Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Radiosurgery: A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Pelvic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the pelvic region.Laryngeal Neoplasms: Cancers or tumors of the LARYNX or any of its parts: the GLOTTIS; EPIGLOTTIS; LARYNGEAL CARTILAGES; LARYNGEAL MUSCLES; and VOCAL CORDS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Procarbazine: An antineoplastic agent used primarily in combination with mechlorethamine, vincristine, and prednisone (the MOPP protocol) in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Organ Sparing Treatments: Techniques, procedures, and therapies carried out on diseased organs in such a way to avoid complete removal of the organ and preserve the remaining organ function.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Xerostomia: Decreased salivary flow.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Spinal NeoplasmsRadioisotope Teletherapy: A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Lymphatic Irradiation: External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Mechlorethamine: A biologic alkylating agent that exerts its cytotoxic effects by forming DNA ADDUCTS and DNA interstrand crosslinks, thereby inhibiting rapidly proliferating cells. The hydrochloride is an antineoplastic agent used to treat HODGKIN DISEASE and LYMPHOMA.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Mice, Inbred BALB CEsophageal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Iridium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.Thoracic NeoplasmsAndrogen Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of androgens.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Osteoradionecrosis: Necrosis of bone following radiation injury.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Oropharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OROPHARYNX.Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Patient Positioning: Moving a patient into a specific position or POSTURE to facilitate examination, surgery, or for therapeutic purposes.Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Prednisone: A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.Remission Induction: Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Radiotherapy Setup Errors: Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Nimustine: Antineoplastic agent especially effective against malignant brain tumors. The resistance which brain tumor cells acquire to the initial effectiveness of this drug can be partially overcome by the simultaneous use of membrane-modifying agents such as reserpine, calcium antagonists such as nicardipine or verapamil, or the calmodulin inhibitor, trifluoperazine. The drug has also been used in combination with other antineoplastic agents or with radiotherapy for the treatment of various neoplasms.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the HYPOPHARYNX.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Mucositis: An INFLAMMATION of the MUCOSA with burning or tingling sensation. It is characterized by atrophy of the squamous EPITHELIUM, vascular damage, inflammatory infiltration, and ulceration. It usually occurs at the mucous lining of the MOUTH, the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the airway due to chemical irritations, CHEMOTHERAPY, or radiation therapy (RADIOTHERAPY).Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Soft Tissue Neoplasms: Neoplasms of whatever cell type or origin, occurring in the extraskeletal connective tissue framework of the body including the organs of locomotion and their various component structures, such as nerves, blood vessels, lymphatics, etc.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Central Nervous System Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.Amifostine: A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.Prostatectomy: Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)DeoxycytidineAstrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Chemoradiotherapy, Adjuvant: Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.Esthesioneuroblastoma, Olfactory: A malignant olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the olfactory epithelium of the superior nasal cavity and cribriform plate. It is uncommon (3% of nasal tumors) and rarely is associated with the production of excess hormones (e.g., SIADH, Cushing Syndrome). It has a high propensity for multiple local recurrences and bony metastases. (From Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3rd ed, p1245; J Laryngol Otol 1998 Jul;112(7):628-33)Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Meningeal Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Stomatitis: INFLAMMATION of the soft tissues of the MOUTH, such as MUCOSA; PALATE; GINGIVA; and LIP.Seminoma: A radiosensitive, malignant neoplasm of the testis, thought to be derived from primordial germ cells of the sexually undifferentiated embryonic gonad. There are three variants: classical (typical), the most common type; anaplastic; and spermatocytic. The classical seminoma is composed of fairly well differentiated sheets or cords of uniform polygonal or round cells (seminoma cells), each cell having abundant clear cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, a centrally placed round nucleus, and one or more nucleoli. In the female, a grossly and histologically identical neoplasm, known as dysgerminoma, occurs. (Dorland, 27th ed)Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Oligodendroglioma: A relatively slow-growing glioma that is derived from oligodendrocytes and tends to occur in the cerebral hemispheres, thalamus, or lateral ventricle. They may present at any age, but are most frequent in the third to fifth decades, with an earlier incidence peak in the first decade. Histologically, these tumors are encapsulated, relatively avascular, and tend to form cysts and microcalcifications. Neoplastic cells tend to have small round nuclei surrounded by unstained nuclei. The tumors may vary from well-differentiated to highly anaplastic forms. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2052; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p655)Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Carcinoma, Small Cell: An anaplastic, highly malignant, and usually bronchogenic carcinoma composed of small ovoid cells with scanty neoplasm. It is characterized by a dominant, deeply basophilic nucleus, and absent or indistinct nucleoli. (From Stedman, 25th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1286-7)Meningioma: A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Abdominal NeoplasmsMice, Inbred C57BLCarcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Cerebellar Neoplasms: Primary or metastatic neoplasms of the CEREBELLUM. Tumors in this location frequently present with ATAXIA or signs of INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION due to obstruction of the fourth ventricle. Common primary cerebellar tumors include fibrillary ASTROCYTOMA and cerebellar HEMANGIOBLASTOMA. The cerebellum is a relatively common site for tumor metastases from the lung, breast, and other distant organs. (From Okazaki & Scheithauer, Atlas of Neuropathology, 1988, p86 and p141)Medulloblastoma: A malignant neoplasm that may be classified either as a glioma or as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor of childhood (see NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOR, PRIMITIVE). The tumor occurs most frequently in the first decade of life with the most typical location being the cerebellar vermis. Histologic features include a high degree of cellularity, frequent mitotic figures, and a tendency for the cells to organize into sheets or form rosettes. Medulloblastoma have a high propensity to spread throughout the craniospinal intradural axis. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2060-1)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.

