Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic: Works about studies that are usually controlled to assess the effectiveness and dosage (if appropriate) of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques. These studies are performed on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients with the target disease or disorder, and last about two years. This concept includes phase II studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic: Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Multicenter Studies as Topic: Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Early Termination of Clinical Trials: Earlier than planned termination of clinical trials.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Meta-Analysis as Topic: A quantitative method of combining the results of independent studies (usually drawn from the published literature) and synthesizing summaries and conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new studies, etc., with application chiefly in the areas of research and medicine.Clinical Trials Data Monitoring Committees: Committees established to review interim data and efficacy outcomes in clinical trials. The findings of these committees are used in deciding whether a trial should be continued as designed, changed, or terminated. Government regulations regarding federally-funded research involving human subjects (the "Common Rule") require (45 CFR 46.111) that research ethics committees reviewing large-scale clinical trials monitor the data collected using a mechanism such as a data monitoring committee. FDA regulations (21 CFR 50.24) require that such committees be established to monitor studies conducted in emergency settings.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.United StatesQuestionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Programmed Instruction as Topic: Instruction in which learners progress at their own rate using workbooks, textbooks, or electromechanical devices that provide information in discrete steps, test learning at each step, and provide immediate feedback about achievement. (ERIC, Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1996).Clinical Trials, Phase IV as Topic: Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale. These studies are often conducted to obtain additional data about the safety and efficacy of a product. This concept includes phase IV studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Herbals as Topic: Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Bookplates as Topic: Labels pasted in books to mark their ownership and sometimes to indicate their location in a library. Private bookplates are often ornate or artistic: simpler and smaller ones bearing merely the owner's name are called "book labels." They are usually pasted on the front endpaper of books. (From Harrod, The Librarians' Glossary and Reference Book, 4th rev ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Broadsides as Topic: Published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted, publicly distributed, or sold. (From Genre Terms: A Thesaurus for Use in Rare Book and Special Collections Cataloguing, 2d ed)Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Webcasts as Topic: Transmission of live or pre-recorded audio or video content via connection or download from the INTERNET.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Intention to Treat Analysis: Strategy for the analysis of RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC that compares patients in the groups to which they were originally randomly assigned.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Great BritainHealth Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cognitive Therapy: A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Patient Participation: Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Trial of Labor: Allowing a woman to be in LABOR, OBSTETRIC long enough to determine if vaginal birth may be anticipated.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Placebo Effect: An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Almanacs as Topic: Publications, usually annual, containing a calendar for the coming year, the times of such events and phenomena as anniversaries, sunrises, sunsets, phases of the moon, tides, meteorological, and other statistical information and related topics. Almanacs are also annual reference books of useful and interesting facts relating to countries of the world, sports, entertainment, population groups, etc. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Databases as Topic: Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Incunabula as Topic: Books printed before 1501.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.EuropeQualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Publication Bias: The influence of study results on the chances of publication and the tendency of investigators, reviewers, and editors to submit or accept manuscripts for publication based on the direction or strength of the study findings. Publication bias has an impact on the interpretation of clinical trials and meta-analyses. Bias can be minimized by insistence by editors on high-quality research, thorough literature reviews, acknowledgement of conflicts of interest, modification of peer review practices, etc.Research Personnel: Those individuals engaged in research.Architecture as Topic: The art and science of designing buildings and structures. More generally, it is the design of the total built environment, including town planning, urban design, and landscape architecture.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.GermanyPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about randomized clinical trials that compare interventions in clinical settings and which look at a range of effectiveness outcomes and impacts.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Publications: Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Smoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Behavior Therapy: The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.Education, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Cookbooks as Topic: Set of instructions about how to prepare food for eating using specific instructions.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)

*  Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016 by type, trend, region, Forecasts |...

Before It's News). Publisher's clinical trial report, "Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2016″ provides an overview of Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections clinical trials scenario. This report provides top line data relating to the clinical trials on Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype Infections. Report includes an overview of trial numbers and their average enrollment in top countries conducted across the globe. The report offers coverage of disease clinical trials by region, country (G7 & E7), phase, trial status, end points status and sponsor type. Report also provides prominent drugs for in-progress trials (based on number of ongoing trials). Publisher Clinical Trial Reports are generated using Publisher's proprietary database - Pharma eTrack Clinical trials database. Clinical trials are collated from 80+ different clinical ...

*  Research on Clinical Trials. Clinical trials in developing countries and Swissmedic s role in protecting vulnerable...

Research on Clinical Trials Clinical trials in developing countries and Swissmedic s role in protecting vulnerable participants 2 The Berne Declaration Founded in 1968, the Berne Declaration (BD) is an

*  What is a Clinical Trial? | Cancer 101

Cancer clinical trials are no longer seen as a last resort for cancer patients who had no other treatment choices. Today, patients often choose to receive their first cancer treatment in a clinical trial for many reasons.. First, cancer patients who take part in a trial may be helped by the treatment they receive. Trial participants receive either the standard of care-what scientists consider the most effective known treatment available-or the new medication or procedure under study. Cancer trial participants have access to the latest drugs, procedures, and other types of treatment. Although there is no guarantee that a new treatment will be effective, many trial participants conclude that the possible benefits outweigh the risks. But if a new treatment is effective, patients in clinical trials are among the first to receive it.. Second, clinical trials contribute to the overall knowledge and progress against cancer. Many of today's standard treatments for ...

*  Could ecstasy help victims of child abuse, rape and crime? Doctors get go-ahead for first clinical trial | Daily Mail Online

Scientists believe that ecstasy and other illegal drugs like LSD and magic mushrooms are potentially useful in treating people with serious psychological issues.

*  Onconova Presents Positive Clinical Trial Results for Radiation Injury Protector Ex-RAD - MedNews

Data Assessing Safety and Bioavailability of Oral and Subcutaneous Formulations to be presented at the Annual Meeting of Oct 3, 2012 - Onconova Therapeutics, In

*  Wanted: Hominids for Clinical Drug Trials

here). They propose that our ancestors lost their Siglecs some time after our lineage branched off from that of chimpanzees about six million years ago. The scientist also suggest that when the Siglecs disappeared, our lineage became prone to damaging overreactions from T cells that other apes did not suffer.. Why would natural selection favor Siglec-free T cells in the face of these diseases? It's possible that our ancestors faced some awful pathogen that required a powerful T cell response. Perhaps this reaction even helped our ancestors spread to new environments where they faced new disease.. It's also possible that natural selection had nothing to do with it. The diseases associated with the overactive human T cell take a long time to develop, and so they may not have interfered with child bearing-and thus with passing on genes from generation to generation.. There's one particularly intriguing coincidence to consider here: sialic acids have clearly undergone a dramatic evolutionary change ...

