Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Serial Learning: Learning to make a series of responses in exact order.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Impulsive Behavior: An act performed without delay, reflection, voluntary direction or obvious control in response to a stimulus.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Contingent Negative Variation: A negative shift of the cortical electrical potentials that increases over time. It is associated with an anticipated response to an expected stimulus and is an electrical event indicative of a state of readiness or expectancy.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Event-Related Potentials, P300: A late-appearing component of the event-related potential. P300 stands for a positive deflection in the event-related voltage potential at 300 millisecond poststimulus. Its amplitude increases with unpredictable, unlikely, or highly significant stimuli and thereby constitutes an index of mental activity. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)Flicker Fusion: The point or frequency at which all flicker of an intermittent light stimulus disappears.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity: A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)Stroop Test: Timed test in which the subject must read a list of words or identify colors presented with varying instructions and different degrees of distraction. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. 8th ed.)Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Automobile Driving: The effect of environmental or physiological factors on the driver and driving ability. Included are driving fatigue, and the effect of drugs, disease, and physical disabilities on driving.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Malingering: Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Set (Psychology): Readiness to think or respond in a predetermined way when confronted with a problem or stimulus situation.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Nitrazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used as an anticonvulsant and hypnotic.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Sleep Deprivation: The state of being deprived of sleep under experimental conditions, due to life events, or from a wide variety of pathophysiologic causes such as medication effect, chronic illness, psychiatric illness, or sleep disorder.Field Dependence-Independence: The ability to respond to segments of the perceptual experience rather than to the whole.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Electrooculography: Recording of the average amplitude of the resting potential arising between the cornea and the retina in light and dark adaptation as the eyes turn a standard distance to the right and the left. The increase in potential with light adaptation is used to evaluate the condition of the retinal pigment epithelium.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Green Chemistry Technology: Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.Unconscious (Psychology): Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Conflict (Psychology): The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Pinch Strength: Force exerted when using the index finger and the thumb. It is a test for determining maximum voluntary contraction force.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Thrombelastography: Use of a thrombelastograph, which provides a continuous graphic record of the physical shape of a clot during fibrin formation and subsequent lysis.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Glutethimide: A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Mental Fatigue: A condition of low alertness or cognitive impairment, usually associated with prolonged mental activities or stress.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Judgment: The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.Feedback, Psychological: A mechanism of information stimulus and response that may control subsequent behavior, cognition, perception, or performance. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Temazepam: A benzodiazepine that acts as a GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID modulator and anti-anxiety agent.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Lorazepam: A benzodiazepine used as an anti-anxiety agent with few side effects. It also has hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and considerable sedative properties and has been proposed as a preanesthetic agent.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Pronation: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm backward or downward. When referring to the foot, a combination of eversion and abduction movements in the tarsal and metatarsal joints (turning the foot up and in toward the midline of the body).Perceptual Disorders: Cognitive disorders characterized by an impaired ability to perceive the nature of objects or concepts through use of the sense organs. These include spatial neglect syndromes, where an individual does not attend to visual, auditory, or sensory stimuli presented from one side of the body.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Differential Threshold: The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Extraversion (Psychology): A state in which attention is largely directed outward from the self.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Hypokinesia: Slow or diminished movement of body musculature. It may be associated with BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; prolonged inactivity due to illness; and other conditions.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Guanfacine: A centrally acting antihypertensive agent with specificity towards ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Awareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.ReadingCatalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Oxazepam: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Psychomotor Disorders: Abnormalities of motor function that are associated with organic and non-organic cognitive disorders.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.PropylaminesSensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Biofuels: Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Automatism: Automatic, mechanical, and apparently undirected behavior which is outside of conscious control.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Amputation, Traumatic: Loss of a limb or other bodily appendage by accidental injury.Problem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Size Perception: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Word Association Tests: Lists of words to which individuals are asked to respond ascertaining the conceptual meaning held by the individual.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Movement Disorders: Syndromes which feature DYSKINESIAS as a cardinal manifestation of the disease process. Included in this category are degenerative, hereditary, post-infectious, medication-induced, post-inflammatory, and post-traumatic conditions.Flurazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Chlorine Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain chlorine as an integral part of the molecule.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Allylglycine: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase and an antagonist of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is used to induce convulsions in experimental animals.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Mentha piperita: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is the source of peppermint oil.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Diatomaceous Earth: A form of SILICON DIOXIDE composed of skeletons of prehistoric aquatic plants which is used for its ABSORPTION quality, taking up 1.5-4 times its weight in water. The microscopic sharp edges are useful for insect control but can also be an inhalation hazard. It has been used in baked goods and animal feed. Kieselguhr is German for flint + earthy sediment.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Proactive Inhibition: The state or process hypothesized to account for poorer learning rate for elements later in a series as compared to the learning rate for elements coming earlier in a series.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Neurotic Disorders: Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Dextroamphetamine: The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.

