Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Odonata: An order of insects comprising three suborders: Anisoptera, Zygoptera, and Anisozygoptera. They consist of dragonflies and damselflies.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Thermococcus: A genus of extremely thermophilic heterotrophic archaea, in the family THERMOCOCCACEAE, occurring in heated sea flows. They are anaerobic chemoorganotropic sulfidogens.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Great BritainHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
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Parasympatholytics: Agents that inhibit the actions of the parasympathetic nervous system. The major group of drugs used therapeutically for this purpose is the MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Almanacs as Topic: Publications, usually annual, containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises, sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, meteorological, and other statistical information and related topics. Almanacs are also annual reference books of useful and interesting facts relating to countries of the world, sports, entertainment, population groups, etc. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Parainfluenza Virus 2, Human: A species of RUBULAVIRUS associated particularly with acute laryngotracheitis (CROUP) in children aged 6 months to 3 years.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Incunabula as Topic: Books printed before 1501.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.EuropeQualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
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Nitrite Reductases: A group of enzymes that oxidize diverse nitrogenous substances to yield nitrite. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.GermanyPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
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Oncogenes: Genes whose gain-of-function alterations lead to NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION. They include, for example, genes for activators or stimulators of CELL PROLIFERATION such as growth factors, growth factor receptors, protein kinases, signal transducers, nuclear phosphoproteins, and transcription factors. A prefix of "v-" before oncogene symbols indicates oncogenes captured and transmitted by RETROVIRUSES; the prefix "c-" before the gene symbol of an oncogene indicates it is the cellular homolog (PROTO-ONCOGENES) of a v-oncogene.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
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Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)

*  Chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell lung cancer: indication, intensity, and duration. - The Christie Research Publications...

Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. -. dc.subject.mesh. Time Factors. -. dc.title. Chemotherapy in advanced nonsmall cell ... and symptom control compared with best supportive care. However, it is clear that a therapeutic plateau has been reached with ... and symptom control compared with best supportive care. However, it is clear that a therapeutic plateau has been reached with ...

*  Incidence of vertebral fractures over 3 years in patie | Open-i

Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. *Treatment Outcome. Related in: MedlinePlus. © Copyright Policy Related In: Results - ... Unlabelled: Osteoporotic post-menopausal women patients in two randomised trials comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of ... Unlabelled: Osteoporotic post-menopausal women patients in two randomised trials comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of ...

*  Effectiveness of alternative listening devices to conventional hearing aids for adults with hearing loss: a systematic review...

Clinical Trials as Topic'[MeSH] OR Randomized Controlled Trial[pt] OR Controlled Clinical Trial[pt] OR Pragmatic Clinical Trial ... pt] OR Clinical Trial[pt] OR Observational Study[pt] OR Multicenter Study[pt] OR 'Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic'[ ... Retrospective or prospective studies, randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, and before-after ... Nevertheless, the quality of the evidence was poor, with only two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) eligible to be included. ...

*  Research Lags On Effectiveness Of Exercises To Fix 'Mummy Tummy' : Shots - Health News : NPR

A review published in June found only six studies on the topic, and only two of them were randomized-control trials - the gold ... A few readers say even covering the topic is beneath NPR's journalistic standards. Others say our story didn't take the topic ...

*  Interventions in randomised controlled trials in surgery: issues to consider during trial design. - The Arthritis Research UK...

... including the way in which surgical interventions are described and delivered in trials. In order for surgeons to adopt trial ... and where and how the interventions will be standardised and monitored during the trial. The trial design (pragmatic and ... Accumulating work in this area has identified the need for general guidance on the design of surgical interventions in trial ... Thoughtful consideration of surgical interventions in this way may help with the interpretation of trial results and the ...

*  Cholinesterase inhibitors for dementia with Lewy bodies, Parkinson's disease dementia and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's...

SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials assessing the efficacy of treatment with cholinesterase ... Four of the trials were of a parallel group design and two cross-over trials were included. Four of the trials included ... and in the single PDD and CIND-PD trial (WMD 1.05, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.68, P = 0.01) but not in the single DLB trial.For ... were included in only one of the trials (McKeith 2000).For global assessment, three trials comparing cholinesterase inhibitor ...

*  The FREEDOM trial: a definitive answer to coronary artery bypass grafting or stents in patients with diabetes and multivessel...

Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic, Stents ... The FREEDOM trial: a definitive answer to coronary artery ... The FREEDOM trial: a definitive answer to coronary artery bypass grafting or stents in patients with diabetes and multivessel ...

*  No surgical innovation without evaluation: the IDEAL recommendations. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine

Statistical process control techniques can be useful in both early and late assessment. Randomised trials should be used ... Difficulties in doing randomised clinical trials should be addressed by measures to evaluate learning curves and alleviate ... Alternative prospective designs, such as interrupted time series studies, should be used when randomised trials are not ... whenever possible to investigate efficacy, but adequate pre-trial data are essential to allow power calculations, clarify the ...

*  The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the biological treatment of bipolar disorders...

The data used for these guidelines have been extracted from a MEDLINE and EMBASE search, from the clinical trial database ... Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic ... from the clinical trial database clinicaltrials.gov, from ...

*  IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Water and Sanitation in Schools: A Systematic Review of the Health and Educational Outcomes | HTML

The forty-seven included studies comprised nine intervention trials (19%); four randomized control trials (9%); one ... Studies were also organized by economic status and field topic in order to better organize the results of the search. ... Studies were classified into seven non-exclusive categories: intervention trials, randomized control trials, observational ... Three randomized control trials targeted at increasing provision of water for handwashing in Israel, China and Egypt reported ...

*  Acute and Subacute Ischemic Stroke-A Review of Temperature, Blood Pressure and Glycemic Management | touchNEUROLOGY | Leading...

Timely randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have attempted to address these topics, and in this review, we critically examine ... Another important trial is the ICTuS 2/3 study.7 In this randomized clinical trial, of which 200 patients out of 400 were ... Glucose regulation in acute stroke patients (GRASP) trial: A randomized pilot trial, Stroke, 2009;40:3804-9.. 26. Baird TA, ... The CATIS randomized clinical trial, JAMA, 2014;311:479-89.. 14. ENOS Trial Investigators, Bath PM, Woodhouse L, et al., ...

*  Nicotine Addiction | Medical City Dallas

A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(11):1253- ... 9/24/2007 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114788/Tobacco-use: LF Stead, T ... Effects of web- and computer-based smoking cessation programs: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Arch Intern Med. ... Pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CMAJ. 2008;179(2):135-144. ...

*  "How to read articles about health" - by Dr Alicia White - Bad...

Another example: Concato, Shah, and Horwitz, NEJM 2000 v. 242 pp 1887-1892: "Randomized, Controlled Trials, Observational ... I think the debate needs to widen, especially upon the topic of health promotional advice, the policies of governments, and the ... "Expectancy in Randomized Controlled Trials." Short story: a priori hypothesis failed: no effect for drug, vs. placebo, intended ... This is what happens in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) which is why they are considered the "gold standard" way of testing ...

*  Deep Brain Stimulation and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders - Academisch Medisch Centrum

Study design: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is used to determine schema-ECT efficacy. ... We used double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials for the indication acute manic episode of bipolar disorder to ... using a randomized controlled trial including standard scales for symptoms and quality of life. The philosophical framework we ... Placebo controlled randomised clinical trials are the accepted method for testing the efficacy of new pharmaceutical compounds ...

*  Other Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) | Doctors Hospital

A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for augmenting pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder ... Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114503/Obsessive-compulsive-disorder-OCD. Updated June 13, 2016. Accessed ... Behavioral therapy can help you modify and gain control over your behavior. A technique called exposure and response prevention ... Like behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy helps you gain a better sense of control over your life. ...

