Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Gene Dosage: The number of copies of a given gene present in the cell of an organism. An increase in gene dosage (by GENE DUPLICATION for example) can result in higher levels of gene product formation. GENE DOSAGE COMPENSATION mechanisms result in adjustments to the level GENE EXPRESSION when there are changes or differences in gene dosage.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Radioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Spinal NeoplasmsPalliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Esophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Thoracic NeoplasmsTumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Androgen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant: Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.DeoxycytidineRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Abdominal NeoplasmsCone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Oligodendroglioma: A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Anus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Genital Neoplasms, Female: Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Karnofsky Performance Status: A performance measure for rating the ability of a person to perform usual activities, evaluating a patient's progress after a therapeutic procedure, and determining a patient's suitability for therapy. It is used most commonly in the prognosis of cancer therapy, usually after chemotherapy and customarily administered before and after therapy. It was named for Dr. David A. Karnofsky, an American specialist in cancer chemotherapy.Pharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PHARYNX.Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Orbital Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.LeukopeniaRhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Ependymoma: Glioma derived from EPENDYMOGLIAL CELLS that tend to present as malignant intracranial tumors in children and as benign intraspinal neoplasms in adults. It may arise from any level of the ventricular system or central canal of the spinal cord. Intracranial ependymomas most frequently originate in the FOURTH VENTRICLE and histologically are densely cellular tumors which may contain ependymal tubules and perivascular pseudorosettes. Spinal ependymomas are usually benign papillary or myxopapillary tumors. (From DeVita et al., Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2018; Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, pp28-9)Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Choroid Neoplasms: Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Eye Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the EYE.Radiation ProtectionCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Neck Dissection: Dissection in the neck to remove all disease tissues including cervical LYMPH NODES and to leave an adequate margin of normal tissue. This type of surgery is usually used in tumors or cervical metastases in the head and neck. The prototype of neck dissection is the radical neck dissection described by Crile in 1906.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)
Volumetric modulated arc therapy planning for distal oesophageal malignancies.Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted*. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated*. Retrospective Studies. ... 21943569 - Optimization of intermittent, simultaneous dosage of nitrite and hydrochloric acid to c.... 21781849 - Effectiveness ... Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology, radiotherapy*. Heart / radiation effects. Humans. ...
Comparison of Intra-operative Radiotherapy With Post-operative Radiotherapy for Women With Early Breast Cancer - Full Text View...Dosage should only be applied to the breast; axillary, supra-clavicular and internal mammary nodes should not generally be ... Active Comparator: Post-operative radiotherapy Standard post-operative radiotherapy.. Radiation: Post-operative radiotherapy ... Experimental: Intra-operative radiotherapy A single fraction of radiotherapy given intra-operatively and targeted to the ... Comparison of Intra-operative Radiotherapy With Post-operative Radiotherapy for Women With Early Breast Cancer (TARGIT). This ...
Ondansetron (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.comOral: Oral dosage forms should be administered 30 minutes prior to chemotherapy; 1 to 2 hours before radiotherapy; 1 hour prior ... Dosage form specific issues:. • Benzyl alcohol and derivatives: Some dosage forms may contain sodium benzoate/benzoic acid; ... Radiotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting: Oral: Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with radiotherapy in patients ... IV: No dosage adjustment is necessary. Oral: No dosage adjustment necessary; however, according to the manufacturer, there is ...
radiation dosageradiotherapy dosage*equipment failure analysis*computer simulation*risk assessment*coronary angiography*environmental exposure* ... can offer a high quality in-vivo measurement of BMD by overcoming prior CCSR limitations, such as high radiation dosage, high ... The effect of laser radiation will be assessed as a function of radiation wavelength, radiation dosage, and bacterial cell ... Intracavitary radiation has the advantage of localizing radiation but also causes ulceration due to high radiation dosage. ...
Clinical Study of EBV-LMP1 Targeted DNAzyme to Treat Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govThe radical radiotherapy is given to patients 5 times per week with 2 Gy of each treatment. The entire procedure lasts seven ... Dosage for each injection is 12 mg in 0.1 mL (200 micrograms per kilogram body weight. ... The radical radiotherapy is given to patients 5 times per week with 2 Gy of each treatment. The entire procedure lasts seven ... The radical radiotherapy is given to patients 5 times per week with 2 Gy of each treatment. The entire procedure lasts seven ...