*  How is reaction time measured? | Reference.com

Reaction time is measured by determining the amount of time between when an event occurs and when the body reacts to it. This ... Reaction time is measured by determining the amount of time between when an event occurs and when the body reacts to it. This ... The faster the reaction time, the less chance of the ball hitting the person in the face. Athletes often have high reaction ... The ruler test is an accurate way of measuring reaction time. Have a person sit down with an arm on a flat surface and hand ...
https://reference.com/health/reaction-time-measured-eed1e9da519402b4

*  Comparison between Auditory and Visual Simple Reaction Times

This shows that the auditory reaction time is faster than the visual reaction time. And also males have faster reaction times ... The results show that the mean visual reaction time is around 331 milliseconds as compared to the mean auditory reaction time ... The 2 members from each group completed both the visual and auditory reaction times, the data was taken and the mean reaction ... The DirectRT software consists of Testlabvisual and Testlabsounds to test the reaction times to visual and auditory stimuli. ...
scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=2689

*  A diffusion model analysis of the effects of aging on letter discrimination. The effects of aging on reaction time in a signal...

The effects of aging on reaction time in a signal detection task ... Reaction time, Reaction time (Psychology), Signal detection ( ... The effects of aging on reaction time in a signal detection task. Article Abstract:. A study is presented which investigates ... The effects of aging on accuracy and response time were examined in a letter discrimination experiment with young and older ... the influence of aging on response time, as demonstrated in signal detection tasks with young and older subjects. Older ...
readabstracts.com/Seniors/A-diffusion-model-analysis-of-the-effects-of-aging-on-letter-discrimination.html

*  Reaction times | Nuffield Foundation

Time: 1-3 hours. Equipment: Timing devices, graph paper, spreadsheet facility. Key mathematical language: Measurement, units, ... Description: Pupils design an experiment to measure reaction times and use it to test people's reaction times. ... Reaction times. Please make sure you are running the latest version of Internet Explorer (currently version 8) to open these ...
nuffieldfoundation.org/applying-mathematical-processes/reaction-times

*  Online Reaction Time Test

You will be tested five times, and your average reaction time will be calculated. ...
faculty.washington.edu/chudler/java/redgreen.html

*  reaction time game on Scratch

this game is the based on the reaction time and to use this game you just need to catch the stop button before its too late. ... reaction time game on Scratch by raymondno1 ...
https://scratch.mit.edu/projects/153991643/

*  Reaction Time - Android app on AppBrain

Reaction Time is a simple app that aims to measure your reaction time To do so, you must touch the android as soon... ... Reaction Time: Android app (3.2 ★, 10,000+ downloads) → ...
appbrain.com/app/reaction-time/com.chingy1788.reactiontime

*  Reaction-Time | FMOD

Just a question: When I call FSOUND_SetPaused() or FMOD_SetVolume() the reaction-time is ... When I call FSOUND_SetPaused() or FMOD_SetVolume() the reaction-time is about half a second. Meaning after I click the Pause- ...
fmod.org/questions/question/forum-7804/