*  Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) Care for HIV Prevention - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

A Randomized Controlled Trial (MMT2). Resource links provided by NLM:. MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS ... Based on our previous success with the intervention pilot (R34MH083512), we conducted this randomized controlled trial (MMT ... Based on our previous success with the intervention pilot (R34MH083512), we conducted this randomized controlled trial (MMT ... A total of 68 MMT clinics will be randomly selected from the five provinces and randomized to either the intervention condition ...

*  Systemic Lupus Erythematosus | Grand Strand Health

A randomized controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010;69(6):1144-1147. ... http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115873/Systemic-lupus-erythematosus-SLE: Ludvigsson JF, Rubio-Tapia A, Chowdhary V, ... Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115873/Systemic-lupus-erythematosus-SLE. Updated September 15, 2016. ... 12/4/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115873/Systemic-lupus- ...

*  Health Care Program Evaluation | RAND

A Randomized Controlled Trial of Rise, a Community-Based Culturally Congruent Adherence Intervention for Black Americans Living ... RAND , Topics , Health Care Program Evaluation. Featured. RAND excels at evaluating performance of health care programs that ... Protocol for Testing a Cluster Randomized Implementation Trial. Assessing the impact of outside assistance on the deployment of ...

*  Protective Manual Hyperinflation in Acute Mechanically Ventilated Trauma Patients - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... a Randomized Controlled Trial. Resource links provided by NLM:. MedlinePlus related topics: Wounds and Injuries ... This single-blinded randomized study aims to compare two methods of manual hyperinflation (protective - moderate tidal volumes ... This single-blinded randomized study aims to compare two methods of manual hyperinflation (protective - moderate tidal volumes ... Allocation: Randomized. Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment. Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor). Primary ...

*  Health | Contemplative Studies

The topics with the largest number of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were general health benefits (51 RCTs), ... The results though are similar to those reported for yoga practice in randomized controlled trials and it is reasonable to ... Randomized, nonrandomized, controlled, and uncontrolled trials were all included. Extracted data included intervention ... In this randomised controlled pilot trial, 52 older adults (90% female; mean age 74.8 years, SD 7.2) were randomised 1:1 to a ...

*  Efficacy of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) as an add-on Treatment for Resistant OCD - Full Text View -...

Randomized Controlled Trial. Resource links provided by NLM:. MedlinePlus related topics: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder ... a randomized controlled trial. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2011 Nov;14(10):1389-97. doi: 10.1017/S1461145711000575. Epub 2011 ... Allocation: Randomized. Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment. Masking: Double (Participant, Outcomes Assessor). Primary ... scores after at least 3 adequate trials with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRI) (including clomipramine) and 20 hours of ...

*  Trial of Probiotics to Lower Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation in HIV-Infected Adolescents - Full Text View -...

This is a randomized placebo-controlled trial to examine if once daily probiotic therapy will lower serum LPS levels and immune ... MedlinePlus related topics: HIV/AIDS U.S. FDA Resources Further study details as provided by University of North Carolina, ... A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Probiotics to Lower Microbial Translocation and Immune Activation in HIV-Infected ... This is a double masked randomized placebo-controlled trial to examine if once daily probiotic therapy will lower serum ...

*  Pasireotide LAR in Severe Polycystic Liver Disease - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

In this randomized double blind placebo controlled trial the investigators will compare SOM230 treatment to placebo for 12 ... Genetics Home Reference related topics: polycystic kidney disease MedlinePlus related topics: Liver Diseases ... A Randomized, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial of SOM230 (Pasireotide LAR) In Severe Polycystic Liver Disease. ... Non-malignant medical illnesses that are uncontrolled or whose control may be jeopardized by the treatment with this study ...

*  TBTC Study 31: Rifapentine-containing Tuberculosis Treatment Shortening Regimens - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Controlled Phase 3 Clinical Trial. TBTC Study 31, ACTG Study A5349. Resource links provided by NLM:. MedlinePlus related topics ... Allocation: Randomized. Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment. Masking: None (Open Label). Primary Purpose: Treatment. ... Further study details as provided by Stefan Goldberg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention:. Primary Outcome Measures: * ... Stefan Goldberg, Medical Officer, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:. NCT02410772 ...