Evaluation of Role of Concurrent Chemotherapy and Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer Patients | Open Access...Radical radiotherapy (External radiotherapy+brachytherapy) is standard treatment option available for locally advanced cervical ... Dosage to critical structure, GTV and Lymphatic's were recorded.. The selection of the patients had stringent selection and ... It is logical concept to expect that the best tisme to apply chemotherapy during the course of radiotherapy will be during the ... Each patient was planned on CT-SIM and ICRU -38 dosimetric methods was utilized to evaluate the dosage to reference volume and ...
Oral Ketoconazole HRA Recommended for Approval for Cushing's SyndromeThese patients may recover once their dosage is reduced. In instances where the Cushing's syndrome is due to a tumor, surgery ... or radiotherapy may be necessary. Ketoconazole: Ketoconazole is an antifungal drug that is commonly used as a topical ...
Radiation Risk of Pelvic Fracture in Elderly WomenA new study has established a definite link between risk of pelvic fractures and radiotherapy in older women. According to the ... Radiotherapy. A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. ... Fracture Radiotherapy X-Ray Diseases Related to Old Age Colle s Fracture Fracture Neck of Femur Radiation Hazards Acute ... A new study has established a definite link between risk of pelvic fractures and radiotherapy in older women. According to the ...
Garlic Oil May Reduce Adverse Effects of Chemotherapy and RadiotherapyGarlic oil has been found to reduce adverse effects of chemo and radiotherapy in animal study. ... Radiotherapy. A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. ... Garlic oil could be used as complementary medicine for cancer patients receiving Chemotherapy / Radiotherapy, to ease the ... Radiotherapy Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Diet Lifestyle and Heart Disease Hodgkins Lymphoma Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma Chemotherapy ...
Cancer Intensifying Key Protein NotedRadiotherapy. A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. ...
Re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence from esophageal cancer with radiotherapy history: a multi-institutional study | Radiation...Patients' characteristics are shown in Table 1. Median maximum lymph node diameter was 22 mm (range, 5-106 mm). Histological diagnosis in all of the patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was squamous cell carcinoma. Median total radiation dose for oligo-recurrence was 60 Gy (range, 18-70 Gy). Of the 33 patients, 7 patients received definitive radiotherapy with median dose of 60 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy) as an initial treatment for esophageal cancer, 9 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with median dose of 40 Gy (range, 40-60 Gy), and the others received neoadjuvant radiotherapy with median dose of 30 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy). Eleven of the 33 patients with a past irradiation history underwent re-irradiation by a hyperfractionation method with 1.2 Gy/fraction. Therefore, the median calculated biological effective dose using the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model with α/β = 10 Gy (BED10) in patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was significantly lower ...
Plus itCell motility and invasion, major steps in the metastatic cascade, require functional integration of (i) a fine-tuned interaction with the tumor microenvironment mediated by, for example, integrins and growth factor receptors; (ii) well-organized cytoskeletal dynamics; (iii) spatially and temporally precisely regulated activity of ICTs (8); and (iv) nuclear and chromatin structures contributing to gene expression. Cell-intrinsic pathways and those initiated by the microenvironment converge to regulate motility (reviewed in ref. 9), a concept called "dynamic reciprocity" (10). Using intravital infrared multiphoton imaging, Peter Friedl's group (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, the Netherlands) found surprisingly that collective melanoma cell invasion does not depend on β1 and β3 integrins; instead, these β integrin subunits allow the development of resistance to high-dose radiotherapy.. Diane Barber (UCSF) highlighted protonation as a form of posttranslational modification driving ...
Proton radiotherapy for chest wall and regional lymphatic radiation; dose comparisons and treatment delivery | Radiation...Earlier radiation trials reported an increase in morbidity and mortality due to cardiac disease, predominantly in patients treated for left sided breast cancer. Some authors have suggested that increased mortality from ischemic heart disease was the reason for the absence of a survival benefit for these patients . More recent post-mastectomy studies utilizing modern techniques have demonstrated survival benefit without increase in cardiac mortality to date, but longer follow up is necessary. SPECT and strain echocardiogram results report changes in cardiac tissue with doses as low as 3 Gy, but whether or not these early cardiovascular changes can be used as a surrogate for late cardiac outcomes has not yet been determined [2, 10, 11]. The increased use of cardiotoxic chemotherapy over the past several years adds yet another confounding factor to determining the effect of radiation therapy on cardiac outcomes and it is not yet known how radiation in the setting of these agents with impact late ...