*  Reaction Time: The Cursed Crusade Review (PS3) | N4G

Reaction Time: The Cursed Crusade Review (PS3). Lionheart377,2165d ago ,Review,3,. *▼*Info ...
n4g.com/news/870832/reaction-time-the-cursed-crusade-review-ps3

*  Kalil studying offense to hasten reaction time | FOX Sports

Kalil knows too, that he will give his quarterback more time as he gets more time in the offense and has a better grasp of the ... "It takes time," Kalil said. "I think since I first came in, I obviously know the offense a lot better. That's what preseason's ... It's only a matter of time. I think I know the offense really well, but I think it just takes a certain amount of games and ...
foxsports.com/north/story/kalil-studying-offense-to-hasten-reaction-time-082712

*  Combo Packages - Drag Race Timing Equipment, Drag Racing Equipment, Drag Racer Timing, Drag Race Reaction Time, Portable Timing...

Combo Packages
portatree.com/index.php?app=ecom&ns=catshow&ref=Combo_Packages&sid=g3i35e90298o222hjf5ns39511h500qs

*  Seeing a chemical reaction in real time | KurzweilAI

Seeing a chemical reaction in real time. March 19, 2013. New experiments at the Linac Coherent Light Source took an ... HomeNewsSeeing a chemical reaction in real time. ... They then probed this state of the reaction using X-ray laser ... Not only was the experiment the first to confirm the details of this early stage of the reaction, it also found an unexpectedly ... M. Dell'Angela et al., Real-Time Observation of Surface Bond Breaking with an X-ray Laser, Science, 2013, doi: 10.1126/science. ...
kurzweilai.net/seeing-a-chemical-reaction-in-real-time

*  Expression, human, people, reaction, rushing, time, timing icon | Icon search engine

... time, timing icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by Gan Khoon Lay found in the icon set People Emotion Feeling ... Expression, human, people, reaction, rushing, time, timing icon. * Basic license · Categories: Avatars & smileys, Culture & ...
https://iconfinder.com/icons/1661090/expression_human_people_reaction_rushing_time_timing_icon

*  Real-time insight into chemical reaction dynamics | Engineer Live

ABB's new MB-Rx reaction monitor suited for research laboratories and pilot plants in the chemical, petrochemical, ... The MB-Rx provides tool for operators looking to obtain a real-time insight into chemical reaction dynamics. The MB-Rx enables ... The MB-Rx reaction monitor features a rugged Hastelloy ATR probe and an intuitive software interface, offering a fast and ... The MB-Rx reaction monitor is just part of ABB's wider offering of process, emissions & laboratory analyser products and ...
engineerlive.com/content/real-time-insight-chemical-reaction-dynamics

*  Prenatal exposure to nicotine impairs performance of the 5-choice serial reaction time task in adult rats. - Physiology,...

In the 5-choice serial reaction time test, adult rats showed increased numbers of anticipatory responses and omissions errors, ... Prenatal exposure to nicotine impairs performance of the 5-choice serial reaction time task in adult rats. ... In the 5-choice serial reaction time test, adult rats showed increased numbers of anticipatory responses and omissions errors, ... Prenatal exposure to nicotine impairs performance of the 5-choice serial reaction time task in adult rats. ...
https://dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/303153

*  Real-time polymerase chain reaction correlates well with clinical diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.

... ... real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the GeneXpert (Cepheid Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, USA), and a dual testing algorithm ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/realtime-polymerase-chain-reaction-correlates-well-with-clinical-diagnosis-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-198987.html

*  Equilibrium distributions of simple biochemical reaction systems for time-scale separation in stochastic reaction networks |...

Equilibrium distributions of simple biochemical reaction systems for time-scale separation in stochastic reaction networks. ... If the above reaction is and we let α = (α1, …, αn)T and β = (β1, … ,βn)T, then the stoichiometric matrix of the reaction ... Equilibrium distributions of simple biochemical reaction systems for time-scale separation in stochastic reaction networks ... Equilibrium distributions of simple biochemical reaction systems for time-scale separation in stochastic reaction networks. ...
rsif.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/11/97/20140054

*  Quantification and genotyping of hepatitis B virus in a single reaction by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis.