*  June, 2011 | Work In Progress

Yesterday, the Oncologic Drugs Advisory Committee issued its recommendation to the FDA on the use of Avastin for the treatment of breast cancer: no. Based on clinical trial results, ODAC members voted unanimously that the. ...

*  Clinical trial will test controlled 'drug holidays' to c...( Researchers have received approval fo...)

...Researchers have received approval for a new clinical trial to test c...Current state-of-the-art therapy for HIV infection is to administer a...Researchers at The Wistar Institute and elsewhere believe that carefu... Many people feel that the answer to AIDS will be found in improved a...,Clinical,trial,will,test,controlled,'drug,holidays',to,counter,HIV,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters

*  DMOZ - Health: Nursing: Specialties: Oncology

Wide range of information organized for the patient, health professional and basic researcher, including the PDQ database with treatment information, and clinical trial information, from the National Cancer Institute. ...

*  Clinical Trials | Coliseum Health System

Clinical Trials - Clinical trials are research studies designed to evaluate new cancer treatment options, including new drugs, surgical approaches, radiation therapies...

*  AG | Volunteer for a Clinical Trial

We regularly conduct clinical trials of new and promising alternatives to standard gastrointestinal procedures for a wide variety of conditions. Discover the benefits of participation in a clinical trial.

*  Using the Patient's Immune System to Treat One of the Deadliest Cancers | WBFF

Pancreatic cancer is a deadly disease that presents unique challenges for researchers. Clinical trials at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) are testing immunotherapy, medicines that stimulate the patient's immune system, to boost the effects of standard chem

*  Study to test new tinnitus 'treatment' - The University of Nottingham

A new clinical trial is to test whether a pocket-sized device that uses sound simulation to reboot faulty 'wiring' in the brain could cure people with tinnitus.

*  Transcept Pharmaceuticals Announces that a Phase 2 Clinical Trial of TO-2061 as Adjunctive Therapy

POINT RICHMOND, Calif., Dec. 21, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Transcept Pharmaceuticals Announces that a Phase 2 Clinical Trial of TO-2061 as Adjunctive Therapy...

*  Clinical Trials Significantly Enhanced With RxPense Hub

MONTREAL, June 14, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Clinical Trials Significantly Enhanced With RxPense Hub. RxPense®, an intelligent and connected medication...

*  Melt-Away Stent Works Well in Trial ( Absorbed harmlessly in the body it co...)

Health,...Absorbed harmlessly in the body it could replace traditional metal st...THURSDAY March 13 (HealthDay News) -- A polymer stent that is quietly...The stent was successfully implanted in 29 of 31 attempts the report ...A major clinical trial of the experimental stent is under way in sever...,Melt-Away,Stent,Works,Well,in,Trial,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news

*  Lexicon Initiates Phase 2 Clinical Trial of LX2931 in Patients With Rheumatoid... ( ...)

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*  Clinical Trial to Study the Efficacy and Safety of the Combination Regimen of MK-5172 and MK-3682 with Either MK-8742 or MK...

This study is investigating the combination regimen of MK-5172 and MK-3682 with either MK-8742 or MK-8408 in patients with chronic HCV GT1, GT2 and GT3

*  AG | Our Research

We regularly conduct clinical trials of new and promising alternatives to standard gastrointestinal procedures for a wide variety of conditions. Discover the benefits of participation in a clinical trial.

*  Clinical Trial Supply Management

Meet World leaders and experts in advancing clinical and medical imaging to estimate disease prevalence utilizing imaging technologies.

*  Innovations in Clinical Trials

Meet World leaders and experts in advancing clinical and medical imaging to estimate disease prevalence utilizing imaging technologies.

*  CRO, Clinical Trial Services, Pharmaceutical Consulting - QuintilesIMS

Learn how Quintiles can improve your probability of success by driving predictable and effective delivery for clinical, commercial, and real-world value.

*  Clinical Trials Insight: 700019981 - AdisInsight

Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you don't have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...

*  Clinical Trials Insight: 700028822 - AdisInsight

Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you don't have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...

*  Clinical Trials Insight: 700033956 - AdisInsight

Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you don't have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...

*  On the use of generalized linear models following a sequential design

Downloadable (with restrictions)! We provide conditions for the asymptotic normality of regression parameters from a generalized linear model, following a sequential design. Applications include sequential designs based on a generalized Friedman's urn for randomized clinical trials and a quadratic regression model.

*  7 Essential Cabinet Design Considerations for Protecting 19″ Electronics | Medical, eHealth & Home Health

This white paper, written by Vlad Konopelko, Product Marketing Manager, North America, for Pentair's Schroff brand, introduces seven essential mechanical structure and protection standards and design considerations for specifying a reliable 19

*  Tipi di Disegno di Studio - ppt scaricare

Objectives To understand the difference between descriptive and analytic studies To identify the hierarchy of study designs, and the strengths and weakness of each design To be able to apply different study designs to the same research question

*  On Purity | Deep thoughts and silliness

Haha. Just as a remark - not that I think you aren't aware of it - but what people often seem to overlook in that chain of reasoning is that one can't always draw conclusions about the larger system just from examining its constituents, emergent phenomena, complexity and all. Examples are plenty.. ...

*  FlexPod Datacenter with VMware vsphere 5.5 Update 1 Design Guide - PDF

Datacenter with VMware vsphere 5.5 Update 1 Design Guide Last Updated: August 11, 2014 Building Architectures to Solve Business Problems 2 Cisco Validated Design About the Authors About the Authors John

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Industrial Design (ID) or product architecture is the process of creating valuable, functional and aesthetically pleasing products for the benefit of both users

*  MA Typeface Design

The MA Typeface Design was the first MA course in the field, and for a long time, the only one operating in a research-intensive university.