*  Irritable Bowel Syndrome | Reston Hospital Center

... a randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(5):915-922. ... Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113627/Irritable-bowel-syndrome-IBS. Updated March 14, 2016. Accessed ... results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31(6):615-624. ... The following changes to your diet may help control symptoms:. *Keep a food diary of what you eat and how your body responds. ...

Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).List of Odonata species of Great Britain: There are 57 recorded species of Odonata in Britain, made up of 21 damselflies (suborder Zygoptera) and 36 dragonflies (suborder Anisoptera). Of these, 42 species (17 damselflies and 25 dragonflies) are resident breeders, and the remainder are either extinct species, or vagrants.Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThe Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.Schizosaccharomyces pombe: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called "fission yeast", is a species of yeast used in traditional brewing and as a model organism in molecular and cell biology. It is a unicellular eukaryote, whose cells are rod-shaped.TremelimumabNational Clinical Guideline CentreInternational Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityThermococcus kodakarensis: Thermococcus kodakarensis is a species of thermophilic archaea. The type strain T.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Bio Base EuropeSampson Gideon: Sampson Gideon (February 1699 in London – 17 October 1762) was a Jewish-British banker in the City of London.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentLow-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry: The American Mixed Breed Obedience Registry (AMBOR) is a registry for mixed-breed dogs to enable them to compete in obedience and dog agility.HMS Australia (1886): HMS Australia was one of seven armoured cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1880s. She was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1889 and remained there until 1893 when she returned home.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Andrew Dickson WhiteConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.List of podcasting companies: This is a list of notable podcast production and distribution companies. This includes both audio and video podcasts.Research participant: A research participant, also called a human subject or an experiment, trial, or study participant or subject, is a person who participates in human subject research by being the target of observation by researchers.Esther InglisClinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Standard evaluation frameworkHistory of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Patient participation: Patient participation, also called shared decision-making, is a process in which both the patient and physician contribute to the medical decision-making process. Under this operating system, health care providers explain treatments and alternatives to patients in order to provide the necessary resources for patients to choose the treatment option that most closely aligns with their unique cultural and personal beliefs.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Placebo studies: Placebo studies is an interdisciplinary academic discipline concerning the study of the placebo effect. The placebo effect is commonly characterized when patients given a placebo or "fake" treatment exhibit a perceived improvement.Journal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.

(1/12901) Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion.  (+info)

(2/12901) The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.

We sought to assess the effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure in humans. Our data sources included a MEDLINE search of the literature published before December 1997, bibliography review, and expert consultation. We selected controlled trials in which coffee consumption was the only difference between the intervention and control groups, mean blood pressure change was reported for each group or period, and treatment lasted for >24 hours. Of 36 studies initially identified, 11 (522 participants) met these inclusion criteria. Information on sample size, study design, participant characteristics (gender, race, age, baseline blood pressure, and antihypertensive medications), and treatment results were abstracted by 3 reviewers using a standardized protocol. Treatment effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure was estimated with the use of a random-effects model. In the 11 trials, median duration was 56 days (range, 14 to 79 days), and median dose of coffee was 5 cups/d. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2.4 (range, 1.0 to 3.7) mm Hg and 1.2 (range, 0.4 to 2.1) mm Hg, respectively, with coffee treatment compared with control. Multiple linear regression analysis identified an independent, positive relationship between cups of coffee consumed and subsequent change in systolic blood pressure, independent of age of study participants and study design characteristics. The effect of coffee drinking on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was greater in trials with younger participants. Our findings provide support for a relationship between coffee consumption and higher blood pressure. Trials of coffee cessation of longer duration and in persons with hypertension should be performed.  (+info)

(3/12901) One-year survival among patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, and its relation to early revascularization: results from the GUSTO-I trial.

