of Meynert: A group of nerve cells in the SUBSTANTIA INNOMINATA that has wide projections to the NEOCORTEX and is rich in ACETYLCHOLINE and CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE. In PARKINSON DISEASE and ALZHEIMER DISEASE the nucleus undergoes degeneration.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)

*  Recruitment of Tyrosine Phosphatase HCP (SHP-1) by the Killer Cell Inhibitory Receptor

Functional Interaction of HCP with Tyrosine-Phosphorylated p58 KIR. In contrast with antigen receptors that initiate activation ... Understanding how p58 receptors inhibit NK cells is complicated because the receptors on NK cells responsible for inducing ... NK-92 cells were infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses encoding the p58-cl6 receptor or the p58-cl42 receptor, specific ... Reconstitution of interactions between tyrosine kinases and the high affinity IgE receptor which are controlled by receptor ...
pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2423819/?lang=en-ca

*  BioSpace - KIR and HLA-C Interactions Promote Differential Dendritic Cell Maturation and Is a Major Determinant of Graft...

HLA-C is an important ligand for killer immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) that regulate natural killer (NK) cell function. ... KIR and HLA-C Interactions Promote Differential Dendritic Cell Maturation and Is a Major Determinant of Graft Failure following ... Based on KIR specificity HLA-C molecules are allocated into two groups, HLA-C1 or HLA-C2; HLA-C2 is more inhibiting to NK cell ... Early events following kidney transplantation involving NK-DC interaction via KIR and HLA-C immune synapse may have a central ...
biospace.com/PLos_Article.aspx?id=2568

*  CRI - Immunotherapy Answers & Support - Cancer Research Institute

Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors (KIRs). KIRs (or killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors) are found on the surface ... Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells (CAR-Ts). Chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-Ts) are a type of engineered T cell used in ... Receptor Protein 4-1BB/CD137 Receptor protein 4-1BB/CD137 is found on many immune cells that have been activated. Activation of ... Toll-Like Receptor Ligands (TLRs). Toll-like receptor ligands, or TLRs, are a type of adjuvant immunotherapy used to enhance ...
https://cancerresearch.org/patients/answers-and-support/immunoglossary

*  Potassium channel, inwardly rectifying, Kir3.4 (IPR003277) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Kir channel alpha subunits possess only 2TM domains linked with a P-domain. Thus, Kir channels share similarity with the fifth ... The Kir3.x channel family is gated by G-proteins following G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. They are widely ... Cloned Kir channel cDNAs encode proteins of between ~370-500 residues, both N- and C-termini are thought to be cytoplasmic, and ... It is thought that four Kir subunits assemble to form a tetrameric channel complex, which may be hetero- or homomeric [PMID: ...
ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR003277

*  Browse by Date

Genotypes of NK cell KIR Receptors, Their Ligands, and Fc? Receptors in the Response of Neuroblastoma Patients to Hu14.18-IL2 ...
https://minds.wisconsin.edu/handle/1793/46148/browse?type=dateissued

*  KIR/HLA Interactions and Pathogen Immunity

S. G. E. Marsh, P. Parham, B. Dupont et al., "Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) nomenclature report, 2002," Human ... S. E. Hiby, M. Ashrafian-Bonab, L. Farrell et al., "Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their ... "Recognition of HLA-Cw4 but not HLA-Cw6 by the NK cell receptor killer cell Ig-like receptor two-domain short tail number 4," ... V. M. Braud, D. S. J. Allan, C. A. O'Callaghan et al., "HLA-E binds to natural killer cell receptors CD94/NKG2A, B and C," ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2011/298348/ref/

*  KIR3DL01 upregulation on gut natural killer cells in response to SIV infection of KIR- and MHC class I-defined rhesus macaques