*  Radiotherapy

The use of radiation aims to destroy tumour tissue that cannot be removed surgically. Often, radiotherapy is combined with surgical and medicinal treatment.. Approximately one in two cancer patients, or some 10,000 people a year, receive radiotherapy at some point of their disease. Radiotherapy is usually given from outside the body with a radiotherapy device by accurately aiming the radiation to the tumour. In some treatments, the radiation source, in most cases radioactive material, is placed inside the body.. Cancer cells are usually more sensitive to radiation than normal cells. The treatment is often administered in several parts, e.g. over 5-7 weeks so that the normal tissue will have time to recover. A difficult challenge in radiotherapy is focusing the dose on the tumour so that minimum damage is caused to the healthy tissue surrounding the tumour.. Radiotherapy uses such high doses that they can ...
stuk.fi/web/en/topics/use-of-radiation-in-health-care/radiotherapy

*  Global Radiotherapy Market - Industry Analysis and Forecast to 2024 | Texas News Headlines

Request for buying: Global Radiotherapy Market - Industry Trends and Forecast to 2024. Table of Contents:. 1. INTRODUCTION. 1.1. OVERVIEW OF THE GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET. 1.2. MARKET SEGMENTATION & COVERAGE. 1.2.1. CURRENCY AND PRICING. 1.2.2. LIMITATION. 1.2.3. STAKEHOLDERS. 2. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. 2.1. KEY TAKEAWAYS. 2.2. ARRIVING AT THE GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET SIZE. 2.2.1. MARKET CRACKDOWN APPROACH. 2.2.2. COMPANY REVENUE AND MARKET SHARE ANALYSIS. 2.2.3. DATA TRIANGULATION. 2.2.4. KEY DATA POINTS FROM PRIMARY SOURCES. 2.2.5. PRODUCT PIPELINE ANALYSIS. 2.2.6. PORTER'S FIVE FORCES MATRIX. 2.3. GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET: RESEARCH SNAPSHOT. 2.4. ASSUMPTIONS. 3. MARKET OVERVIEW. 4. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. 4.1. OVERVIEW. 4.2. GLOBAL RADIOTHERAPY MARKET: KEY PRIMARY INSIGHTS. 4.3. MARKET OVERVIEW. 4.3.1. DRIVERS. 4.3.2. RESTRAINTS. 4.3.3. OPPURTUNITIES. 4.3.4. THREATS. 4.4. KEY MARKET TRENDS AND UPCOMING TECHNOLOGIES. 5. ...
texasnewsheadlines.com/story/128285/global-radiotherapy-market-industry-analysis-and-forecast-to-2024.html

*  Patent US7619374 - Radiotherapy system for performing radiotherapy with presice irradiation - Google Patents

A radiotherapy system includes: a waveguide, an adjustable waveguide, and a non-reciprocal circuit element. The waveguide transmits a high-frequency wave from a high-frequency power source to an acceleration tube. The adjustable waveguide is included in said waveguide and transforms a part of said waveguide. The non-reciprocal circuit element is provided between said acceleration tube and said adjustable waveguide in said waveguide. Said acceleration tube accelerates charged particles for generating therapeutic radiation by using said high-frequency wave.
google.ca/patents/US7619374

*  Atypical post-radiation vascular proliferation | Dermpedia

The first contribution to the chapter will require editorial approval before being published. Only high quality extensive reviews will be approved for initial publication.. Publishing on Dermpedia is easy. If you already have suitable content on file, it will not take much more than cut and paste to publish it on Dermpedia. Please see help for instructions. Dermpedia is designed to be user-editable, but yes, if you have great content, would like to become the Editor of this page, but have not time to edit this page, we will find helpers to publish it for you.. Registration is required.. Adding Cases and Images. You can add cases to book pages and either add images directly or attached to cases (preferred).. Add a case: Click on the 'Add a case' link while on the book page and you will be asked to create a new case by filling in the necessary fields and pressing submit. Once you've done that, there is the further opportunity to add images to the case.. Add an image: Click on the 'Add an image' ...
dermpedia.org/dermpedia-textbook/atypical-post-radiation-vascular-proliferation

*  Radiotherapy - GHNHSFT

Students in year 12 who are studying relevant A Levels, and are interested in a career in radiotherapy or want to find out more about the role of the Radiotherapist are considered for a work shadowing / taster day at Cheltenham General Hospital, Radiothe
gloshospitals.nhs.uk/en/Work-for-Us/Work-Experience/Students-in-School-Years-101112/Radiotherapy-/

*  Re-irradiation for oligo-recurrence from esophageal cancer with radiotherapy history: a multi-institutional study | Radiation...