... ... In this study, a method was developed to determine both parameters in a single-tube reaction. Methods: The method contains two ... consecutive steps, the first step used real-time PCR for quantification and second step used melting curve analysis for ...
https://omicsonline.org/references/quantification-and-genotyping-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-a-single-reaction-by-realtime-pcr-and-melting-curve-analysis-1362037.html

*  Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus from adult and neonate nasal swab specimens using real-time polymerase chain reaction...

Utilization of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of S. aureus has the potential to dramatically affect ... Direct Detection of Staphylococcus aureus from Adult and Neonate Nasal Swab Specimens Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction ... Representative real-time PCR run that included both positive and negative samples. ISCU nasal samples real-time PCR run with ... Direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus from adult and neonate nasal swab specimens using real-time polymerase chain reaction ...
https://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15269294

*  Time RXS Speed Road Pedals | Chain Reaction Cycles

Time RXS Speed Road Pedals - Lowest Prices and FREE shipping available from The World ... Time RXS Speed Road Pedals. More than simple instruments, TIME products are creations. Time adjusts its designs to accomodate ... Buy Time Components from Chain Reaction Cycles, the World's Largest Online Bike Store. ...
chainreactioncycles.com/us/en/time-rxs-speed-road-pedals/rp-prod57411

*  Prognostic significance of the detection of peripheral blood CEACAM5mRNA-positive cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction...

Prognostic significance of the detection of peripheral blood CEACAM5mRNA-positive cells by real-time polymerase chain reaction ... The detection of CEACAM5mRNA-positive cells was done using a real-time PCR assay. The association with known prognostic factors ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Prognostic-significance-detection-peripheral-blood/21071514.html

*  Deaf Toddler's Reaction to Hearing Dad's Voice for First Time Is Priceless (VIDEO) | CafeMom

Deaf Toddler's Reaction to Hearing Dad's Voice for First Time Is Priceless (VIDEO). ... Watch the amazing moment when this loving, cute little boy hears for the first time. It's amazing. ...
thestir.cafemom.com/toddler/157271/deaf_toddlers_reaction_to_hearing

*  Reaction to the Pussy Riot Verdict - Emerging Europe Real Time - WSJ

A collection of reaction to the verdict for Russian punk band Pussy Riot, whose members were found guilty and sentenced to two ... We'll be updating with the latest reaction. The European Union's foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton said in a statement that ...
https://blogs.wsj.com/emergingeurope/2012/08/17/reaction-to-the-pussy-riot-verdict/

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

That's assuming the time you entered has an effect on the time you exit. It could be something else, such as the mass of the ... No, Spock's initial reaction after the crisis was to have a member of Starfleet subdued and jettisoned on an icy world on the ... Time Travelling and Parallel Realities. * I thought it had been established within the Star Trek setting that time travel into ... They've never gone back in time by flying through a black hole. They went back in time by flying around stars and black holes ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

*  The Awareness Center, Inc. (International Jewish Coaltion Against Sexual Assault): The Cruelest Crime - Sexual Abuse Of...

"By the time I was thirteen, I'd had it. I tried to slit my wrists and overdose on drugs," she says. "I thought I was gross and ... "It's the kill-the-messenger reaction," says one therapist. Elizabeth, 16, who suffered her father's weekly assaults for nine ... At the time the three were living in a shelter for battered women in St. Paul, Minn. Chris had left her husband and their home ... "Every time I've shared with anyone that I'm the mother of a sexual assault victim, the first thing off their tongues is: "Did ...
theawarenesscenter.blogspot.com/1984/12/the-cruelest-crime-sexual-abuse-of.html