... where this receptor was preferentially upregulated on CD56,sup,+,/sup, and CD16,sup,-,/sup,CD56,sup,-,/sup, subsets. These ... KIR 3DL CD 16 KIR 3DL upregulation MHC class I-defined rhesus macaques Natural killer cells CD 56 polymorphic killer-cell ... We previously identified MHC class I ligands for two rhesus macaque KIRs: KIR3DL01 recognizes Mamu-Bw4 molecules and KIR3DL05 ... macaques with and without defined ligands for these receptors with SIV,sub,mac,/sub,239, and monitored NK cell responses in ...
https://figshare.com/articles/KIR3DL01_upregulation_on_gut_natural_killer_cells_in_response_to_SIV_infection_of_KIR-_and_MHC_class_I-defined_rhesus_macaques/5211193

*  BioMed Research International: Hematology

Whole genome microarray showed increased expression of immunoglobulin genes, Killer Immunoglobulin Receptor (KIR) genes, and ... Platelet membrane receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (gpiibiiia) is a receptor detected on platelets. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ... HFE3 is caused by mutations in transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) gene that codes for two main isoforms (Tfr2α and Tfr2β). Tfr2α is ... The tissue levels of VEGF, Th-2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, IL-8 receptor CXCR2, and tyrosine p-STAT-3/SOCS-3 axis modulating ...
https://hindawi.com/journals/bmri/contents/hematology/rss.xml

*  Plus it

Genotypes of NK cell KIR receptors, their ligands, and Fcg receptors in the response of neuroblastoma patients to Hu14.18-IL2 ... In addition, immunophenotypes such as FCGR3A and FCGR2A polymorphism (58, 68), and Killer-Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR)- ... The future is now: chimeric antigen receptors as new targeted therapies for childhood cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2012;18:2780-90. ... A, CDC: The mAb binds to the receptor and initiates the complement cascade, which results in the formation of a membrane attack ...
clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/18/10/2740

*  Natural Killer Cells Function in Patients With Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Evaluation of the expression and function of receptors activator of NK cell (KIRs) in patients with CLL at stage A with ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00934986

*  calcr calcitonin receptor antibodies, gnrh receptor gnrhr antibodies from Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc.

calcr calcitonin receptor antibodies, gnrh receptor gnrhr antibodies, rabies virus antibodies, Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor 2dl3, Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor 2ds1
thermofisher.com/1/3/indexb24.html

*  Analysis of killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genes in ankylosing...

Objectives: To assess the possible association of KIR genes, specifically KIR3DL1, KIR3DS1 and KIR3DL2, with ankylosing spondylitis (AS).. Methods: 14 KIR genes were genotyped in 200 UK patients with AS and 405 healthy controls using multiplex PCR. Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes were used to subtype 368 AS cases and 366 controls for 12 KIR3DL2 alleles. Differences in KIR genotypes and KIR3DL2 allele frequencies were assessed using the χ2 test.. Results: KIR3DL1 and KIR3DS1 gene frequencies were very similar in AS cases and controls (OR = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8-3.0, and OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.2-5.3, respectively). KIR3DL2 allele frequencies were not significantly different between AS cases and controls.. Conclusion: Neither the KIR gene content of particular KIR ...
ard.bmj.com/content/early/2008/11/19/ard.2008.095927

*  OriGene - KIR2DS5 (NM 014513) cDNA Clone

KIR2DS5 - KIR2DS5 (untagged)-Human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, two domains, short cytoplasmic tail, 5 (KIR2DS5) available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
origene.com/cdna/trueclone/accession/NM_014513/SC304120.aspx

Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor: Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs), are a family of cell surface proteins found on important cells of the immune system called natural killer (NK) cells. They regulate the killing function of these cells by interacting with MHC class I molecules, which are expressed on all cell types.Tertiapin: Tertiapin is a 21-amino acid peptide isolated from venom of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera). It blocks two different types of potassium channels, inward rectifier potassium channels (Kir) and calcium activated large conductance potassium channels (BK).G protein-gated ion channelPotassium channel opener: A potassium channel opener is a type of drug which facilitates ion transmission through potassium channels.Molecular modificationHLA-C: HLA-C belongs to the MHC (human = HLA) class I heavy chain receptors. The C receptor is a heterodimer consisting of a HLA-C mature gene product and β2-microglobulin.KLRD1: CD94 (Cluster of Differentiation 94), also known as killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily D, member 1 (KLRD1) is a human gene.Patch clamp: The patch clamp technique is a laboratory technique in electrophysiology that allows the study of single or multiple ion channels in cells. The technique can be applied to a wide variety of cells, but is especially useful in the study of excitable cells such as neurons, cardiomyocytes, muscle fibers, and pancreatic beta cells.Transporter associated with antigen processing: Transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a member of the ATP-binding-cassette transporter family. It delivers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where they bind to nascent MHC class I molecules.Oocyte selection: Oocyte selection is a procedure that is performed prior to in vitro fertilization, in order to use oocytes with maximal chances of resulting in pregnancy. In contrast, embryo selection takes place after fertilization.Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors: The leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR) are a family of receptors possessing extracellular immunoglobulin domains.Reversal potential: In a biological membrane, the reversal potential (also known as the Nernst potential) of an ion is the membrane potential at which there is no net (overall) flow of that particular ion from one side of the membrane to the other. In the case of post-synaptic neurons, the reversal potential is the membrane potential at which a given neurotransmitter causes no net current flow of ions through that neurotransmitter receptor's ion channel.GliquidoneTrans-tubular potassium gradient: The trans-tubular potassium gradient (TTKG) is an index reflecting the conservation of potassium in the cortical collecting ducts (CCD) of the kidneys. It is useful in diagnosing the causes of hyperkalemia or hypokalemia.Potassium channel blocker: Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels.Jon Øyvind Andersen: Jon Øyvind Andersen (born 29 July 1965), mostly known as Jardar, is a Norwegian black metal guitarist. He was one of the founding members of the band Old Man's Child, with Galder and Tjodalv.Periodic current reversalInhibitor protein: The inhibitor protein (IP) is situated in the mitochondrial matrix and protects the cell against rapid ATP hydrolysis during momentary ischaemia. In oxygen absence, the pH of the matrix drops.DiazoxideSpermineColes PhillipsProtein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.FERM domain: In molecular biology, the FERM domain (F for 4.1 protein, E for ezrin, R for radixin and M for moesin) is a widespread protein module involved in localising proteins to the plasma membrane.Thyrotoxic periodic paralysisRNA transfection: RNA transfection is the process of deliberately introducing RNA into a living cell. RNA can be purified from cells after lysis or synthesized from free nucleotides either chemically, or enzymatically using an RNA polymerase to transcribe a DNA template.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Cell membraneInfinite alleles model: The infinite alleles model is a mathematical model for calculating genetic mutations. The Japanese geneticist Motoo Kimura and American geneticist James F.HLA B7-DR15-DQ6Congenital hyperinsulinism: Congenital hyperinsulinism is a medical term referring to a variety of congenital disorders in which hypoglycemia is caused by excessive insulin secretion. Congenital forms of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia can be transient or persistent, mild or severe.Caesium bromideProximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.Electrical conductivity meterAlkaliphile: Alkaliphiles are a class of extremophilic microbes capable of survival in alkaline (pH roughly 8.5-11) environments, growing optimally around a pH of 10.Ligand (biochemistry): In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose. In protein-ligand binding, the ligand is usually a signal-triggering molecule binding to a site on a target protein.Antigen presentation: Antigen presentation describes a vital process of the immune system. Immune cells cannot "see inside" other cells, which may be infected with viruses or bacteria, and thus rely on information conveyed by fragments of intracellular components being presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the cell surface.Reaction coordinateBarium orthotitanate: Barium orthotitanate is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ba2TiO4. It is a colourless solid that is of interest because of its relationship to barium titanate, a useful electroceramic.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.Escheriosome: Escheriosomes are liposomes prepared from polar lipids extracted from Escherichia coli. Such kinds of delivery vehicles have been shown to elicit high cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses.Ligation-independent cloning: Ligation-independent cloning (LIC) is a form of molecular cloning that is able to be performed without the use of restriction endonucleases or DNA ligase. This allows genes that have restriction sites to be cloned without worry of chopping up the insert.Genetic variation: right|thumbROMK: The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK) is an ATP-dependent potassium channel (Kir1.1) that transports potassium out of cells.DNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Concentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.Membrane-associated guanylate kinase: The membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) are a superfamily of proteins. The MAGUKs are defined by their inclusion of PDZ, SH3 and GUK domains, although many of them also contain regions homologous of CaMKII, WW and L27 domains.The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: The Chimps of Fauna Sanctuary: A Canadian Story of Resilience and Recovery is a non-fiction book, written by Canadian writer Andrew Westoll, first published in May 2011 by Harper Collins. In the book, the author chronicles the time he spent volunteering at the Fauna Sanctuary, an animal refuge in Quebec for chimpanzees that had been used for biomedical research.Gene polymorphismKidney: The kidneys are bean-shaped organs that serve several essential regulatory roles in vertebrates. They remove excess organic molecules from the blood, and it is by this action that their best-known function is performed: the removal of waste products of metabolism.Rubidium standard: A rubidium standard or rubidium atomic clock is a frequency standard in which a specified hyperfine transition of electrons in rubidium-87 atoms is used to control the output frequency. It is the most inexpensive, compact, and widely used type of atomic clock, used to control the frequency of television stations, cell phone base stations, in test equipment, and global navigation satellite systems like GPS.

