Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Seed Dispersal: The various physical methods which include wind, insects, animals, tension, and water, by which a plant scatters its seeds away from the parent plant.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Ceiba: A plant genus of the family BOMBACACEAE. The fine silky hairs covering the seeds have been used for floatation, stuffing, and insulation.Bromeliaceae: A plant family of the order Bromeliales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Meteorology: The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.PanamaEnvironmental Pollution: Contamination of the air, bodies of water, or land with substances that are harmful to human health and the environment.Self-Fertilization: The fusion of a male gamete with a female gamete from the same individual animal or plant.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequoia: A plant genus of the family TAXODIACEAE known for including some of the tallest trees.Agricultural Irrigation: The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Mediterranean Islands: Scattered islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The chief islands are the Balearic Islands (belong to Spain; Majorca and Minorca are among these), Corsica (belongs to France), Crete (belongs to Greece), CYPRUS (a republic), the Cyclades, Dodecanese and Ionian Islands (belong to Greece), MALTA (a republic), Sardinia and SICILY (belong to Italy). (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p747)Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)BrazilWind: The motion of air relative to the earth's surface.Liberia: A republic in western Africa, south of GUINEA and east of COTE D'IVOIRE. Its capital is Monrovia.Hymenaea: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain resins (RESINS, PLANT) and GLUCANS.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Clusiaceae: The mangosteen plant family (sometimes classified as Guttiferae; also known as Hypericaceae) of the order THEALES, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes trees and shrubs with resinous, sticky sap, usually with broad-ended, oblong, leathery leaves with a strong, central vein, flowers with many stamens.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Poa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Poa p Ia allergen and allergen C KBGP.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Ephedra: A plant genus of the family Ephedraceae, order Ephedrales, class Gnetopsida, division Gnetophyta.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Spatio-Temporal Analysis: Techniques which study entities using their topological, geometric, or geographic properties and include the dimension of time in the analysis.Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Coniferophyta: A plant division of GYMNOSPERMS consisting of cone-bearing trees and shrubs.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)EcuadorDisasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Zingiberales: This plant order includes 8 families, 66 genera, and about 1,800 species. These herbaceous perennials are mainly found in the wet tropics. Members include the banana family (MUSACEAE) and GINGER family (ZINGIBERACEAE).Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Annonaceae: The custard-apple plant family of the order Magnoliales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members provide large pulpy fruits and commercial timber. Leaves and wood are often fragrant. Leaves are simple, with smooth margins, and alternately arranged in two rows along the stems.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Borneo: An island in the Malay Archipelago, east of Sumatra, north of Java, and west of Celebes. It is the third largest island in the world. Its name is a Portuguese alteration of BRUNEI, located on it. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p163; Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p73)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Northern Territory: Territory in north central Australia, between the states of Queensland and Western Australia. Its capital is Darwin.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Water Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)ArgentinaSeeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Orchidaceae: A plant family of the order Orchidales, subclass Liliidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). All orchids have the same bilaterally symmetrical flower structure, with three sepals, but the flowers vary greatly in color and shape.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down: "The Rain Rain Rain Came Down Down Down" is a narrative song from the Walt Disney musical film featurette, Winnie the Pooh and the Blustery Day. The song is also incorporated into the 1977 musical film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh which is an amalgamation of three Winnie-the-Pooh featurettes including "Blustery Day".Acid Rain Retirement Fund: The Acid Rain Retirement Fund (A.R.Peat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area: Water Agriculture and Health in Tropical Area (French, Eau Agriculture Et Sante Et Milieu Tropical (E.A.Biological dispersalEcosystemSnow pea: The snow pea (Pisum sativum var. saccharatum) is a legume, more specifically a variety of pea eaten whole in its pod while still unripe.