*  FDA Approves Allergan's sNDA for AVYCAZ® (ceftazidime and avibactam) to include new Phase III data

DUBLIN, Jan. 30, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- FDA Approves Allergan's sNDA for AVYCAZ® (ceftazidime and avibactam) to include new Phase III data in Patients with...

*  Pivotal Phase III Data Confirm the Efficacy and Safety of Arpida's Intravenous Iclaprim in Treating Patients With Complicated...

... Iclaprim also achieved high eradication rates for the most common...REINACH Switzerland Oct. 26 /- Arpida (SWX:A...Iclaprim a novel antibiotic from the trusted dihydrofolate reductase... The high efficacy rates and favorable tolerability profile of iclapri...,Pivotal,Phase,III,Data,Confirm,the,Efficacy,and,Safety,of,Arpida's,Intravenous,Iclaprim,in,Treating,Patients,With,Complicated,Skin,and,Skin,Structure,Infections,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health

*  Novartis announces NEJM publication of two pivotal Phase III secukinumab studies - MedNews

EAST HANOVER, N.J., July 9, 2014 Novartis today announced that The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) published the results from two pivotal Phase III studi

*  Zogenix Initiates Pivotal Phase 3 Clinical Trial for Novel Formulation of Oral Controlled-Release H... ( SAN DIEGO Mar We...

... SAN DIEGO Mar... We are pleased to be initiating this pivotal Phase 3 trial of ZX002 a...,Zogenix,Initiates,Pivotal,Phase,3,Clinical,Trial,for,Novel,Formulation,of,Oral,Controlled-Release,Hydrocodone,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health

*  AbbVie Announces Positive Pivotal Phase 3 Data Demonstrating Investigational Medicine Elagolix Reduces Menstrual and Non...

Nachricht: AbbVie Announces Positive Pivotal Phase 3 Data Demonstrating Investigational Medicine Elagolix Reduces Menstrual and Non-Menstrual Pelvic Pain Associated with Endometriosis at the American Society for - 19.10.16 - News

*  Aurinia Announces Plans for Single Phase III Clinical Trial for Voclosporin in the Treatment of Lupus Nephritis Following...

Aurinia Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NASDAQ AUPH) (TSX AUP) ( Aurinia or the Company ), today announced its plans for a single Phase III clinical trial for voclosporin

*  Neothetics Announces Last Patient Enrolled in LIPO-202 Pivotal Phase 3 Clinical Trials for Reduction of Subcutaneous Abdominal...

Neothetics, Inc. (NASDAQ:NEOT), a clinical-stage specialty pharmaceutical company developing therapeutics for the aesthetic market, today announced completion of enrollment for its two pivotal U.S. Phase 3 trials titled AbCONTOUR1 and AbCONTOUR2. The...

*  A Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial of Daunoxome Versus Combination Chemotherapy With Adriamycin/Bleomycin/Vincristine (ABV)...

To compare the toxicity profiles (severity and time to onset from initiation of therapy) between daunorubicin (liposomal) and combination chemotherapy w

*  A Multi-center, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Parallel controlled, Standard Therapy Based Phase III Clinical Trial to...

This trial will investigate the efficacy of recombinant human neuregulin 1 beta in patients with chronic heart failure. The primary endpoint is cardiac function

*  Battening The Hatches | December 6, 2010 Issue - Vol. 88 Issue 49 | Chemical & Engineering News

Lilly CEO John C. Lechleiter acknowledged setbacks such as the failure in Phase III clinical trials of teplizumab, a diabetes treatment the company was developing with MacroGenics, and the halted clinical trials for two Alzheimer's disease drugs. Lechleiter claimed, however, that the company is on track for growth, pointing to cost-cutting efforts and strong international sales. "Japan performed particularly well in the quarter, growing revenue by 27%, driven by recent product launches. Strong performance was also seen in key emerging-market countries," he said. Sales were up 1.7% for the quarter and 6.2% for the first nine months, compared with 2009.. ...

*  A Multicentre, Randomized as a Double Blind Study, Triple Placebo, Comparative of the Efficacy and Safety of an Association...

A Multicentre, Randomized as a Double Blind Study, Triple Placebo, Comparative of the Efficacy and Safety of an Association Secnidazol-Ciprofloxacin Compared With Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid for the Treatment of Uncomplicated Episode of Diverticular Sigmoïditis Among Adults (DIVA ...

*  A 52-week treatment, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double dummy, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study to assess...

This trial will investigate the efficacy of indacaterol (200 mcg/day vs 400 mcg/day) versus formoterol [Foradil] in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary

*  A Randomized, Double-blind, Double-dummy, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of...

A Randomized, Double-blind, Double-dummy, Placebo-controlled, Parallel-group Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Different Doses of Indacaterol in Adult Patients With Persistent Asthma, Using Salmeterol as an Active Control ...

*  A Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo- and Active-controlled Parallel Group Study to Assess the Efficacy of 12 Weeks of Once...

This registrational study investigated the efficacy of two dose levels of orally inhaled Tiotropium-bromide + olodaterol fixed dose combination (delivered by

*  Randomized Phase II Double Blind Study of Adjuvant Regorafenib vs Placebo in Patients With Node Positive Esophageal Cancer That...

This trial is investigating efficacy of regorafenib in patients with node positive esophageal cancer that completed pre-operative therapy.

*  A Phase III, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Group, Double-Blind Clinical Trial to Study the Efficacy and Safety of MK...

This study consists of two parts, Part I and Part II. The purpose of Part I of the study is to assess the efficacy and safety of verubecestat (MK-8931) compared

*  New Validated Recipes for Double-blind Placebo-controlled Low Dose Food Challenges - Full Text View -

Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the Contacts provided below. For general information, see Learn About Clinical Studies. ...

*  A Phase I, Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Single and Multiple Sequential Ascending Dose Study Evaluating the...

This study is investigating the tolerability and pharmacokinetics of ascending doses of GCC 4401 versus rivaroxaban in healthy male subjects.

*  A Phase 1, Single-Center, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability,...

A Phase I, single-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of

*  A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Parallel-Design, Study With an Open-Label Positive-Control, to Assess the...