(1/576) The leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LIR)-1 for the cytomegalovirus UL18 protein displays a broad specificity for different HLA class I alleles: analysis of LIR-1 + NK cell clones.

Leukocyte Ig-like receptor (LIR)-1 is a member of the Ig superfamily which has been shown to bind the human cytomegalovirus MHC class I homologue UL-18 protein. In this study, we have analyzed the expression and function of LIR-1 in human NK cells. We show that LIR-1 is expressed by a subset of NK cells variable in size among different donors. When compared to the known HLA class I-specific NK receptors, the expression of LIR-1 was found to be partially overlapped with that of CD94-NKG2A or with that of killer inhibitory receptors (KIR) belonging to the Ig superfamily. The use of the soluble form of UL-18 molecule revealed, in double fluorescence analysis, a selective binding to LIR-1 + cells while no correlation was observed between expression of either KIR or CD94-NKG2A molecules and ability to bind UL18. We further determined whether LIR-1 could also function as receptor for HLA class I molecules. To this end, we assessed the capability of LIR-1 + NK cell clones of lysing HLA class I- target cells transfected with different class I alleles, including HLA-A, -B, -C and -G alleles. Data revealed that LIR-1 functions as a broad HLA class I-specific inhibitory receptor recognizing different alleles coded for by different HLA loci.  (+info)

(2/576) Differential roles of N- and C-terminal immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs during inhibition of cell activation by killer cell inhibitory receptors.

Killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIRs) inhibit NK and T cell cytotoxicity when recognizing MHC class I molecules on target cells. They possess two tandem intracytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) that, when phosphorylated, each bind to the two Src homology 2 domain-bearing protein tyrosine phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 in vitro. Using chimeric receptors having an intact intracytoplasmic KIR domain bearing both ITIMs (N + C-KIR), a deleted domain containing the N-terminal ITIM only (N-KIR), or a deleted domain containing the C-terminal ITIM only (C-KIR), we examined the respective contributions of the two ITIMs in the inhibition of cell activation in two experimental models (a rat mast cell and a mouse B cell line) that have been widely used to analyze KIR functions. We found that the two KIR ITIMs play distinct roles. When coaggregated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-bearing receptors such as high-affinity IgE receptors or B cell receptors, the N + C-KIR and the N-KIR chimeras, but not the C-KIR chimera, inhibited mast cell and B cell activation, became tyrosyl-phosphorylated, and recruited phosphatases in vivo. The N + C-KIR chimera recruited SHP-1 as expected, but also SHP-2. Surprisingly, the N-KIR chimera failed to recruit SHP-1; however, it did recruit SHP-2. Consequently, the N-terminal ITIM is sufficient to recruit SHP-2 and to inhibit cell activation, whereas the N-terminal and the C-terminal ITIMs are both necessary to recruit SHP-1. The two KIR ITIMs, therefore, are neither mandatory for inhibition nor redundant. Rather than simply amplifying inhibitory signals, they differentially contribute to the recruitment of distinct phosphatases that may cooperate to inhibit cell activation.  (+info)

(3/576) Crystal structure of the HLA-Cw3 allotype-specific killer cell inhibitory receptor KIR2DL2.