BACKGROUND: Although 30-day survival is increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who undergo coronary revascularization, the longer-term outcome in such patients and the duration of benefit from revascularization are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 30-day survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue-Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO-I) trial and identified 36 333 who had not had cardiogenic shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg for >/=1 hour, group 1) and 1321 patients who had shock (group 2). Group 2 patients were older and sicker. At 1 year, 97.4% of group 1 patients were alive versus 88.0% of group 2 (P=0.0001). Among group 2 patients, 578 (44%) had undergone revascularization within 30 days (group 2A) and 728 (56%) had not (group 2B). Revascularization was not required by protocol but was selected by the attending physicians. At 1 year, 91.7% of group 2A patients were alive versus 85.3% of group 2B (P=0.0003). With the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics of shock patients alive at 30 days, revascularization within 30 days was independently associated with reduced 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.6, [95% confidence interval 0.4, 0.9], P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (88%) with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who are alive at 30 days survived at least 1 year. Shock patients who underwent revascularization within 30 days had improved survival at 1 year compared with shock patients who did not receive revascularization, even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups.  (+info)

(4/12901) Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction.

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

(5/12901) Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review.

We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required.  (+info)

(6/12901) Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth.

Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment.  (+info)

(7/12901) Colorectal cancer mortality: effectiveness of biennial screening for fecal occult blood.

BACKGROUND: In 1993, a randomized controlled trial in Minnesota showed, after 13 years of follow-up, that annual fecal occult blood testing was effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality by at least 33%. Biennial screening (i.e., every 2 years) resulted in only a 6% mortality reduction. Two European trials (in England and in Denmark) subsequently showed statistically significant 15% and 18% mortality reductions with biennial screening. Herein, we provide updated results-through 18 years of follow-up--from the Minnesota trial that address the apparent inconsistent findings among the trials regarding biennial screening. METHODS: From 1976 through 1977, a total of 46551 study subjects, aged 50-80 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to an annual screen, a biennial screen, or a control group. A screen consisted of six guaiac-impregnated fecal occult blood tests (Hemoccult) prepared in pairs from each of three consecutive fecal samples. Participants with at least one of the six tests that were positive were invited for a diagnostic examination that included colonoscopy. All participants were followed annually to ascertain incident colorectal cancers and deaths. RESULTS: The numbers of deaths from all causes were similar among the three study groups. Cumulative 18-year colorectal cancer mortality was 33% lower in the annual group than in the control group (rate ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-0.83). The biennial group had a 21% lower colorectal cancer mortality rate than the control group (rate ratio, 0.79; 95% CI = 0.62-0.97). A marked reduction was also noted in the incidence of Dukes' stage D cancers in both screened groups in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results from this study, together with the other two published randomized trials of fecal occult blood screening, are consistent in demonstrating a substantial, statistically significant reduction in colorectal cancer mortality from biennial screening.  (+info)

(8/12901) Report of a National Institutes of Health--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workshop on the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons.

A workshop was convened in 1997 by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to consider the need for and feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons. Although the benefits of weight loss in obese individuals may seem obvious, little information is available showing that intentional weight loss improves long-term health outcomes. Observational studies may be unable to provide convincing answers about the magnitude and direction of the health effects of intentional weight loss. Workshop participants agreed that a well-designed randomized clinical trial could answer several questions necessary for developing a rational clinical and public health policy for treating obesity. Such information will ultimately provide needed guidance on the risks and benefits of weight loss to health care providers and payers, as well as to millions of obese Americans.  (+info)



placebo-controlled

  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials assessing the efficacy of treatment with cholinesterase inhibitors in DLB, PDD and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (CIND-PD). (ox.ac.uk)
  • This is a randomized placebo-controlled trial to examine if once daily probiotic therapy will lower serum LPS levels and immune activation among HIV-infected youth. (clinicaltrials.gov)

comparator

  • The trial design (pragmatic and explanatory), comparator and stage of innovation may also influence the extent of detail required. (ox.ac.uk)