Gary H. Posner: Gary H. Posner (born c.Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status: The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status is a neuropsychological assessment initially introduced in 1998. It consists of ten subtests which give five scores, one for each of the five domains tested (immediate memory, visuospatial/constructional, language, attention, delayed memory).Sequence learning: In cognitive psychology, sequence learning is inherent to human ability because it is an integrated part of conscious and nonconscious learning as well as activities. Sequences of information or sequences of actions are used in various everyday tasks: "from sequencing sounds in speech, to sequencing movements in typing or playing instruments, to sequencing actions in driving an automobile.Cognitive skill: Cognitive functioning is a term referring to a human’s ability to process to (thoughts) that should not deplete on a large scale in healthy individuals. Cognition mainly refers to things like memory, the ability to learn new information, speech, understanding of written material.Cue stick: A cue stick (or simply cue, more specifically pool cue, snooker cue, or billiards cue), is an item of sporting equipment essential to the games of pool, snooker and carom billiards. It is used to strike a ball, usually the .Saccade: A saccade ( , French for jerk) is quick, simultaneous movement of both eyes between two phases of fixation in the same direction.Cassin, B.Voluntary Parenthood League: The Voluntary Parenthood League (VPL) was an organization that advocated for contraception during the birth control movement in the United States. The VPL was founded in 1919 by Mary Dennett.Barratt WaughCerebral hemisphere: The vertebrate cerebrum (brain) is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the medial longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Prevention of concussions: Prevention of mild traumatic brain injury involves taking general measures to prevent traumatic brain injury, such as wearing seat belts and using airbags in cars.Microwave chemistry: Microwave chemistry is the science of applying microwave radiation to chemical reactions.Microwaves in organic synthesis, Andre Loupy (ed), Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2006, http://www.Flicker (screen): Flicker is a visible fading between cycles displayed on video displays, especially the refresh interval on cathode ray tube (CRT) based computer screens. Flicker occurs on CRTs when they are driven at a low refresh rate, allowing the brightness to drop for time intervals sufficiently long to be noticed by a human eye – see persistence of vision and flicker fusion threshold.Low arousal theory: Low arousal}}Vigilance (psychology): In modern psychology, vigilance, also termed sustained concentration, is defined as the ability to maintain concentrated attention over prolonged periods of time.Warm, J.Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorderBehavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function: The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), developed by Gerard Gioia, Ph.D.Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a short-term decline in cognitive function (especially in memory and executive functions) that may last from a few days to a few weeks after surgery. In rare cases, this disorder may persist for several months after major surgery.Tema Motorway: The Tema Motorway is a highway that links Tema to Accra—capital of Ghana. It was the only motorway in Ghana.Korte's law: In psychophysics, Korte's law, also known more completely as Korte's third law of apparent motion, is an observation relating the phenomenon of apparent motion to the distance and duration between two successively presented stimuli. It was originally proposed in 1915 by Adolf Korte.Personal injuryAdult interaction with infants: When adults come into contact with infants, it is unlikely that they would be able to have a proper conversation, as the infant would not know enough about pop culture or general knowledge to create a stimulating conversation for the adult. Also, the adult may not understand baby-language and cannot relate to their situation properly.Canon EOS 5Aging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Neurotechnology: Neurotechnology is any technology that has a fundamental influence on how people understand the brain and various aspects of consciousness, thought, and higher order activities in the brain. It also includes technologies that are designed to improve and repair brain function and allow researchers and clinicians to visualize the brain.Amorphosynthesis: Amorphosynthesis is a medical condition where the patient is unaware of somatic sensations from one side of the body; the left side is most commonly affected. This condition is usually a sign of a lesion in the right parietal lobe.