Killer cell inhibitory receptors (KIR) protect class I HLAs expressing target cells from natural killer (NK) cell-mediated lysis. To understand the molecular basis of this receptor-ligand recognition, we have crystallized the extracellular ligand-binding domains of KIR2DL2, a member of the Ig superfamily receptors that recognize HLA-Cw1, 3, 7, and 8 allotypes. The structure was determined in two different crystal forms, an orthorhombic P212121 and a trigonal P3221 space group, to resolutions of 3.0 and 2.9 A, respectively. The overall fold of this structure, like KIR2DL1, exhibits K-type Ig topology with cis-proline residues in both domains that define beta-strand switching, which sets KIR apart from the C2-type hematopoietic growth hormone receptor fold. The hinge angle of KIR2DL2 is approximately 80 degrees, 14 degrees larger than that observed in KIR2DL1 despite the existence of conserved hydrophobic residues near the hinge region. There is also a 5 degrees difference in the observed hinge angles in two crystal forms of 2DL2, suggesting that the interdomain hinge angle is not fixed. The putative ligand-binding site is formed by residues from several variable loops with charge distribution apparently complementary to that of HLA-C. The packing of the receptors in the orthorhombic crystal form offers an intriguing model for receptor aggregation on the cell surface.  (+info)

(4/576) Characterization of inhibitory and stimulatory forms of the murine natural killer cell receptor 2B4.

The receptor 2B4 belongs to the Ig superfamily and is found on the surface of all murine natural killer (NK) cells as well as T cells displaying non-MHC-restricted cytotoxicity. Previous studies have suggested that 2B4 is an activating molecule because cross-linking of this receptor results in increased cytotoxicity and gamma-interferon secretion as well as granule exocytosis. However, it was recently shown that the gene for 2B4 encodes two different products that arise by alternative splicing. These gene products differ solely in their cytoplasmic domains. One form has a cytoplasmic tail of 150 amino acids (2B4L) and the other has a tail of 93 amino acids (2B4S). To determine the function of each receptor, cDNAs for 2B4S and 2B4L were transfected into the rat NK cell line RNK-16. Interestingly, the two forms of 2B4 had opposing functions. 2B4S was able to mediate redirected lysis of P815 tumor targets, suggesting that this form represents an activating receptor. However, 2B4L expression led to an inhibition of redirected lysis of P815 targets when the mAb 3.2.3 (specific for rat NKRP1) was used. In addition, 2B4L constitutively inhibits lysis of YAC-1 tumor targets. 2B4L is a tyrosine phosphoprotein, and removal of domains containing these residues abrogates its inhibitory function. Like other inhibitory receptors, 2B4L associates with the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. Thus, 2B4L is an inhibitory receptor belonging to the Ig superfamily.  (+info)

(5/576) A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells.

Human natural killer (NK) cells express several killer cell immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (KIRs) that inhibit their cytotoxicity upon recognition of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on target cells. Additional members of the KIR family, including some that deliver activation signals, have unknown ligand specificity and function. One such KIR, denoted KIR2DL4, is structurally divergent from other KIRs in the configuration of its two extracellular Ig domains and of its transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains. Here we show that recombinant soluble KIR2DL4 binds to cells expressing HLA-G but not to cells expressing other HLA class I molecules. Unlike other HLA class I-specific KIRs, which are clonally distributed on NK cells, KIR2DL4 is expressed at the surface of all NK cells. Furthermore, functional transfer of KIR2DL4 into the cell line NK-92 resulted in inhibition of lysis of target cells that express HLA-G, but not target cells that express other class I molecules including HLA-E. Therefore, given that HLA-G expression is restricted to fetal trophoblast cells, KIR2DL4 may provide important signals to maternal NK decidual cells that interact with trophoblast cells at the maternal-fetal interface during pregnancy.  (+info)

(6/576) Tetrameric complexes of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G bind to peripheral blood myelomonocytic cells.