supportive care

  • Platinum-based combination and single-agent chemotherapy have become accepted as treatments for locally advanced and metastatic nonsmall cell lung cancer as a consequence of improved survival, quality of life, and symptom control compared with best supportive care. (openrepository.com)

efficacy

  • Osteoporotic post-menopausal women patients in two randomised trials comparing the anti-fracture efficacy of strontium ranelate with placebo were separated into tertiles according to their baseline levels of biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption. (nih.gov)
  • Randomised trials should be used whenever possible to investigate efficacy, but adequate pre-trial data are essential to allow power calculations, clarify the definition and indications of the intervention, and develop quality measures. (ox.ac.uk)

Behavioral

  • Behavioral therapy can help you modify and gain control over your behavior. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Like behavioral therapy, cognitive therapy helps you gain a better sense of control over your life. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • A randomized, controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for augmenting pharmacotherapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (doctors-hospital.net)
  • Based on our previous success with the intervention pilot (R34MH083512), we conducted this randomized controlled trial (MMT CARE), which will integrate behavioral intervention components with a primarily pharmacological model of MMT. (clinicaltrials.gov)

patients

  • The FREEDOM trial: a definitive answer to coronary artery bypass grafting or stents in patients with diabetes and multivessel coronary artery disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This single-blinded randomized study aims to compare two methods of manual hyperinflation (protective - moderate tidal volumes with positive end expiratory pressure) and non-protective (large tidal volume and no positive end expiratory pressure) in ventilated acute trauma patients, to investigate the effect on inflammatory markers, lung compliance, oxygenation and sputum volume. (clinicaltrials.gov)

clinical

  • Thoughtful consideration of surgical interventions in this way may help with the interpretation of trial results and the adoption of successful interventions into clinical practice. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Difficulties in doing randomised clinical trials should be addressed by measures to evaluate learning curves and alleviate equipoise problems. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The data used for these guidelines have been extracted from a MEDLINE and EMBASE search, from the clinical trial database clinicaltrials.gov, from recent proceedings of key conferences, and from various national and international treatment guidelines. (ox.ac.uk)

METHODS

  • SEARCH METHODS: The trials were identified from a search of ALOIS, the Specialised Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (on 30 August 2011) using the search terms Lewy, Parkinson, PDD, DLB, LBD. (ox.ac.uk)

interventions

  • Interventions in randomised controlled trials in surgery: issues to consider during trial design. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This complexity has several implications, including the way in which surgical interventions are described and delivered in trials. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Accumulating work in this area has identified the need for general guidance on the design of surgical interventions in trial protocols and reports. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Key issues to consider when designing surgical interventions include the identification of each surgical intervention and their components, who will deliver the interventions, and where and how the interventions will be standardised and monitored during the trial. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The findings could benefit not only China but also the global community by effectively combining interventions for controlling the HIV epidemic. (clinicaltrials.gov)

assessment

  • Statistical process control techniques can be useful in both early and late assessment. (ox.ac.uk)

EMBASE

  • This register consists of records from major healthcare databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL) and many ongoing trial databases and is updated regularly.Reference lists of relevant studies were searched for additional trials. (ox.ac.uk)

prospective

  • Retrospective or prospective studies, randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, and before-after comparison studies will be eligible for inclusion. (bmj.com)
  • Case series studies should be replaced by prospective development studies for early technical modifications and by prospective research databases for later pre-trial evaluation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Alternative prospective designs, such as interrupted time series studies, should be used when randomised trials are not feasible. (ox.ac.uk)

None

  • Members of the MRC Hub for Trials Methodology Research Network Workshop None. (ox.ac.uk)

databases

  • We will search relevant databases to identify published, completed but unpublished and ongoing trials. (bmj.com)

results

  • MAIN RESULTS: Six trials met the inclusion criteria for this review, in which a total of 1236 participants were randomised. (ox.ac.uk)

treatment

design

  • Four of the trials were of a parallel group design and two cross-over trials were included. (ox.ac.uk)