This study is investigating the pharmacodynamics and cardiac safety of oritavancin [The Medicines Company] versus placebo versus open-label moxifloxacin

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This phase IIb trial investigated the efficacy of roxadustat [FG-4592; FibroGen] in Chinese patients with anaemia and chronic kidney disease not receiving

*  A Multicenter, Double Blind, Randomized, Vehicle Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Two Dose Regimens of...

This phase IIb/III study evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of two dosage regimens (BID vs TID) of 1.5% topical auriclosene gel [NVC 422, CD 07223] versus

*  A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Examining The Safety, Efficacy, and Tolerability of SEP-225289 in Subjects With Major...

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*  A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Orvepitant in Subjects With Major...

Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you don't have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...

*  A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Four-Arm, Parallel-Group, Proof of Concept, and Dose-Finding Adaptive Phase 2a...

This phase IIa/IIb study is investigating whether recombinant Alkaline Phosphatase (recAP) is effective and safe, and to determine the most effective dose, in

*  A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Multinational, Dose-Ranging, Concurrent Control Study of the Safety, Efficacy,...

The purpose of this study is to test the safety and efficacy of two doses of the study drug called asfotase alfa as compared to a control group to see what

*  A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, First-in-human, 3-Part Study of Orally Administered ALS-008176 to Evaluate the...

This study will assess the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PK) of orally administered ALS-008176 in healthy volunteers.

*  Can a doctor suggest a good treatment for painful ankle and joints due to slipping from staircase ? - Doctor's insight on...

Question - Can a doctor suggest a good treatment for painful ankle and joints due to slipping from staircase ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask an Orthopaedic Surgeon

*  Determinants of virological failure after 1 year's antiretroviral therapy in Vietnamese people with HIV: findings from a...

Results Only 63% (2010/3199) of patients had access to routine viral load testing after 1 year of ART. After adjusting for other factors, patients with a baseline CD4 count of 50-100, 101-200 and 201-350 cells/mm3 were 0.48 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.74), 0.63 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.82) and 0.73 times (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95) as likely to have virological failure, respectively, as those with a baseline CD4 count ,50 cells/mm3. After adjusting for other factors, patients with good treatment adherence were 0.54 times as likely to have viraemia as those with poor treatment adherence (95% CI 0.28 to 0.81) and patients with immunological failure were 1.43 times as likely to have viraemia (95% CI 1.31 to 1.65) as those without. The PPV of immunological criteria was 60.1% (95% CI 57.1% to 69.3%).. ...

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This is a randomized, multi-site, open-label trial of the co-administration of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of elbasvir (50 mg)/grazoprevir (100 mg)

*  Open label study to establish the efficacy of intravenous loading doses of Ibandronate 6 mg in patients with lung cancer and...

This trial evaluated the efficacy of intravenous loading doses of ibandronic acid in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and skeletal metastases

*  Paclitaxel With / Without GW572016 (Lapatinib) As First Line Therapy For Women With Advanced Or Metastatic Breast Cancer - Full...

PFS is defined as the interval between the date of randomization and the earliest date of disease progression or death due to any cause, if sooner. Six months PFS is defined as PFS at six months from the time of randomization. Raw data for 6 months PFS are not available; thus, data are presented as the number of participants who progressed or died at or prior to 6 months. For TLs, progressive disease is defined asat least a 20% increase in the sum of the LD of TLs or the appearance of 1 or more new lesions. For NTLs, progressive disease is defined as the appearance of 1 or more new lesions and/or unequivocal progression of existing NTLs. PFS was assessed in participants who died or progressed, as well as in those who were censored and completed follow-up and those who were censored but are still being followed. For censored participants (those without a documented date of disease progression/death due to breast cancer), the date of the last radiographic assessment was used ...

*  An 18 Month Open Label Study Of The Tolerability And Efficacy Of An Antisense Oligonucleotide In Patients With Wild-Type...

The aim of the study is to determine whether lowering the blood levels of TTR, by a weekly injection of ISIS-TTRrx [Isis 420915/GSK 299872] will slow the

*  Articles about Belviq, Arena Pharma, Etc.

Arena had a classic case of Founder's Syndrome where the challenge gets too big for a founder. A lot of people helped it get FDA approval on its very important drug, Belviq despite attempts by some short sellers to dissuade FDA against its approval despite the very clean safety and good efficacy of Belviq, the obesity pandemic, and proof that diet and exercise alone don't work in most cases because of the changes in the brain and metabolism of obese people - and it can lead to some 50 diseases (as per Dr. Aronne, a top specialist).. Belviq's excellent safety and efficacy can be summarized as follows (with full details on · In clinical trials, patients on Belviq had a 10.6 to 1 odds of losing weight versus quitting due to adverse side effects. (1 out of 10.6 patients quit), while Contrave had a 2 to 1 ratio of success to side effects related discontinuation (1 out of 2 patients quit). So Belviq is far more tolerable and has milder side effects. Its most common side effects are a ...

*  A Phase I, Open-label, Non-randomized Study, to Assess the Safety and Tolerability of Cediranib (AZD2171) in Combination With...

The primary objective of the study is to assess the safety and tolerability of cediranib in combination with Cisplatin plus a Fluoropyrimidine (Capecitabine or

*  OPSITE Post-Op post-operative dressings from Smith & Nephew | Smith & Nephew - Corporate

OPSITE Post-Op and OPSITE Post-Op Visible both meet the criteria for an ideal post-operative dressing and provide several important benefits

*  What We Do

The CEBM is a not-for-profit organisation dedicated to the practice, teaching and dissemination of high quality evidence based medicine to improve healthcare in everyday clinical practice.. Research. One of our objectives is to produce high quality research capable of changing or improving current clinical practice. We use a variety of methods to achieve this including carrying out clinical trials, conducting systematic reviews, qualitative work, theoretical modelling, database analysis and quantitative analysis. We currently have several project themes led by various members of CEBM. Examples of some of our active research themes include research into Non-Communicable Disease which includes a research collaboration with the World Health Organisation. We also have a strong Diagnostic theme which includes assessing novel Diagnostic Technologies relevant to improving the diagnosis of disease in primary care.. One of the core objectives of each of our research projects is to have impact through ...