External beam radiotherapyMegavoltage X-raysAbscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Philip D'Arcy HartTruebeamRadiation oncologist: A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer. Radiation oncology is one of the three primary specialties, the other two being surgical and medical oncology, involved in the treatment of cancer.Radiosurgery: Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade. Like other forms of radiation therapy, it is usually used to treat cancer.Head and Neck Cancer Alliance: The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (HNCA) is a non-profit organization that works with health professionals and organizations, celebrities and survivors to enhance the overall effort in prevention, treatment, and detection of cancers of the head and neck region.Prostate brachytherapyCopy number analysis: Copy number analysis usually refers to the process of analyzing data produced by a test for DNA copy number variation in patient's sample. Such analysis helps detect chromosomal copy number variation that may cause or may increase risks of various critical disorders.ABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Skewed X-inactivation: Skewed X chromosome inactivation occurs when the inactivation of one X chromosome is favored over the other, leading to an uneven number of cells with each chromosome inactivated. It is usually defined as one allele being found on the active X chromosome in over 75% of cells, and extreme skewing is when over 90% of cells have inactivated the same X chromosome.Chemoradiotherapy: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT, CRTx) is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer.http://www.Low-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Neurooncology: Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.Clinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.Squamous-cell carcinomaCancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Targeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Radiosensitizer: A radiosensitizer is a drug that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.Lipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory: Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory focuses on the study of cosmogenic isotopes, and in particular the study of radiocarbon, or Carbon-14. As a laboratory, part of its aim is to function as a research center, training center, and general community resource.Automatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Irradiance: In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre (), while that of spectral irradiance is the watt per square metre per hertz (W·m−2·Hz−1) or the watt per square metre per metre (W·m−3)—commonly the watt per square metre per nanometre ().CabazitaxelRadiation-induced lung injuryUrogenital pelvic malignancyBreast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphomaTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingSpaceflight radiation carcinogenesisHapalonychia: Hapalonychia, also known as egg-shell nail, is a condition in which the top of a toe or finger nail becomes soft and thin, causing it to bend or break. This condition can manifest as a result of genetic discrepancy James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Sentara Healthcare: Sentara Healthcare is a not-for-profit health care organization serving Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. It is headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, and provides services to more than two million residents in the Hampton Roads region.DacarbazineDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:ProcarbazineNeoadjuvant therapyCobalt therapy: Cobalt therapy or cobalt-60 therapy is the medical use of gamma rays from the radioisotope cobalt-60 to treat conditions such as cancer. Beginning in the 1950s cobalt-60 was widely used in external beam radiotherapy (teletherapy) machines, which produced a beam of gamma rays which was directed into the patient's body to kill tumor tissue.Adenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.Cobalt-60PemetrexedAnaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Cervical screening: Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer. If the abnormal tissue or cells can be removed, then the disease can be prevented from developing.Giant-cell glioblastoma: The giant-cell glioblastoma is a histological variant of glioblastoma, presenting a prevalence of bizarre, multinucleated (more than 20 nuclei) giant (up to 400 μm diameter) cells.DoxorubicinMastectomyOsteoradionecrosis: Osteoradionecrosis is a possible complication following radiotherapy where an area of bone does not heal from irradiation. Irradiation of bones causes damage to osteocytes and impairs the blood supply.Lymphovascular invasionVinorelbineFeasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.
(1/2836) Phase II trial of primary chemotherapy followed by reduced-dose radiation for CNS germ cell tumors.