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingTask switching (psychology): Task switching, or set-shifting, is an executive function and a kind of cognitive flexibility that involves the ability to shift attention between one task and another. This ability allows a person to rapidly and efficiently adapt to different situations.HyperintensityBoxcar (band): Boxcar is an Australian Sydney-based synthpop and techno band. Formed in the mid-1980s in Brisbane by main songwriter guitarist and vocalist David Smith, he was soon joined by keyboardists Brett Mitchell and Carol Rohde and somewhat later by drummer-percussionist Crispin Trist.Explicit memory: Explicit memory is the conscious, intentional recollection of previous experiences and information. People use explicit memory throughout the day, such as remembering the time of an appointment or recollecting an event from years ago.Percolation threshold: Percolation threshold is a mathematical concept related to percolation theory, which is the formation of long-range connectivity in random systems. Below the threshold a giant connected component does not exist; while above it, there exists a giant component of the order of system size.NitrazepamMiddle frontal gyrus: The middle frontal gyrus makes up about one-third of the frontal lobe of the human brain. (A gyrus is one of the prominent "bumps" or "ridges" on the surface of the human brain.Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance: It has been estimated that over 20% of adults suffer from some form of sleep deprivation. Insomnia and sleep deprivation are common symptoms of depression and can be an indication of other mental disorders.Biological motion: Biological motion is a term used by social and cognitive neuroscientists to refer to the unique visual phenomenon of a moving, animate object. Often, the stimuli used in biological motion experiments are just a few moving dots that reflect the motion of some key joints of the moving organism.Apple (symbolism): Apples appear in many religious traditions, often as a mystical or forbidden fruit. One of the problems identifying apples in religion, mythology and folktales is that as late as the 17th century, the word "apple" was used as a generic term for all (foreign) fruit other than berries, but including nuts.Auditory scene analysis: In psychophysics, auditory scene analysis (ASA) is a proposed model for the basis of auditory perception. This is understood as the process by which the human auditory system organizes sound into perceptually meaningful elements.The Final Decision: The Final Decision is an episode from season 1 of the animated TV series X-Men Animated Series.Tower of Babel (M. C. Escher): Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C.ElectrooculographyMeridian (perimetry, visual field): Meridian (plural: "meridians") is used in perimetry and in specifying visual fields. According to IPS Perimetry Standards 1978 (2002): "Perimetry is the measurement of [an observer's] visual functions ...Sternohyoid muscle: The sternohyoid muscle is a thin, narrow muscle attaching the hyoid bone to the sternum, one of the paired strap muscles of the infrahyoid muscles serving to depress the hyoid bone. It is innervated by the ansa cervicalis.I-LIMB Hand: The i-LIMB Hand is the brand name of world's first commercially available bionic hand invented by David Gow and his team at the Bioengineering Centre of the Princess Margaret Rose Hospital in Edinburgh, and manufactured by Touch Bionics. The articulating prosthetic hand has individually powered digits and thumb and has a choice of grips.Causes of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).Precise Time and Time Interval: Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) is a Department of Defense Military Standard which details a mechanism and waveform for distributing highly accurate timing information.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.Eco-friendly dentistry: Eco-friendly dentistry"What is Eco-friendly Dentistry is defined by various dentists and dental organizations and primarily consists of general dentistry, oral surgery and other specialty dental services featuring green practices to reduce impact on the eco-system, the environment and patient treatment practices.Unconscious cognition: Unconscious cognition is the processing of perception, memory, learning, thought, and language without being aware of it.Emotion and memory: Emotion can have a powerful response on humans and animals. Numerous studies have shown that the most vivid autobiographical memories tend to be of emotional events, which are likely to be recalled more often and with more clarity and detail than neutral events.Odd Eriksen: 250px|thumb|Odd EriksenReward system: The reward system is a group of neural structures that are critically involved in mediating the effects of reinforcement. A reward is an appetitive stimulus given to a human or some other animal to alter its behavior.Berg Balance Scale: The Berg Balance Scale (or BBS) is a widely used clinical test of a person's static and dynamic balance abilities, named after Katherine Berg, one of the developers. For functional balance tests, the BBS is generally considered to be the gold standard.Learning Disability Coalition: The Learning Disability Coalition is a group of fourteen organisations which campaigns to secure better funding for social care for people with learning disabilities in England.Coalition was formed in May 2007.Thromboelastometry: Thromboelastometry (TEM), previously named rotational thromboelastography (ROTEG) or rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM), is an established viscoelastic method for hemostasis testing in whole blood.Calatzis A, Calatzis A, Kling M, Stemberger A, Hipp R.Concurrency semantics: In computer science, concurrency semantics is a way to give meaning to concurrent systems in a mathematically rigorous way. Concurrency semantics is often based on mathematical theories of concurrency such as various process calculi, the actor model, or Petri nets.GlutethimideEmotional responsivity: Emotional responsivity refers to the ability to acknowledge an affective stimuli by exhibiting emotion. Any response, whether it is appropriate or not, would showcase the presence of this phenomena.