*  Plus it

The aim of drug regulation is to ensure that only effective and safe treatments reach patients. Ideally, regulatory decisions are based on good quality data from large trials measuring real world, patient centred outcomes. Licensing agencies, however, routinely approve treatments on the basis of small placebo controlled trials evaluating short term, surrogate endpoints in selected populations. Consequently, medicines are commonly prescribed without good quality data on their long term benefits and harms.1 2 Current licensing standards are inadequate to predict the real world therapeutic value of new medications.3. This is particularly problematic for preventive treatments given to large populations, which should be subject to a high standard of proof of benefit and absence of appreciable harm. These drugs present interesting challenges because, firstly, the real world benefits often take many years to arise and, secondly, those benefits are often modest, ...

*  Intervention Steps and Best Practices - Alcohol Rehab

Stage four is the pre-intervention meeting. It is during this time that the interventionist will discuss in detail who will be attending, where and when the event is going to take place, who will speak and for how long, and what they will say. A fool-proof plan will ensure that all possible outcomes have been considered, and will mean a stronger intervention. It is also during this time that the interventionist may suggest each member writes a letter to the client. This letter is to be read to the alcoholic to show them how their behavior is affecting others. It is done to give them a picture of how they are not just destroying themselves, but also those who care about them. The letter should be succinct and comprehensively detail how the person cares about them, are scared for them, and how they want to help them on their road to recovery. By writing a letter, it ensures that each person can clearly say what they want without being distracted by the emotions of the intervention.. ...

*  Sebelipase alfa Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of sebelipase alfa. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  A prospective phase I and consecutive phase II, two arm, randomized multi-center trial of temsirolimus in combination with...

This trial will investigate the efficacy and tolerability of temsirolimus in combination with pioglitazone, etoricoxib, trofosfamide versus dacarbazine in

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Learn about the potential side effects of Rayos (prednisone). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Aredia Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Aredia (pamidronate). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

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Learn about the potential side effects of follicle stimulating hormone. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

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Learn about the potential side effects of Excedrin Back & Body (acetaminophen/aspirin). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

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Learn about the potential side effects of remifentanil. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

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Learn about the potential side effects of Instacort (hydrocortisone). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Tempra 2 Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Tempra 2 (acetaminophen). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Solfoton Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Solfoton (phenobarbital). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  AH-Chew D Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of AH-Chew D (phenylephrine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Adeno-jec Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Adeno-jec (adenosine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Egrifta Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Egrifta (tesamorelin). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Iopidine Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Iopidine (apraclonidine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Netromycin Side Effects in Detail -

Learn about the potential side effects of Netromycin (netilmicin). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.

*  Levoxyl

... is a prescription drug that can treat an underactive thyroid and certain types of thyroid problems. This eMedTV page offers an overview of the drug, including information on how it works, potential side effects, and some general precautions.

*  Phase I/II Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Avelumab in Combination With Other Anti-Cancer Therapies in...

Objectives: Primary Objectives: - For Arms C-G, to establish the safety, tolerability, and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of different treatment combinations

*  surgery

The patients, who have suffered a surgical intervention by an experienced surgeon, have a rate of mortality on long term with 22% inferior to those who have been treated by surgeons with a lower volume of surgical interventions in their list of achievements.. According to which criteria should one chose his/her doctor or surgeon in case of a relatively severe disease? The experience is an important factor of the doctor´s quality. A new proof has been given by Swedish researchers who have substantiated that a patient suffering of oesophagus cancer benefits from a longer survival on long term if he/she has been operated on by an experienced surgeon, who has the experience of such difficult interventions, in comparison with a novice or a doctor not specialized in this pathology. As one could have suspected, they have substantiated it in a masterly manner. The researchers at the Institut Karolinska, who have published their result on the 7th of January in The Journal of Clinical Oncology , ...

*  outcome - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for outcome

outcome - MedHelp's outcome Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for outcome. Find outcome information, treatments for outcome and outcome symptoms.

*  Oxygen For Life

... - Our purpose is to facilitate the global improvement of the health and well-being of humans, plants and animals. By providing advanced natural oxygenating products, together with informed service and purposeful education, we work at enhancing the existence of the Earths inhabitants purifying all sources of water and waste; and improving the productivity of our soils, for the general upliftment of mankind.

*  Improving Drug Treatments In Mammals

An improved method for identifying the size, shape and duration of drug exposure necessary to improve drug treatment in a subject with a bacterial infection. In addition, an improved method for identification of new dosing strategies which optimize the probability of positive treatment outcomes in subjects using resistance inhibitory concentration

*  A Phase II Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of TKI258 for the Treatment of Patients With FGFR2 Mutated or Wild-type Advanced and...

This is a prospective, multi-center, open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, Phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TKI258 as second-line

*  CardioMessenger Smart, a Device for Early Therapy Adjustments in Heart Patients

The device is fully automatic, passing the data through the GSM cellular network to physicians without any interaction from the patients.

*  A 12-month Open-label Study To Evaluate The Safety And Tolerability Of Pregabalin As Adjunctive Therapy In Pediatric Subjects 1...

This study is investigating the efficacy, long-term safety and tolerability of pregabalin as add-on therapy in paediatric patients aged 1 month to 16 years with

*  A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase II Trial Evaluating the Safety and Activity of DNIB0600A Compared to Pegylated...

This randomized, multicenter, open-label study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of DNIB0600A (RO5541081) in comparison with PLD in participants with PROC,

*  First thoughts on Kin One and Two from teen reviewers | ZDNet

In order to help you understand if the new Microsoft Kin One and Two devices are an attractive option for teenagers I am having my two teen daughters evaluate the devices.

*  How fast growing cancer cells?; The tumor; Course of the cancer process; Doubling Time; Growth of the tumor; Uitzaaïngen

In healthy tissue cells often go lost, and it is of the utmost importance that is compensated for by the process of cell division, this loss of cells. If we are talking about a cancer, we

*  Conditions & Procedures | Nutrition | Functional Medicine

Nutrition is of the utmost importance for your health. They say you are what you eat and that is very true. Learn more at Top10MD.