PURPOSE: A prospective phase II study was initiated to assess the response rate, survival, and late effects of treatment in patients with newly diagnosed CNS germ cell tumors (GCT), using etoposide plus cisplatin followed by radiation therapy prescribed by extent of disease, histology, and response to chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients aged 8 to 24 years with histologically proven CNS GCT received etoposide (100 mg/m2/d) plus cisplatin (20 mg/m2/d) daily for 5 days every 3 weeks for four cycles, followed by radiation therapy. Nine patients had germinomas; eight had mixed GCT. Four patients (three with germinomas and one with mixed GCT) presented with leptomeningeal dissemination. RESULTS: Radiographically, 14 of 17 patients were assessable for response; 11 patients experienced complete regression, and three had major partial regression before radiation. Six of seven assessable patients with elevated CSF levels of alpha-fetoprotein or betahuman chorionic gonadotropin had normalization with chemotherapy alone; all normalized with combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy. All 17 patients are alive without evidence of disease (median follow-up, 51 months). One patient developed a relapse in the spinal leptomeninges and was rendered free of disease with spinal radiation more than 5 years ago. One patient developed carotid stenosis requiring surgery. Thus far, only minimal long-term deterioration in neurocognitive function has been detected as a consequence of protocol treatment. CONCLUSION: Conventional-dose intravenous chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin can effect tumor regression in a high proportion of patients with CNS GCT, including those with leptomeningeal metastases. Acute and long-term toxicities are acceptable. Progression-free survival and overall survival are excellent. (+info)
(2/2836) Dose-related effects of single focal irradiation in the medial temporal lobe structures in rats--magnetic resonance imaging and histological study.
The dose-related effects of single focal irradiation on the medial temporal lobe in rats were investigated by sequential magnetic resonance imaging and histological examination. Irradiation of 200 Gy as a maximum dose using 4 mm collimators with a gamma unit created an area of necrosis consistently at the target site within 2 weeks after irradiation. Irradiation of 100 Gy caused necrosis within 10 weeks, and 75 Gy caused necrosis within one year. Irradiation of less than 50 Gy did not induce necrosis consistently, although a restricted area of necrosis was created in the medial temporal structures including the intraparenchymal portion of the optic tract. 75 Gy may be the optimum dose for creating necrosis consistently in the medial temporal lobe structures. However, careful dose planning considering both dose-time and dose-volume relationships in necrosis development is necessary to avoid injury to vulnerable neural structures such as the optic tract when applying radiosurgical techniques to treat functional brain disorders in medial temporal lobe structures such as temporal lobe epilepsy. (+info)
(3/2836) Dosimetry of 131I-labeled 81C6 monoclonal antibody administered into surgically created resection cavities in patients with malignant brain tumors.
The objective of this study was to perform the dosimetry of 131I-labeled 81C6 monoclonal antibody (MAb) in patients with recurrent malignant brain tumors, treated by direct injections of MAb into surgically created resection cavities (SCRCs). METHODS: Absorbed dose estimates were performed for nine patients. Dosimetry was performed retrospectively using probe counts (during patient isolation) and whole-body and SPECT images thereafter. Absorbed doses were calculated for the SCRC interface and for regions of interest (ROIs) 1 and 2 cm thick, measured from the margins of cavity interface. Also, mean absorbed doses were calculated for normal brain, liver, spleen, thyroid gland, stomach, bone marrow and whole body. The average residence time for the SCRC was 111 h (65-200h). RESULTS: The average absorbed dose per unit injected activity (range) to the SCRC interface and ROIs 1 and 2 cm thick from the cavity interface were 31.9 (7.8-84.2), 1.9 (0.7-3.6) and 1.0 (0.4-1.8) cGy/MBq, respectively. Average absorbed doses per unit administered activity to brain, liver, spleen, thyroid, stomach, bone marrow and whole body were 0.18, 0.03, 0.08, 0.05, 0.02, 0.02 and 0.01 cGy/MBq, respectively. The high absorbed dose delivered to the SCRC interface may have produced an increase in cavity volume independent of tumor progression. CONCLUSION: At the maximum tolerated dose of 3700 MBq 131I-labeled 81C6 MAb, the absorbed doses to the SCRC interface and ROIs of 1 and 2 cm thickness were estimated to be 1180, 71 and 39 Gy, respectively. The estimated average absorbed dose to the brain was 6.5 Gy. There was no neurological toxicity and minimal hematologic toxicity at this maximum tolerated administration level. (+info)
(4/2836) Phase I study of 90Y-labeled B72.3 intraperitoneal administration in patients with ovarian cancer: effect of dose and EDTA coadministration on pharmacokinetics and toxicity.
The tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 (TAG-72) antigen is present on a high percentage of tumor types including ovarian carcinomas. Antibody B72.3 is a murine monoclonal recognizing the surface domain of the TAG-72 antigen and has been widely used in human clinical trials. After our initial encouraging studies (M. G. Rosenblum et al., J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 83: 1629-1636, 1991) of tissue disposition, metabolism, and pharmacokinetics in 9 patients with ovarian cancer, we designed an escalating dose, multi-arm Phase I study of 90Y-labeled B72.3 i.p. administration. In the first arm of the study, patients (3 pts/dose level) received an i.p. infusion of either 2 or 10 mg of B72.3 labeled with either 1, 10, 15, or 25 mCi of 90Y. Pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that concentrations of 90Y-labeled B72.3 persist in peritoneal fluid with half-lives >24 h after i.p. administration. In addition, 90Y-labeled B72.3 was absorbed rapidly into the plasma with peak levels achieved within 48 h, and levels declined slowly thereafter. Cumulative urinary excretion of the 90Y label was 10-20% of the administered dose which suggests significant whole-body retention of the radiolabel. Biopsy specimens of bone and marrow obtained at 72 h after administration demonstrated significant content of the label in bone (0.015% of the dose/g) with relatively little in marrow (0.005% of the dose/g). The maximal tolerated dose was determined to be 10 mCi because of hematological toxicity and platelet suppression. This typically occurred on the 29th day after administration and was thought to be a consequence of the irradiation of the marrow from the bony deposition of the radiolabel. In an effort to suppress the bone uptake of 90Y, patients were treated with a continuous i.v. infusion of EDTA (25 mg/kg/12 h x 6) infused immediately before i.p. administration of the radiolabeled antibody. Patients (3 pts/dose level) were treated with doses of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, or 45 mCi of 90Y-labeled B72.3 for a total of 38 patients. EDTA administration resulted in significant myeloprotection, which allowed escalation to the maximal tolerated dose of 40 mCi. Dose-limiting toxicity was thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. Studies of plasma and peritoneal fluid pharmacokinetics demonstrate no changes compared with patients without EDTA pretreatment. Cumulative urinary excretion of the radiolabel was not increased in patients pretreated with EDTA compared with the untreated group. However, analysis of biopsy specimens of bone and marrow demonstrated that bone and marrow content of the 90Y label was 15-fold lower (<0.001% injected dose/g) than a companion group without EDTA. Four responses were noted in patients who received 15-30 mCi of 90Y-labeled B72.3 with response durations of 1-12 months. These results demonstrate the myeloprotective ability of EDTA, which allows safe i.p. administration of higher doses of 90Y-labeled B72.3 and, therefore, clearly warrant an expanded Phase II trial in patients with minimal residual disease after standard chemotherapy or for the palliation of refractory ascites. (+info)
(5/2836) Locoregional regulatory peptide receptor targeting with the diffusible somatostatin analogue 90Y-labeled DOTA0-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC): a pilot study in human gliomas.
Human gliomas, especially of low-grade type, have been shown to express high-affinity somatostatin receptor type 2 (J-C. Reubi et al., Am. J. Pathol, 134: 337-344, 1989). We enrolled seven low-grade and four anaplastic glioma patients in a pilot study using the diffusible peptidic vector 90Y-labeled DOTA0-D-Phe1-Tyr3-octreotide (DOTATOC) for receptor targeting. The radiopharmakon was locoregionally injected into a stereotactically inserted Port-a-cath. DOTATOC competes specifically with somatostatin binding to somatostatin receptor type 2 in the low nanomolar range as shown by a displacement curve of 125I-[Tyr3]-octreotide in tumor tissue sections. Diagnostic (111)In-labeled DOTATOC-scintigraphy following local injection displayed homogeneous to nodular intratumoral vector distribution. The cumulative activity of regionally injected peptide-bound 90Y amounted to 370-3300 MBq, which is equivalent to an effective dose range between 60 +/- 15 and 550 +/- 110 Gy. Activity was injected in one to four fractions according to tumor volumes; 1110 MBq of 90Y-labeled DOTATOC was the maximum activity per single injection. We obtained six disease stabilizations and shrinking of a cystic low-grade astrocytoma component. The only toxicity observed was secondary perifocal edema. The activity:dose ratio (MBq:Gy) represents a measure for the stability of peptide retention in receptor-positive tissue and might predict the clinical course. We conclude that SR-positive human gliomas, especially of low-grade type, can be successfully targeted by intratumoral injection of the metabolically stable small regulatory peptide DOTATOC. (+info)
(6/2836) A radionuclide therapy treatment planning and dose estimation system.