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Citizen Weather Observer Program: The Citizen Weather Observer Program (CWOP) is a network of privately owned electronic weather stations concentrated in the United States but also located in over 150 countries. Network participation allows volunteers with computerized weather stations to send automated surface weather observations to the National Weather Service (NWS) by way of the Meteorological Assimilation Data Ingest System (MADIS).Tower Garden: As read in its patent, the Tower Garden® is a general vertical hydroponic growing system, although it is at times confused to be an aeroponic system. Priced at over $500 and weighing over 150lbs when filled, it is a patented food production system designed for urban farms, rooftop gardens, and commercial growing operations.Pitcairnioideae: Pitcairnioideae is the terrestrial subfamily of the bromeliads (Bromeliaceae) with over 1000 species in 16 genera. Unlike the many epiphytes and lithophytes which comprise the rest of the family, with a few exceptions, all of the members of this subfamily are either terrestrial or [saxicolous|saxicolous].Transport in Madagascar: == Railways ==Index of soil-related articles: This is an index of articles relating to soil.Quasiperiodicity: Quasiperiodicity is the property of a system that displays irregular periodicity. Periodic behavior is defined as recurring at regular intervals, such as "every 24 hours".Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research: 140px|rightNAME (dispersion model): The NAME atmospheric pollution dispersion model Air Quality Programme and Progress, Met Office Scientific Advisory Committee (MOSAC), November 11–12, 2004Met Office "Specialised forecasts"Met Office "NWP Gazette", 3rd Quarter, 1996Met Office "NWP Gazette", December 2000 was first developed by the UK's Met Office in 1986 after the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, which demonstrated the need for a method that could predict the spread and deposition of radioactive gases or material released into the atmosphere.Roberto Arias: Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), known as "Tito", was a Panamanian international lawyer, diplomat and journalist who was the husband of Dame Margot Fonteyn. Arias was from a prominent Panamanian political family, whose members had reached the Presidency four times; amongst them, his own father, Harmodio Arias.Polarized light pollution: Polarization is a property of light waves that describes the orientation of their oscillations. Polarized light pollutionGábor Horváth, György Kriska, Péter Malik, Bruce Robertson.Threshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Alliance for Zero Extinction: Formed in 2000 and launched globally in 2005, the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) comprises 100 non-governmental biodiversity conservation organizations working to prevent species extinctions by identifying and safeguarding sites where species evaluated to be Endangered or Critically Endangered under International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) criteria only exist at one location on earth."Zero Extinction - Home.Toyota Sequoia: The Toyota Sequoia is a full-size SUV manufactured by Toyota and derived from its Tundra pickup truck.Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Smith Act): The Irrigation District Act of 1916 (Irrigation Smith Act) authorized the federal government to serve as the guarantor of debt obligations entered into by local governments to finance the acquisition, extension, or operation of irrigation, drainage, and flood control projects or to develop power generation facilities or water resources.List of rivers of French Guiana: This is a list of rivers in French Guiana.Agioi Theodoroi (islands)Eucalyptus globulus: The Tasmanian blue gum, southern blue gum or blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) is an evergreen tree, one of the most widely cultivated trees native to Australia. They typically grow from tall.Decay productUniversity of CampinasMountaineer Wind Energy Center: Mountaineer Wind Energy Center is a wind farm on Backbone Mountain in Preston and Tucker counties in the U.S.Global Bank Liberia: Global Bank Liberia Limited (GBLL), commonly referred to as Global Bank Liberia, is a commercial bank in Liberia. It is one of the commercial banks licensed by the Central Bank of Liberia, the national banking regulator.Trypanosoma antiquusLygodiumHealth geography: Health geography is the application of geographical information, perspectives, and methods to the study of health, disease, and health care.Psorospermum febrifugum: Psorospermum febrifugum is a flowering plant species in the genus Psorospermum occurring in Zimbabwe and Mozambique. It grows in open woodland over a wide range of altitudes.PollenMatrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Poa bulbosa: Poa bulbosa is a species of grass known by the common names bulbous bluegrass or bulbous meadow-grass. It is native to Eurasia and North Africa, but it is present practically worldwide as an introduced species.Canna Leaf Roller: Cannas are largely free of pests, but in the USA plants sometimes fall victim the Canna Leaf Roller, which can actually be two different insects. Larva of the Brazilian skipper butterfly (Calpodes ethlius), also known as the Larger Canna Leaf Roller, cut the leaves and roll them over to live inside while pupating and eating the leaf.Paul Pritchard: Paul Pritchard (born 1967 in Bolton, Lancashire) was one of the leading British climbers of the 1980s and 1990s. He started climbing at 16 in his native Lancashire, and within a year had started to repeat some of the hardest routes in the county, as well as beginning his own additions.EphedraBulloo-Bancannia drainage basin: The Bulloo-Bancannia drainage basin is a drainage basin that covers part of western Queensland and New South Wales. It is adjacent to the much larger Lake Eyre basin.WormsgrabenOrganic fertilizer: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers derived from animal matter, human excreta or vegetable matter. (e.Bert (horse): Bert}}Stratosphere: The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down.Smoking in Ecuador: Smoking in Ecuador is more common among men and younger people. More than half of Ecuadorian smokers desire to quit.South Asia Disaster Report: South Asia Disaster Report is a 2006 report by Duryog Nivaran, edited by Amjad Bhatti and others, and subtitled Tackling the Tides and Tremors. It looks at disasters affecting the South Asian region's "countries and communities (that) are connected to each other geologically, geographically and culturally".Nanometre: The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre ( m) . The name combines the SI prefix nano- (from the Ancient Greek , , "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek , , "unit of measurement").AmborellaExhaust systemAnnonaceaeDeforestation in Borneo: Borneo, the third largest island in the world, divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei, was once covered with dense rainforests, but along with its tropical lowland and highland forests, there has been extensive deforestation since the 1960s, as the native economies of the region experienced rapid industrialisation. In the 1980s and 1990s the forests of Borneo underwent a dramatic transition.Caninia (genus)Fujiyama (roller coaster)Psorophora howardiiList of largest volcanic eruptions: In a volcanic eruption, lava, tephra (volcanic bombs, lapilli, and ash), and various gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure. While many eruptions only pose dangers to the immediately surrounding area, Earth's largest eruptions can have a major regional or even global impact, with some affecting the climate and contributing to mass extinctions.Rum Jungle, Northern Territory: Rum Jungle is an area in the Northern Territory, Australia where a uranium deposit was found and recognised as such in 1949. It is about 105 kilometres south of Darwin on the East Branch of the Finniss River.Dasyochloa: Dasyochloa is a monotypic genus containing the single species Dasyochloa pulchellaGrass Manual Treatment (formerly Erioneuron pulchellum),Mojave Desert Wildflowers, Pam Mackay, 2nd Ed. 2013, p.Chilalo Agricultural Development Union: Chilalo Agricultural Development Union (CADU) is the first comprehensive package project established in Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia to modernize traditional subsistence agriculture. The major components of the package programmes include fertilizers, ameliorated seeds, farm credits, marketing facilities, better tools and implements, and improved storage facilities.Meramec Conservation AreaUnited States regulation of point source water pollution: Point source water pollution comes from discrete conveyances and alters the chemical, biological, and physical characteristics of water. It is largely regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1972.Adalia bipunctata: Adalia bipunctata, commonly known as the two-spot ladybird, two-spotted ladybug or two-spotted lady beetle, is a carnivorous beetle of the family Coccinellidae that is found throughout the holarctic region. It is very common in western and central Europe.Permissive temperature: The permissive temperature is the temperature at which a temperature sensitive mutant gene product takes on a normal, functional phenotype.http://www.Outline of water: The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to water:Marcos Paz, Buenos AiresTomato seed oil: Tomato seed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of tomatoes.Shatter (novel): Shatter is a psychological thriller written by the Australian author Michael Robotham that was published in 2008. Professor Joseph O'Loughlin (referred to as Joe throughout the novel) is tasked by the police with stopping a woman, Christine Wheeler, from committing suicide, only to fail.Hyaloperonospora parasitica: Hyaloperonospora parasitica is a species from the family Peronosporaceae. It has been considered for a long time to cause downy mildew of a variety of species within the Brassicaceae family such as oilseed rape and cauliflower, on which the disease can cause economically important damage by killing seedlings or affecting the quality of produce intended for freezing.Hydraulic action: Hydraulic action is erosion that occurs when the motion of water against a rock surface produces mechanical weathering. Most generally, it is the ability of moving water (flowing or waves) to dislodge and transport rock particles.Gemmatimonadetes: The Gemmatimonadetes are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Gemmatimonadetes). This bacterium makes up about 2% of soil bacterial communities and has been identified as one of the top nine phyla found in soils; yet, there are currently only six cultured isolates.Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossil: Large ornamented Ediacaran microfossils (LOEMs) are microscopic acritarchs, usually over 100 μm in diameter, which are common in sediments of the Ediacaran period, . They largely disappear from the Ediacaran fossil record before , roughly coeval with the origin of the Ediacara biota.Chance seedling: A chance seedling is a plant that is the product of unintentional breeding. It may be a genetically unique individual with desirable characteristics that is then intentionally bred.Evolution in Variable EnvironmentMedicinal plants of the American West: Many plants that grow in the American West have use in traditional and herbal medicine.Cypripedium irapeanum: The Irapeao's Cypripedium or Pelican Orchid (Cypripedium irapeanum) is a species of orchid. It has a widespread distribution from the central Mexico states of Sinaloa and Durango south to Guatemala and Honduras.Public water systemBranching order of bacterial phyla (Gupta, 2001): There are several models of the Branching order of bacterial phyla, one of these was proposed in 2001 by Gupta based on conserved indels or protein, termed "protein signatures", an alternative approach to molecular phylogeny. Some problematic exceptions and conflicts are present to these conserved indels, however, they are in agreement with several groupings of classes and phyla.