*  Mayor Hospitalized With Chest Pains - tribunedigital-chicagotribune

Mayor Richard Sarallo was listed in stable condition in the cardiac care unit of Hinsdale Hospital after suffering chest pains Thursday morning, hospital officials said.According to city officials,

Community-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.Placebo-controlled study: Placebo-controlled studies are a way of testing a medical therapy in which, in addition to a group of subjects that receives the treatment to be evaluated, a separate control group receives a sham "placebo" treatment which is specifically designed to have no real effect. Placebos are most commonly used in blinded trials, where subjects do not know whether they are receiving real or placebo treatment.British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease: The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease is a peer-reviewed academic journal that publishes papers six times a year in the field of Cardiovascular medicine. The journal's editors are Clifford J Bailey (Aston University), Ian Campbell (Victoria Hospital) and Christoph Schindler (Dresden University of Technology).International Congress on Sleep ApneaBestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThe Oxford Textbook of Medicine: The Oxford Textbook of Medicine Warrell DA, Cox TM, Firth JD. (2010).Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.TremelimumabNational Clinical Guideline CentreInternational Committee on Aeronautical Fatigue and Structural IntegrityPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Bio Base EuropeSampson Gideon: Sampson Gideon (February 1699 in London – 17 October 1762) was a Jewish-British banker in the City of London.Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Systematic Protein Investigative Research EnvironmentLow-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.HMS Australia (1886): HMS Australia was one of seven armoured cruisers built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1880s. She was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet in 1889 and remained there until 1893 when she returned home.Syllabus: A syllabus (pl. syllabi) is an outline and summary of topics to be covered in an education or training course.Feasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Dietary Supplements (database): The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS). PMDSS is designed to help people search for academic journal articles related to dietary supplement literature.Andrew Dickson WhiteConcentration effect: In the study of inhaled anesthetics, the concentration effect is the increase in the rate that the Fa(alveolar concentration)/Fi(inspired concentration) ratio rises as the alveolar concentration of that gas is increased. In simple terms, the higher the concentration of gas administered, the faster the alveolar concentration of that gas approaches the inspired concentration.List of podcasting companies: This is a list of notable podcast production and distribution companies. This includes both audio and video podcasts.Research participant: A research participant, also called a human subject or an experiment, trial, or study participant or subject, is a person who participates in human subject research by being the target of observation by researchers.Esther InglisClinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.Standard evaluation frameworkHistory of communication studies: Various aspects of communication have been the subject of study since ancient times, and the approach eventually developed into the academic discipline known today as communication studies.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Exercise prescription software: Exercise prescription software is a branch of computer software designed to aid in the construction of exercise programmes or regimes for patients who require some kind of ongoing rehabilitation.Pain scale: A pain scale measures a patient's pain intensity or other features. Pain scales are based on self-report, observational (behavioral), or physiological data.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders: Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is derived from both the cognitive and behavioral schools of psychology and focuses on the alteration of thoughts and actions with the goal of treating various disorders. The cognitive behavioral treatment of eating disorders emphasizes the minimization of negative thoughts about body image and the act of eating, and attempts to alter negative and harmful behaviors that are involved in and perpetuate eating disorders.List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Patient participation: Patient participation, also called shared decision-making, is a process in which both the patient and physician contribute to the medical decision-making process. Under this operating system, health care providers explain treatments and alternatives to patients in order to provide the necessary resources for patients to choose the treatment option that most closely aligns with their unique cultural and personal beliefs.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.School health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Regularized canonical correlation analysis: Regularized canonical correlation analysis is a way of using ridge regression to solve the singularity problem in the cross-covariance matrices of canonical correlation analysis. By converting \operatorname{cov}(X, X) and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) into \operatorname{cov}(X, X) + \lambda I_X and \operatorname{cov}(Y, Y) + \lambda I_Y, it ensures that the above matrices will have reliable inverses.Placebo studies: Placebo studies is an interdisciplinary academic discipline concerning the study of the placebo effect. The placebo effect is commonly characterized when patients given a placebo or "fake" treatment exhibit a perceived improvement.Journal of Aging and Health: The Journal of Aging and Health (JAH) is a medical journal covering aging published by SAGE Publications. It covers research on gerontology, including diet/nutrition, prevention, behaviors, health service utilization, longevity, and mortality.

(1/12901) Colon and rectal anastomoses do not require routine drainage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

OBJECTIVE: Many surgeons continue to place a prophylactic drain in the pelvis after completion of a colorectal anastomosis, despite considerable evidence that this practice may not be useful. The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to determine if placement of a drain after a colonic or rectal anastomosis can reduce the rate of complications. METHODS: A search of the Medline database of English-language articles published from 1987 to 1997 was conducted using the terms "colon," "rectum," "postoperative complications," "surgical anastomosis," and "drainage." A manual search was also conducted. Four randomized controlled trials, including a total of 414 patients, were identified that compared the routine use of drainage of colonic and/or rectal anastomoses to no drainage. Two reviewers assessed the trials independently. Trial quality was critically appraised using a previously published scale, and data on mortality, clinical and radiologic anastomotic leakage rate, wound infection rate, and major complication rate were extracted. RESULTS: The overall quality of the studies was poor. Use of a drain did not significantly affect the rate of any of the outcomes examined, although the power of this analysis to exclude any difference was low. Comparison of pooled results revealed an odds ratio for clinical leak of 1.5 favoring the control (no drain) group. Of the 20 observed leaks among all four studies that occurred in a patient with a drain in place, in only one case (5%) did pus or enteric content actually appear in the effluent of the existing drain. CONCLUSIONS: Any significant benefit of routine drainage of colon and rectal anastomoses in reducing the rate of anastomotic leakage or other surgical complications can be excluded with more confidence based on pooled data than by the individual trials alone. Additional well-designed randomized controlled trials would further reinforce this conclusion.  (+info)

(2/12901) The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials.