The nonclassical MHC class I molecule human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is selectively expressed on fetal trophoblast tissue at the maternal-fetal interface in pregnancy. It has long been suggested that HLA-G may inhibit maternal natural killer (NK) cells through interaction with particular NK cell receptors (KIRs). To investigate interactions of HLA-G, we constructed phycoerythrin-labeled tetrameric complexes of HLA-G refolded with a self-peptide. These HLA-G tetramers failed to bind to NK cells and cells transfected with CD94/NKG2 and killer immunoglobulin-like NK receptors. In contrast, HLA-G tetramers did bind to peripheral blood monocytes, staining a CD16(+)CD14(mid) subset with greater intensity. On transfectants, HLA-G tetramers bound to inhibitory immunoglobulin-like transcript (ILT)2 and ILT4 receptors. However, staining in the presence of antibodies reactive with ILT receptors revealed that the interaction of HLA-G tetramers with blood monocytes was largely due to binding to ILT4. These results suggest that the primary role of HLA-G may be the modulation of myelomonocytic cell behavior in pregnancy.  (+info)

(7/576) Expression of killer inhibitory receptors on cytotoxic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals.

Dysfunction of cytotoxic activity of T and natural killer (NK) lymphocytes is a main immunological feature in patients with AIDS, but its basis are not well understood. It has been recently described that T and NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity can be regulated by HLA killer inhibitory receptors (KIR). In this work, we have determined on cytotoxic T cells and NK cells from HIV-1-infected individuals the expression of the following KIR molecules: p58, p70, and ILT2 (immunoglobulin-like family KIR) as well as CD94 and NKG2A (C-lectin-type family KIR). With some exceptions, no significant changes were found on the expression of immunoglobulin-like KIR in either CD8+ or CD56+ cells. Interestingly, the percentages of CD8+ and CD56+ cells expressing CD94 were significantly increased in these individuals. We also show that, in vitro, IL-10 up-regulates CD94 expression on CD8+ and CD56+ cells obtained from normal individuals, suggesting that the augmented expression observed in HIV-infected individuals could be related to the high levels of IL-10 previously described in HIV-1-infected individuals.  (+info)

(8/576) Trophoblast cell line resistance to NK lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-independent mechanism.

The lack of classical HLA molecules on trophoblast prevents allorecognition by maternal T lymphocytes, but poses the problem of susceptibility to NK lysis. Expression of the nonclassical class I molecule, HLA-G, on cytotrophoblast may provide the protective effect. However, the class I-negative syncytiotrophoblast escapes NK lysis by maternal PBL. In addition, while HLA-G-expressing transfectants of LCL.721.221 cells are protected from lymphokine-activated killer lysis, extravillous cytotrophoblast cells and HLA-G-expressing choriocarcinoma cells (CC) are not. The aim of this work was therefore to clarify the role of HLA class I expression on trophoblast cell resistance to NK lysis and on their susceptibility to lymphokine-activated killer lysis. Our results showed that both JAR (HLA class I-negative) and JEG-3 (HLA-G- and HLA-Cw4-positive) cells were resistant to NK lysis by PBL and were equally lysed by IL-2-stimulated PBL isolated from a given donor. In agreement, down-regulating HLA class I expression on JEG-3 cells by acid treatment, masking these molecules or the putative HLA-G (or HLA-E) receptor CD94/NKG2 and the CD158a/p58.1 NKR with mAbs, and inducing self class I molecule expression on JAR cells did not affect NK or LAK lysis of CC. These results demonstrate that the resistance of CC to NK lysis mainly involves an HLA class I-independent mechanism(s). In addition, we show that the expression of a classical class I target molecule (HLA-B7) on JAR cells is insufficient to induce lysis by allospecific polyclonal CTL.  (+info)