(1/13264) Competitive mechanisms subserve attention in macaque areas V2 and V4.

It is well established that attention modulates visual processing in extrastriate cortex. However, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. A consistent observation is that attention has its greatest impact on neuronal responses when multiple stimuli appear together within a cell's receptive field. One way to explain this is to assume that multiple stimuli activate competing populations of neurons and that attention biases this competition in favor of the attended stimulus. In the absence of competing stimuli, there is no competition to be resolved. Accordingly, attention has a more limited effect on the neuronal response to a single stimulus. To test this interpretation, we measured the responses of neurons in macaque areas V2 and V4 using a behavioral paradigm that allowed us to isolate automatic sensory processing mechanisms from attentional effects. First, we measured each cell's response to a single stimulus presented alone inside the receptive field or paired with a second receptive field stimulus, while the monkey attended to a location outside the receptive field. Adding the second stimulus typically caused the neuron's response to move toward the response that was elicited by the second stimulus alone. Then, we directed the monkey's attention to one element of the pair. This drove the neuron's response toward the response elicited when the attended stimulus appeared alone. These findings are consistent with the idea that attention biases competitive interactions among neurons, causing them to respond primarily to the attended stimulus. A quantitative neural model of attention is proposed to account for these results.  (+info)

(2/13264) Cerebellar Purkinje cell simple spike discharge encodes movement velocity in primates during visuomotor arm tracking.

Pathophysiological, lesion, and electrophysiological studies suggest that the cerebellar cortex is important for controlling the direction and speed of movement. The relationship of cerebellar Purkinje cell discharge to the control of arm movement parameters, however, remains unclear. The goal of this study was to examine how movement direction and speed and their interaction-velocity-modulate Purkinje cell simple spike discharge in an arm movement task in which direction and speed were independently controlled. The simple spike discharge of 154 Purkinje cells was recorded in two monkeys during the performance of two visuomotor tasks that required the animals to track targets that moved in one of eight directions and at one of four speeds. Single-parameter regression analyses revealed that a large proportion of cells had discharge modulation related to movement direction and speed. Most cells with significant directional tuning, however, were modulated at one speed, and most cells with speed-related discharge were modulated along one direction; this suggested that the patterns of simple spike discharge were not adequately described by single-parameter models. Therefore, a regression surface was fitted to the data, which showed that the discharge could be tuned to specific direction-speed combinations (preferred velocities). The overall variability in simple spike discharge was well described by the surface model, and the velocities corresponding to maximal and minimal discharge rates were distributed uniformly throughout the workspace. Simple spike discharge therefore appears to integrate information about both the direction and speed of arm movements, thereby encoding movement velocity.  (+info)

(3/13264) Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects.

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

(4/13264) Augmentation is a potentiation of the exocytotic process.

Short-term synaptic enhancement is caused by an increase in the probability with which synaptic terminals release transmitter in response to presynaptic action potentials. Since exocytosed vesicles are drawn from a readily releasable pool of packaged transmitter, enhancement must result either from an increase in the size of the pool or an elevation in the fraction of releasable vesicles that undergoes exocytosis with each action potential. We show here that at least one major component of enhancement, augmentation, is not caused by an increase in the size of the readily releasable pool but is instead associated with an increase in the efficiency with which action potentials induce the exocytosis of readily releasable vesicles.  (+info)

(5/13264) Multiple point electrical stimulation of ulnar and median nerves.