We sought to assess the effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure in humans. Our data sources included a MEDLINE search of the literature published before December 1997, bibliography review, and expert consultation. We selected controlled trials in which coffee consumption was the only difference between the intervention and control groups, mean blood pressure change was reported for each group or period, and treatment lasted for >24 hours. Of 36 studies initially identified, 11 (522 participants) met these inclusion criteria. Information on sample size, study design, participant characteristics (gender, race, age, baseline blood pressure, and antihypertensive medications), and treatment results were abstracted by 3 reviewers using a standardized protocol. Treatment effect of coffee consumption on blood pressure was estimated with the use of a random-effects model. In the 11 trials, median duration was 56 days (range, 14 to 79 days), and median dose of coffee was 5 cups/d. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2.4 (range, 1.0 to 3.7) mm Hg and 1.2 (range, 0.4 to 2.1) mm Hg, respectively, with coffee treatment compared with control. Multiple linear regression analysis identified an independent, positive relationship between cups of coffee consumed and subsequent change in systolic blood pressure, independent of age of study participants and study design characteristics. The effect of coffee drinking on systolic and diastolic blood pressure was greater in trials with younger participants. Our findings provide support for a relationship between coffee consumption and higher blood pressure. Trials of coffee cessation of longer duration and in persons with hypertension should be performed.  (+info)

(3/12901) One-year survival among patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, and its relation to early revascularization: results from the GUSTO-I trial.

BACKGROUND: Although 30-day survival is increased in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who undergo coronary revascularization, the longer-term outcome in such patients and the duration of benefit from revascularization are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed 30-day survivors of acute myocardial infarction in the Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue-Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO-I) trial and identified 36 333 who had not had cardiogenic shock (systolic blood pressure <90 mm Hg for >/=1 hour, group 1) and 1321 patients who had shock (group 2). Group 2 patients were older and sicker. At 1 year, 97.4% of group 1 patients were alive versus 88.0% of group 2 (P=0.0001). Among group 2 patients, 578 (44%) had undergone revascularization within 30 days (group 2A) and 728 (56%) had not (group 2B). Revascularization was not required by protocol but was selected by the attending physicians. At 1 year, 91.7% of group 2A patients were alive versus 85.3% of group 2B (P=0.0003). With the use of multivariable logistic regression analysis to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics of shock patients alive at 30 days, revascularization within 30 days was independently associated with reduced 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.6, [95% confidence interval 0.4, 0.9], P=0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Most patients (88%) with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who are alive at 30 days survived at least 1 year. Shock patients who underwent revascularization within 30 days had improved survival at 1 year compared with shock patients who did not receive revascularization, even after adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics between the 2 groups.  (+info)

(4/12901) Racial differences in the outcome of left ventricular dysfunction.

BACKGROUND: Population-based studies have found that black patients with congestive heart failure have a higher mortality rate than whites with the same condition. This finding has been attributed to differences in the severity, causes, and management of heart failure, the prevalence of coexisting conditions, and socioeconomic factors. Although these factors probably account for some of the higher mortality due to congestive heart failure among blacks, we hypothesized that racial differences in the natural history of left ventricular dysfunction might also have a role. METHODS: Using data from the Studies of Left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) prevention and treatment trials, in which all patients received standardized therapy and follow-up, we conducted a retrospective analysis of the outcomes of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction among black and white participants. The mean (+/-SD) follow-up was 34.2+/-14.0 months in the prevention trial and 32.3+/-14.8 months in the treatment trial among the black and white participants. RESULTS: The overall mortality rates in the prevention trial were 8.1 per 100 person-years for blacks and 5.1 per 100 person years for whites. In the treatment trial, the rates were 16.7 per 100 person-years and 13.4 per 100 person-years, respectively. After adjustment for age, coexisting conditions, severity and causes of heart failure, and use of medications, blacks had a higher risk of death from all causes in both the SOLVD prevention trial (relative risk, 1.36; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.74; P=0.02) and the treatment trial (relative risk, 1.25; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.04 to 1.50; P=0.02). In both trials blacks were also at higher risk for death due to pump failure and for the combined end point of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure, our two predefined indicators of the progression of left ventricular systolic dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: Blacks with mild-to-moderate left ventricular systolic dysfunction appear to be at higher risk for progression of heart failure and death from any cause than similarly treated whites. These results suggest that there may be racial differences in the outcome of asymptomatic and symptomatic left ventricular systolic dysfunction.  (+info)

(5/12901) Safety of long-term therapy with ciprofloxacin: data analysis of controlled clinical trials and review.

We reviewed the literature and the manufacturer's U.S. clinical data pool for safety data on long-term administration of ciprofloxacin (Bayer, West Haven, CT). Only controlled clinical trials including patients treated for >30 days were selected. We identified 636 patients by literature search and 413 patients in the Bayer U.S. database who fulfilled our search criteria; the average treatment duration for these patients was 130 and 80 days, respectively. Main indications for long-term therapy were osteomyelitis, skin and soft-tissue infection, prophylaxis for urinary tract infection, mycobacterial infections, and inflammatory bowel disease. Adverse events, premature discontinuation of therapy, and deaths occurred at a similar frequency in both treatment arms. Most adverse events occurred early during therapy with little increase in frequency over time. As with short-term therapy, gastrointestinal events were more frequent than central nervous system or skin reactions, but pseudomembranous colitis was not observed. No previously unknown adverse events were noted. We conclude that ciprofloxacin is tolerated as well as other antibiotics when extended courses of therapy are required.  (+info)

(6/12901) Separate and joint effects of micronutrient deficiencies on linear growth.

Recent studies have investigated the effect of micronutrient deficiencies on growth stunting, with special attention toward the effect of zinc, iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiencies. In Mexico, the prevalence of growth stunting in children <5 y old is approximately 24%; it is higher in rural areas and lower in urban areas. In an initial study, the effect of zinc and/or iron supplementation on linear growth was investigated in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled design. After 12 mo of supplementation, there was no difference between the groups supplemented with zinc, iron or zinc plus iron and the placebo group. At baseline, 82% of the children in this study were deficient in at least two out of the five micronutrients that were determined, and 73% were anemic. In another study, a mixture of those micronutrients that were documented to be lacking in Mexican children was formulated in a supplement and given to Mexican children over a period of 12 mo in a longitudinal, placebo-controlled, supplementation design. Children in the low and medium socioeconomic status grew about 1 cm more than similar children in the placebo group. This difference was not found in children of high socioeconomic status. It is suggested that, in most cases, growth stunting is associated with marginal deficiencies of several micronutrients and that in populations with multiple micronutrient deficiencies, the effect on linear growth of supplementation with single nutrients will not be significant. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients is expected to be more effective, but even in that case the actual increment in height was less than the expected potential increment.  (+info)

(7/12901) Colorectal cancer mortality: effectiveness of biennial screening for fecal occult blood.