(1/1038) Acute Chagas' disease in western Venezuela: a clinical, seroparasitologic, and epidemiologic study.
A clinical, parasitologic, and serologic study carried out between 1988 and 1996 on 59 acute-phase patients in areas of western Venezuela where Chagas' disease is endemic showed 19 symptomatic patterns or groups of symptoms appearing in combination with different frequencies. The symptomatic pattern with the highest frequency was that showing simultaneously fever, myalgia, headache, and Romana's sign, which was detected in 20% of the acute-phase patients. Asymptomatic individuals and patients with fever as the only sign of the disease made up 15% and 11.9% of the total acute cases, respectively. Statistical correlation analysis revealed that xenodiagnosis and hemoculture were the most reliable and concordant of the five parasitologic methods used; these two methods also showed the highest proportions in detecting any clinical symptomatic pattern in acute-phase patients. A similar high reliability and concordance was obtained with a direct agglutination test, an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test, and an ELISA as serologic tests, which also showed a higher proportion of positive detection of clinical patterns than parasitologic methods (P < 0.001). It is recommended that individuals coming from endemic areas showing mild and/or severe clinical manifestations should be suspected of being in contact or having been in contact with Trypanosoma cruzi, be referred for parasitologic and serologic evaluations to confirm the presumptive clinical diagnosis of acute Chagas' disease, and start specific treatment. The epidemiologic implications of the present findings are discussed and the use of similar methodology to evaluate other areas where Chagas' disease is endemic is suggested. (+info)
(2/1038) Physiological responses of exercised-fatigued individuals exposed to wet-cold conditions.
Thirteen healthy and fit men [age = 27 +/- 8 (SD) yr, height = 177 +/- 5 cm, mass = 75 +/- 7 kg, body fat = 14 +/- 5%, maximal O2 consumption = 51 +/- 4 ml. kg-1. min-1] participated in an experiment designed to test their thermoregulatory response to a challenging cold exposure after 5 h of demanding mixed exercise during which only water was consumed. Subjects expended 7,314 +/- 741 kJ on cycling, rowing, and treadmill-walking machines, performed 8,403 +/- 1,401 kg. m of mechanical work during resistance exercises, and completed 120 inclined sit-ups. Subjects then assumed a seated position in a 10 degrees C air environment while wearing shorts, T-shirt, rain hat, and neoprene gloves and boots. After 30 min the subjects were showered continuously with cold water ( approximately 920 ml/min at 10 degrees C) on their backs accompanied by a 6 km/h wind for up to 4 h. Blood samples were taken from the nondominant arm every 30 min during the exposure and assayed for energy metabolites, hormones, indexes of hydration, and neurotransmitters. Counterbalanced control trials without prior exercise were also conducted. Blood insulin was higher during the control trial, whereas values of glycerol, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, cortisol, free triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were lower. Three subjects lasted the maximum duration of 4.5 h for control and fatigue trials, with final rectal temperatures of 36.43 +/- 0.21 and 36.08 +/- 0.49 degrees C, respectively. Overall, the duration of 172 +/- 68 (SD) min for the fatigue trial was not significantly different from that of the control trial (197 +/- 72 min) and, therefore, was not affected by the preexposure exercise. Although duration was positively correlated to body fatness and shivering intensity, the latter was not correlated to any physical characteristic or the fitness level of the individual. (+info)
(3/1038) Differential perpetuation of malaria species among Amazonian Yanomami Amerindians.
To determine whether malaria perpetuates within isolated Amerindian villages in the Venezuelan Amazon, we surveyed malaria infection and disease among 1,311 Yanomami in three communities during a 16-month period. Plasmodium vivax was generally present in each of these small, isolated villages; asymptomatic infection was frequent, and clinical disease was most evident among children less than five years of age (odds ratio [OR] = 6.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4-29.2) and among persons experiencing parasitemias > or = 1,000 parasites/mm3 of blood (OR = 45.0, 95% CI = 5.5-370.7). Plasmodium falciparum, in contrast, was less prevalent, except during an abrupt outbreak in which 72 infections resulted in symptoms in all age groups and at all levels of parasitemia, and occasionally were life-threatening. The observed endemic pattern of P. vivax infection may derive from the capacity of this pathogen to relapse, while the epidemic pattern of P. falciparum infection may reflect occasional introductions of strains carried by immigrants or residents of distant villages and the subsequent disappearance of this non-relapsing pathogen. (+info)
(4/1038) Effect of chemotherapy on malaria transmission among Yanomami Amerindians: simulated consequences of placebo treatment.