An object-oriented software system is described for estimating internal emitter absorbed doses using a set of computer modules operating within a personal computer environment. The system is called the Radionuclide Treatment Planning and Absorbed Dose Estimation System (RTDS). It is intended for radioimmunotherapy applications, although other forms of internal emitter therapy may also be considered. METHODS: Four software modules interact through a database backend. Clinical, demographic and image data are directly entered into the database. Modules include those devoted to clinical imaging (nuclear, CT and MR), activity determination, organ compartmental modeling and absorbed dose estimation. RESULTS: Both standard phantom (Medical Internal Radiation Dose [MIRD]) and patient-specific absorbed doses are estimated. All modules interact with the database backend so that changes in one process do not influence other operations. Results of the modular operations are written to the database as computations are completed. Dose-volume histograms are an intrinsic part of the output for patient-specific absorbed dose estimates. A sample dose estimate for a potential 90Y monoclonal antibody is described. CONCLUSION: A four-module software system has been implemented to estimate MIRD phantom and patient-specific absorbed doses. Computations of the doses and their statistical distribution for a pure beta emitter such as 90Y take approximately 1 min on a 300 MHz personal computer. (+info)
(7/2836) The increment of micronucleus frequency in cervical carcinoma during irradiation in vivo and its prognostic value for tumour radiocurability.
A potential usefulness of micronucleus assay for prediction of tumour radiosensitivity has been tested in 64 patients with advanced stage (II B-IV B) cervical carcinoma treated by radiotherapy. The study of cellular radiosensitivity in vitro was conducted in parallel with the study of cellular damage after tumour irradiation in vivo. Radiosensitivity of in vitro cultured primary cells isolated from tumour biopsies taken before radiotherapy was evaluated using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Frequency of micronuclei per binucleated cell (MN/BNC) at 2 Gy was used as a measure of radiosensitivity. Radiation sensitivity in vivo was expressed as per cent increment of micronucleus frequency in cells isolated from biopsy taken after 20 Gy (external irradiation, 10 x 2 Gy) over the pre-treatment spontaneous micronucleus level and was called MN20. Very low correlation (r = 0.324) was observed between micronucleus frequency in vitro and in vivo. Although micronucleus frequency at 2 Gy differed widely between tumours evaluated (mean MN/BNC was 0.224; range 0.08-0.416), no significant correlation was observed between this parameter and clinical outcome. The average increment of micronucleus frequency after 20 Gy amounted to 193% of spontaneous level (range 60-610%) and was independent of spontaneous micronucleation before radiotherapy. In contrast to in vitro results, these from in vivo assay seem to have a predictive value for radiotherapy of cervix cancer. The micronucleus increment in vivo that reached at least 117.5% of pretreatment value (first quartile for MN20 data set) correlated significantly with better tumour local control (P < 0.008) and overall survival (P < 0.045). Our results suggest that evaluation of increment of micronucleus frequency during radiotherapy (after fixed tested dose of 20 Gy) offers a potentially valuable approach to predicting individual radioresponsiveness and may be helpful for individualization of treatment strategy in advanced stage cervical cancer. (+info)
(8/2836) Prognostic values of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 for radiotherapy of oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas.