BACKGROUND: In 1993, a randomized controlled trial in Minnesota showed, after 13 years of follow-up, that annual fecal occult blood testing was effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality by at least 33%. Biennial screening (i.e., every 2 years) resulted in only a 6% mortality reduction. Two European trials (in England and in Denmark) subsequently showed statistically significant 15% and 18% mortality reductions with biennial screening. Herein, we provide updated results-through 18 years of follow-up--from the Minnesota trial that address the apparent inconsistent findings among the trials regarding biennial screening. METHODS: From 1976 through 1977, a total of 46551 study subjects, aged 50-80 years, were recruited and randomly assigned to an annual screen, a biennial screen, or a control group. A screen consisted of six guaiac-impregnated fecal occult blood tests (Hemoccult) prepared in pairs from each of three consecutive fecal samples. Participants with at least one of the six tests that were positive were invited for a diagnostic examination that included colonoscopy. All participants were followed annually to ascertain incident colorectal cancers and deaths. RESULTS: The numbers of deaths from all causes were similar among the three study groups. Cumulative 18-year colorectal cancer mortality was 33% lower in the annual group than in the control group (rate ratio, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.51-0.83). The biennial group had a 21% lower colorectal cancer mortality rate than the control group (rate ratio, 0.79; 95% CI = 0.62-0.97). A marked reduction was also noted in the incidence of Dukes' stage D cancers in both screened groups in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION: The results from this study, together with the other two published randomized trials of fecal occult blood screening, are consistent in demonstrating a substantial, statistically significant reduction in colorectal cancer mortality from biennial screening.  (+info)

(8/12901) Report of a National Institutes of Health--Centers for Disease Control and Prevention workshop on the feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons.

A workshop was convened in 1997 by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to consider the need for and feasibility of conducting a randomized clinical trial to estimate the long-term health effects of intentional weight loss in obese persons. Although the benefits of weight loss in obese individuals may seem obvious, little information is available showing that intentional weight loss improves long-term health outcomes. Observational studies may be unable to provide convincing answers about the magnitude and direction of the health effects of intentional weight loss. Workshop participants agreed that a well-designed randomized clinical trial could answer several questions necessary for developing a rational clinical and public health policy for treating obesity. Such information will ultimately provide needed guidance on the risks and benefits of weight loss to health care providers and payers, as well as to millions of obese Americans.  (+info)


  • A Single Center, Randomized Controlled, Pilot Study Comparing Group Visits Versus Routine Clinical Care for Participants With Parkinson's Disease (PD). (
  • Gender comparison of efficacy and safety of ranolazine for chronic angina pectoris in four randomized clinical trials. (
  • SEARCH METHODS: We updated the search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinical register in December 13, 2011. (
  • DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data regarding clinical outcomes were extracted from the reports of the clinical trials by the reviewers. (
  • All four carbapenems were similar in clinical effectiveness in double blind trials for complicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). (
  • BACKGROUND: Although many believe that platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors should be used only in acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, supporting data from randomized clinical trials are tenuous. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Clinical-practice decisions and practice guidelines should be based on overall trial results and not analyses of post-randomization subgroups. (
  • Relevant observational studies (OBS) were critiqued using the STROBE checklist and randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) using the CONSORT checklist. (
  • This expansion has occurred as a result of an enthusiastic extrapolation of results from randomised trials leading to "off-label" use of DES in anatomical or clinical high-risk scenarios, or both. (
  • Five large randomized clinical trials show the benefits of lipid lowering with statins on cardiac morbidity and mortality. (
  • The evidence from randomized, controlled clinical trials. (


  • The responsiveness of the following different outcomes to group visits will be assessed during the pilot trial: quality of life, patient satisfaction, depression, caregiver burden, resource utilization, and disease progression. (


  • Three of these were secondary-prevention trials--the Long-term Intervention with Pravastatin in Ischemic Disease (LIPID) study, Cholesterol and Recurrent Events (CARE), and Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study (4S). (
  • Pooled data from three trials, CARE, LIPID, and the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS), were examined in the Pravastatin Pooling Project (PPP). (
  • Prevention of stroke through reduction of established risk factors is an essential part of the VA Stroke QUERI strategic plan for the VA. In spite of this, in the Veterans Affairs, only 13% of patients with known CVD achieve target BP and cholesterol control. (


  • The proposed interventional study will clarify the role of vitamin D in preventing asthma exacerbations and in achieving better chronic asthma control in children with moderate to severe asthma. (

subgroup analyses

  • The assumption that these agents are useful only in conjunction with percutaneous coronary intervention is based primarily on inappropriate subgroup analyses performed across the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor trials. (
  • Individual patient data from these three event trials were pooled into a single database, permitting subgroup analyses and providing increased power. (


  • Although there are no evidence-based data to guide therapy, there is an ongoing randomized double-blind controlled treatment trial of IIH investigating diet and medical therapy. (


  • The primary outcome measure for efficacy will be a comparison of the change in the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 from baseline to 12 months in the control (routine care) and intervention (group visit) groups. (


  • Recent randomized controlled trials have shown that antioxidant cocktail and pregabalin (a presynaptic voltage gated calcium channel blocking agent) can result in significant reduction of pain in CP. (


  • the control group received no therapy. (
  • After the 2-month treatment period, improvement in renal function was greater in the treatment group than in the control group. (
  • Since these children may be randomized to the control group, they will be excluded for ethical reasons. (


  • SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that compared the effects of prophylactic surfactant administration to surfactant treatment of established RDS in preterm infants at risk of RDS. (


  • Multiple randomised trials have demonstrated that drug-eluting stents (DES) can significantly reduce rates of restenosis by 60-75% across both lesion and patient subsets. (


  • Extended-dose nevirapine to 6 weeks of age for infants to prevent HIV transmission via breastfeeding in Ethiopia, India, and Uganda: an analysis of three randomised controlled trials. (