To determine whether chemotherapy effectively reduces Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in isolated human populations, we followed two abrupt sequential outbreaks of malaria infection among Yanomami Amerindians and modeled the effect of chemotherapy and the consequences if no drug was available. A Macdonald-type mathematical model demonstrated that both outbreaks comprised a single epidemic event linked by an invisible outbreak in vector mosquitoes. The basic reproductive number, R0, from fitted values based on the treated epidemic was 2 during the initial phase of the epidemic, and waned as vector density decreased with the onset of the dry season. In the observed epidemic, 60 (45%) of 132 village residents were affected, and the treated outbreak ended after two months. Although the initial chemotherapy regimen was only marginally effective, the duration of human infectivity was reduced from an expected nine months to two weeks. In the absence of this intervention, the initial R0 value would have been 40, more than 60% of the population would have been infected, and more than 30% would have remained parasitemic until the next rainy season (about six months later). Another outbreak would then have ensued, and malaria probably would have remained endemic in this village. Our simulated placebo treatment permits us to conclude that even partially effective chemotherapeutic interventions, such as those in our study, interrupt serial transmission of P. falciparum among isolated human populations that are exposed to infection seasonally. (+info)
(5/1038) Geographic information systems and the environmental risk of schistosomiasis in Bahia, Brazil.
A geographic information system was constructed using maps of regional environmental features, Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in 30 representative municipalities, and snail distribution in Bahia, Brazil to study the spatial and temporal dynamics of infection and to identify environmental factors that influence the distribution of schistosomiasis. Results indicate that population density and the duration of annual dry period are the most important determinants of prevalence of schistosomiasis in the areas selected for study. Maximum rainfall, total precipitation during three consecutive months, annual maximum or minimum temperatures, and diurnal temperature difference were not shown to be significant factors influencing S. mansoni prevalence in local populations or distribution of snail hosts. Prevalence of the disease was highest in the coastal areas of the state. Higher prevalence tended to occur in areas with latossolo soil type and transitional vegetation. (+info)
(6/1038) Cyclospora cayetanensis infections in Haiti: a common occurrence in the absence of watery diarrhea.
Stool samples from a population-based cohort of mothers and children living in Leogane, Haiti were tested for Cyclospora cayetanensis from January 1997 through January 1998. Data on gastrointestinal symptoms were also collected. During the winter months of January to March, the infection was detected in 15-20% of the persons sampled. Most infections did not appear to be causing diarrhea and most infected persons had few oocysts detectable in concentrates of stool. The infection appears to have marked seasonality, with highest rates during the driest and coolest time of the year. It may be that in this tropical setting, high summer temperature is the critical environmental factor that influences the seasonality of infection. This study demonstrates that Cyclospora infections in Haiti are common in the general population. (+info)
(7/1038) Longitudinal cohort study of the epidemiology of malaria infections in an area of intense malaria transmission I. Description of study site, general methodology, and study population.
A large-scale longitudinal cohort project was initiated in western Kenya in June 1992. The primary purpose of the project was to study Plasmodium falciparum malaria in a highly endemic area using a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, which included epidemiology, entomology, and immunology. Between June 1992 and July 1994, pregnant women living in 15 rural villages were identified during a monthly census and 1,164 were enrolled. The women were followed-up throughout their pregnancy and they, along with their newborn infants and direct siblings of the infants' less than 15 years of age, were monitored over time. As of May 1995, 1,017 infants had been born to these women. This paper presents the design and general methodology used in this study and describes the initial experience with intense monitoring of a large population over a prolonged period. (+info)
(8/1038) Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya.
All known Rift Valley fever virus outbreaks in East Africa from 1950 to May 1998, and probably earlier, followed periods of abnormally high rainfall. Analysis of this record and Pacific and Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomalies, coupled with satellite normalized difference vegetation index data, shows that prediction of Rift Valley fever outbreaks may be made up to 5 months in advance of outbreaks in East Africa. Concurrent near-real-time monitoring with satellite normalized difference vegetation data may identify actual affected areas. (+info)