immunoglobulin like receptors


  • HLA-C is an important ligand for killer immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) that regulate natural killer (NK) cell function. (biospace.com)
  • Distribution of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their HLA-C ligands in two Iranian populations," Immunogenetics , vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 65-73, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Recognition of peptide-MHC class I complexes by activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptors," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America , vol. 102, no. 37, pp. 13224-13229, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Natural killer cells provide an important early defense against viral pathogens and are regulated in part by interactions between highly polymorphic killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on NK cells and their MHC class I ligands on target cells. (figshare.com)
  • They suspect it is related to the immunological response to HCV which involves natural killer (NK) cells and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) which recognize HLA Class I antigens. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed by natural killer cells and subsets of T cells. (abnova.com)
  • Epistatic interactions between killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their cognate HLA class I ligands have important implications for reproductive success antiviral immunity susceptibility to autoimmune conditions and cancer as well as for graft-versus-leukemia reactions in settings of allogeneic stem cell transplantation. (techblessing.com)

Ligands


  • Genotypes of NK cell KIR Receptors, Their Ligands, and Fc? (wisconsin.edu)
  • We previously identified MHC class I ligands for two rhesus macaque KIRs: KIR3DL01 recognizes Mamu-Bw4 molecules and KIR3DL05 recognizes Mamu-A1*002. (figshare.com)
  • Researchers, led by Francesca Poli of Italy, examined the role of KIR genotypes and their HLA ligands in both HCV disease recurrence and its progression after liver transplantation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They found that hepatitis was more likely to recur when the KIR-HLA-C ligands were mismatched between donor and recipient. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our preliminary data indicates that KIR2DL3 positive recipients would be better assigned a matched donor for the HLA-KIR ligands in order to reduce the risk of developing severe fibrosis after liver transplantation," the authors report. (bio-medicine.org)

inhibitory receptors


  • Cytolysis of target cells by natural killer (NK) cells and by some cytotoxic T cells occurs unless prevented by inhibitory receptors that recognize MHC class I on target cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The natural killer cell receptor specific for HLA-A allotypes: a novel member of the p58/p70 family of inhibitory receptors that is characterized by three immunoglobulin-like domains and is expressed as a 140-kD disulphide- linked dimer," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 184, no. 2, pp. 505-518, 1996. (hindawi.com)

tyrosine-based


  • KIR proteins with the long cytoplasmic domain transduce inhibitory signals upon ligand binding via an immune tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM), while KIR proteins with the short cytoplasmic domain lack the ITIM motif and instead associate with the TYRO protein tyrosine kinase binding protein to transduce activating signals. (abnova.com)

molecules


  • The first such receptors to be described at the molecular level belong to the mouse Ly-49 family of type II transmembrane molecules with lectin-like domains (reviewed by Yokoyama and Seaman, 1993 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)

Genotypes


  • Association of KIR genotypes and haplotypes with susceptibility to chronic hepatitis B virus infection in Chinese Han population," Cellular & Molecular Immunology , vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 457-463, 2008. (hindawi.com)

cytoplasmic


  • Cloned Kir channel cDNAs encode proteins of between ~370-500 residues, both N- and C-termini are thought to be cytoplasmic, and the N terminus lacks a signal sequence. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The KIR proteins are classified by the number of extracellular immunoglobulin domains (2D or 3D) and by whether they have a long (L) or short (S) cytoplasmic domain. (abnova.com)

polymorphic


  • The KIR genes are polymorphic and highly homologous and they are found in a cluster on chromosome 19q13.4 within the 1 Mb leukocyte receptor complex (LRC). (abnova.com)

leukocyte


  • Comparison of chimpanzee and human leukocyte Ig-like receptor genes reveals framework and rapidly evolving genes," Journal of Immunology , vol. 167, no. 10, pp. 5786-5794, 2001. (hindawi.com)

haplotypes


  • The gene content of the KIR gene cluster varies among haplotypes, although several 'framework' genes are found in all haplotypes (KIR3DL3, KIR3DP1, KIR3DL4, KIR3DL2). (abnova.com)