A computer-assisted method of isolating single motor units (MUs) by multiple point stimulation (MPS) of peripheral nerves is described. MPS was used to isolate 10-30 single MUs from thenar and hypothenar muscles of normal subjects and patients with entrapment neuropathies, with the original purpose of obtaining a more representative mean motor unit potential for estimating the number of MUs in a muscle. The two important results that evolved from MPS however, were: (1) in the absence of 'alternation' MUs were recruited in an orderly pattern from small to large, and from longer to shorter latencies by graded electrical stimulation in both normal and pathological cases, (2) a comparison of the sizes of MUs recruited by stimulation proximal and distal to the elbow suggested that axonal branching can occur in the forearm 200 mm or more proximal to the motor point in intrinsic hand muscles.  (+info)

(6/13264) Electrophysiological evidence for tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in slowly conducting dural sensory fibers.

A tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant sodium channel was recently identified that is expressed only in small diameter neurons of peripheral sensory ganglia. The peripheral axons of sensory neurons appear to lack this channel, but its presence has not been investigated in peripheral nerve endings, the site of sensory transduction in vivo. We investigated the effect of TTX on mechanoresponsiveness in nerve endings of sensory neurons that innervate the intracranial dura. Because the degree of TTX resistance of axonal branches could potentially be affected by factors other than channel subtype, the neurons were also tested for sensitivity to lidocaine, which blocks both TTX-sensitive and TTX-resistant sodium channels. Single-unit activity was recorded from dural afferent neurons in the trigeminal ganglion of urethan-anesthetized rats. Response thresholds to mechanical stimulation of the dura were determined with von Frey monofilaments while exposing the dura to progressively increasing concentrations of TTX or lidocaine. Neurons with slowly conducting axons were relatively resistant to TTX. Application of 1 microM TTX produced complete suppression of mechanoresponsiveness in all (11/11) fast A-delta units [conduction velocity (c.v.) 5-18 m/s] but only 50% (5/10) of slow A-delta units (1.5 +info)

(7/13264) Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal.

Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation.  (+info)

(8/13264) Corticofugal amplification of facilitative auditory responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons in the mustached bat.

Recent studies on the bat's auditory system indicate that the corticofugal system mediates a highly focused positive feedback to physiologically "matched" subcortical neurons, and widespread lateral inhibition to physiologically "unmatched" subcortical neurons, to adjust and improve information processing. These findings have solved the controversy in physiological data, accumulated since 1962, of corticofugal effects on subcortical auditory neurons: inhibitory, excitatory, or both (an inhibitory effect is much more frequent than an excitatory effect). In the mustached bat, Pteronotus parnellii parnellii, the inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body, and auditory cortex each have "FM-FM" neurons, which are "combination-sensitive" and are tuned to specific time delays (echo delays) of echo FM components from the FM components of an emitted biosonar pulse. FM-FM neurons are more complex in response properties than cortical neurons which primarily respond to single tones. In the present study, we found that inactivation of the entire FM-FM area in the cortex, including neurons both physiologically matched and unmatched with subcortical FM-FM neurons, on the average reduced the facilitative responses to paired FM sounds by 82% for thalamic FM-FM neurons and by 66% for collicular FM-FM neurons. The corticofugal influence on the facilitative responses of subcortical combination-sensitive neurons is much larger than that on the excitatory responses of subcortical neurons primarily responding to single tones. Therefore we propose the hypothesis that, in general, the processing of complex sounds by combination-sensitive neurons more heavily depends on the corticofugal system than that by single-tone sensitive neurons.  (+info)



Accuracy


  • Y. Yagi, K. L. Coburn, K. M. Estes and J. E. Arruda, "Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Gender on Visual and Auditory P300, Reaction Time, and Accuracy," European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 80, 1999, pp. 402- 408. (scirp.org)
  • The effects of aging on accuracy and response time were examined in a letter discrimination experiment with young and older subjects. (readabstracts.com)

Effects


  • S. Ando, N. Kida and S. Oda, "Practice Effects on Reaction Time for Peripheral and Central Visual Fields," Perceptual and Motor Skills, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2002, pp. 747-752. (scirp.org)