The relationship of immunohistochemical indices of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 to local control and survival rates for patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas treated by definitive radiotherapy (RT) was investigated. Biopsy materials before RT were obtained from 65 patients with oesophageal cancer. The median PCNA labelling index (LI) and the median Ki-67 LI were 52% and 45% respectively. The PCNA LI was independent of known prognostic factors on local control for oesophageal cancer, although Ki-67 LI correlated with several prognostic factors. In the univariate analysis, patients with the PCNA LI of < 52% or the Ki-67 LI of < 45% showed significantly higher local recurrence rates than those with higher LIs (both P < 0.05). This difference in local control rate according to LIs was prominent for the patients treated with conventional fractionation. In the multivariate analysis, T-stage (P = 0.0056) and PCNA LI (P = 0.0332) were significant factors for local control in the final model using a stepwise regression procedure. In conclusion, PCNA LI and Ki-67 LI were significantly correlated with local control probabilities in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas treated by definitive RT. (+info)
external beam radioth
- The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a single fraction of radiotherapy given intra-operatively and targeted to the tissues at the highest risk of local recurrence is equivalent to standard post-operative external beam radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery in women with early stage breast cancer in terms of local relapse within the treated breast. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 64 patients were enrolled who had locally advanced uterine cervix carcinoma (FIGO stage IIB to IVA) from July 2011 to May 2013 for concurrent chemotherapy and intracavitory brachytherapy after completion of concurrent chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy followed by 3 insertion of brachytherapy separated by a week by Flexitron brachytherapy unit to point A, for each application was 6 Gy by HDR. (omicsonline.org)
- Infact, the radiation therapy risk associated with pelvic fracture increased by a margin of three in women who underwent radiotherapy. (medindia.net)
- A detailed account of radiation, its mode of action, side effects and dosage in the treatment of cancer. (medindia.net)
- In the chemotherapy test, the tumor-bearing mice were treated with cyclophosphamide (CTX) or CTX plus garlic oil for 14 days, while the mice received a single 5 Gy radiation or radiation plus garlic oil in radiotherapy test. (medindia.net)
- In the radiotherapy treatment planning of a lesion located in the head region with small field radiation beams, the heterogeneity corrections play an important role. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The impact of the inclusion of heterogeneity corrections for new techniques in radiotherapy, such as the intensity modulated radiation therapy and radiosurgery, can be more complex than for conventional 3D planning, partly due to the synergistic effect of many small fields, the presence of heterogeneity and the presence of steep fluence gradients  . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The research for the review was conducted using a combination of the keywords "radiation necrosis", "radiotherapy" and "bevacizumab" alongside the fields comprising article title, abstract and keywords. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Garlic oil could be used as complementary medicine for cancer patients receiving Chemotherapy / Radiotherapy, to ease the adverse effects of these treatments, reveals a study published in the Journal of Food Science. (medindia.net)
- The findings thus support the idea that garlic oil does help reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (medindia.net)
- In instances where the Cushing's syndrome is due to a tumor, surgery or radiotherapy may be necessary. (medindia.net)
- Radiotherapy may be used in the destruction of deep brain tumours. (hairscientists.org)
- All patients randomised to receive conventional radiotherapy within this trial should be treated in accordance with a pre-specified policy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Oral: Prevention of nausea and vomiting associated with radiotherapy in patients receiving either total body irradiation, single high-dose fraction to the abdomen, or daily fractions to the abdomen. (drugs.com)
- The radical radiotherapy is given to patients 5 times per week with 2 Gy of each treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- These patients may recover once their dosage is reduced. (medindia.net)
- Radiotherapy itself may cause diffuse or total hair loss depending upon dosage and frequency of treatment required. (hairscientists.org)
- A single fraction of radiotherapy given intra-operatively and targeted to the tissues at the highest risk of local recurrence. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The drugs listed above and others may be given in conjunction with radiotherapy to increase the efficacy. (hairscientists.org)
- According to the study, women who receive radiotherapy for cervical, rectal or anal cancers have an increased risk for fracture of the pelvis. (medindia.net)
- RN usually occurs three or more months after radiotherapy and the symptoms range from focal to generalized neurologic deficits, with a loss of patient autonomy and a negative impact on the quality of life [ 8 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- On the other hand, high cost of radiotherapy equipments and lack of skilled professionals may hinder the growth of the market. (texasnewsheadlines.com)
- These factors increase the demand for radiotherapy devices. (texasnewsheadlines.com)
- However, on the basis of available data, no dosage adjustment for ondansetron is recommended (see PRECAUTIONS , Drug Interactions ). (nih.gov)
- A new study has established a definite link between risk of pelvic fractures and radiotherapy in older women. (medindia.net)
- General hair losses may follow a course of radiotherapy. (hairscientists.org)
- Anticancer effects of garlic and its products have already been demonstrated by various studies but not much information is available on whether garlic benefits people undergoing chemo/ radiotherapy. (medindia.net)
- So, researchers at School of Public Health, Shandong University, China, set out to investigate the effects of garlic oil on the adverse effects of chemo/radiotherapy in mice with cancerous tumors. (medindia.net)