Combinations


  • Combinations of maternal KIR and fetal HLA-C genes influence the risk of preeclampsia and reproductive success," Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 200, no. 8, pp. 957-965, 2004. (hindawi.com)

proteins


  • The Kir3.x channel family is gated by G-proteins following G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • thus, KIR proteins are thought to play an important role in regulation of the immune response. (abnova.com)

gene


  • Allelic polymorphism synergizes with variable gene content to individualize human KIR genotype," Journal of Immunology , vol. 168, no. 5, pp. 2307-2315, 2002. (hindawi.com)
  • The third target is the anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) gene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase and has now been implicated as an oncogenic driver in neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)

immune


  • Early events following kidney transplantation involving NK-DC interaction via KIR and HLA-C immune synapse may have a central role in long-term kidney transplant outcomes. (biospace.com)

tumor


  • Understanding how p58 receptors inhibit NK cells is complicated because the receptors on NK cells responsible for inducing lysis of tumor and virus-infected cells are not defined. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Assembly of the cell surface IL-10 receptor complex is the first step in initiating IL-10 signaling pathways that regulate intestinal inflammation viral persistence and even tumor surveillance. (techblessing.com)
  • The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Element Receptor (LNGFR) also called CD271 is an associate from the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. (techblessing.com)

cell


  • In eukaryotic cells, K + channels are involved in neural signalling and generation of the cardiac rhythm, act as effectors in signal transduction pathways involving G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and may have a role in target cell lysis by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes [ PMID: 1373731 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Rapid evolution of NK cell receptor systems demonstrated by comparison of chimpanzees and humans," Immunity , vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 687-698, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • Evaluation of the expression and function of receptors activator of NK cell (KIRs) in patients with CLL at stage A with therapeutic abstention, or stage B or C which require a treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)

protein


  • They are directly activated by G-protein beta-gamma subunits released from G-protein heterotrimers of the G(i/o) family upon appropriate receptor stimulation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • A. Kikuchi-Maki, T. L. Catina, and K. S. Campbell, "Cutting edge: KIR2DL4 transduces signals into human NK cells through association with the Fc receptor γ protein," Journal of Immunology , vol. 174, no. 7, pp. 3859-3863, 2005. (hindawi.com)

Thus


  • Thus, Kir channels share similarity with the fifth and sixth domains, and P-domain of the other families. (ebi.ac.uk)

disease


  • S. I. Khakoo and M. Carrington, "KIR and disease: a model system or system of models? (hindawi.com)
  • In summary," they conclude, "the results presented in this study have shown that disparity for HLA-C allotypes between recipient and donor may increase the risk of recurrence of hepatic inflammation and evidence the importance of the KIR2DL3 receptor in the development of the disease. (bio-medicine.org)

cells


  • Human NK cells express a p58 inhibitory receptor specific for HLA-C. We report association of the tyrosine phosphatase HCP with the p58 receptor in NK cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Increased natural cytotoxicity receptor expression and relevant IL-10 production in NK cells from chronically infected viremic HCV patients," European Journal of Immunology , vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 445-455, 2007. (hindawi.com)

class


  • Inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (Kir) are the principal class of two-TM domain potassium channels. (ebi.ac.uk)

role


  • Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the endothelial glucocorticoid receptor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. (techblessing.com)

activation


complex


  • It is thought that four Kir subunits assemble to form a tetrameric channel complex, which may be hetero- or homomeric [ PMID: 10102275 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)

expression


  • The authors found expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) on human airway smooth muscle (ASM) and considered these to be avoidance receptors for inhalants that, when activated, lead to ASM contraction and bronchospasm. (worldallergy.org)

domains


  • Kir channel alpha subunits possess only 2TM domains linked with a P-domain. (ebi.ac.uk)

responsible


  • Inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir) are responsible for regulating diverse processes including: cellular excitability, vascular tone, heart rate, renal salt flow, and insulin release [ PMID: 10102275 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)

human


  • Maternal activating KIRs protect against human reproductive failure mediated by fetal HLA-C2," Journal of Clinical Investigation , vol. 120, no. 11, pp. 4102-4110, 2010. (hindawi.com)