Patients' characteristics are shown in Table 1. Median maximum lymph node diameter was 22 mm (range, 5-106 mm). Histological diagnosis in all of the patients in whom re-irradiation was performed was squamous cell carcinoma. Median total radiation dose for oligo-recurrence was 60 Gy (range, 18-70 Gy). Of the 33 patients, 7 patients received definitive radiotherapy with median dose of 60 Gy (range, 50-60 Gy) as an initial treatment for esophageal cancer, 9 patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with median dose of 40 Gy (range, 40-60 Gy), and the others received neoadjuvant radiotherapy with median dose of 30 Gy (range, 30-40 Gy). Eleven of the 33 patients with a past irradiation history underwent re-irradiation by a hyperfractionation method with 1.2 Gy/fraction. Therefore, the median calculated biological effective dose using the Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model with α/β = 10 Gy (BED10) in patients in whom re-irradiation was ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-017-0882-0

*  Plus it

Cell motility and invasion, major steps in the metastatic cascade, require functional integration of (i) a fine-tuned interaction with the tumor microenvironment mediated by, for example, integrins and growth factor receptors; (ii) well-organized cytoskeletal dynamics; (iii) spatially and temporally precisely regulated activity of ICTs (8); and (iv) nuclear and chromatin structures contributing to gene expression. Cell-intrinsic pathways and those initiated by the microenvironment converge to regulate motility (reviewed in ref. 9), a concept called "dynamic reciprocity" (10). Using intravital infrared multiphoton imaging, Peter Friedl's group (Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, the Netherlands) found surprisingly that collective melanoma cell invasion does not depend on β1 and β3 integrins; instead, these β integrin subunits allow the development of resistance to high-dose radiotherapy.. Diane Barber (UCSF) highlighted protonation as a form of posttranslational modification driving ...
cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/73/6/1658

*  Proton radiotherapy for chest wall and regional lymphatic radiation; dose comparisons and treatment delivery | Radiation...

Earlier radiation trials reported an increase in morbidity and mortality due to cardiac disease, predominantly in patients treated for left sided breast cancer. Some authors have suggested that increased mortality from ischemic heart disease was the reason for the absence of a survival benefit for these patients [9]. More recent post-mastectomy studies utilizing modern techniques have demonstrated survival benefit without increase in cardiac mortality to date, but longer follow up is necessary. SPECT and strain echocardiogram results report changes in cardiac tissue with doses as low as 3 Gy, but whether or not these early cardiovascular changes can be used as a surrogate for late cardiac outcomes has not yet been determined [2, 10, 11]. The increased use of cardiotoxic chemotherapy over the past several years adds yet another confounding factor to determining the effect of radiation therapy on cardiac outcomes and it is not yet known how radiation in the setting of these agents with impact late ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/1748-717X-8-71

*  A Prospective, Randomized, Bi-center Study to Compare the Outcome of Adjuvant Radiotherapy With Concomitant or Sequential...

This trial is investigating the pharmacodynamics, efficacy and tolerability of anastrozole [Arimidex; AstraZeneca]administered before or after radiotherapy in
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700203599

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Duration of adjuvant chemotherapy; Anthracyclines, taxanes and novel agents - More...

Barrett-Lee, P., Ellis, P., Bliss, J., TACT (Taxotere as Adjuvant Chemotherapy Trial) Management Group (includes John Yarnold) (2002) Duration of adjuvant chemotherapy; Anthracyclines, taxanes and novel agents - More or less. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, 14 (4). pp. 263-266. ISSN 0732-183X ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/3192/

*  Neoadjuvant Plus Adjuvant or Only Adjuvant Nab-Paclitaxel Plus Gemcitabine for Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Prospective,...

This study is investigating the efficacy of paclitaxel + gemcitabine combination as neoadjuvant plus adjuvant chemotherapy versus only adjuvant chemotherapy
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700241722

*  Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Treating Women Who Have Undergone Resection for Relapsed Breast Cancer; Chemotherapy as Adjuvant for...

Chemotherapy (+/- Radiation). Within 10 weeks after surgery, patients receive at least 3 courses of an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen as determined by the investigator. Patients may receive radiotherapy within 6 months after surgery and after the completion of chemotherapy OR integrated with chemotherapy.. chemotherapy: Given within 10 weeks after surgery.. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT00074152

*  Randomized Customized Adjuvant Chemotherapy (GECP-SCAT)

Randomized Study of Customized Adjuvant Chemotherapy based on BRCA1 mRNA Levels in Completely Resected stages II-IIIA Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patie
knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00478699/

*  Introduction - Ireland's Health Service

Chemotherapy involves using anti-cancer (cytotoxic) drugs to kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually used after surgery to destroy any cancer cells that have not been removed. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy. In some cases, you may have chemotherapy before surgery, which is generally used to shrink a large tumour. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.. Several different drugs are used for chemotherapy and often three are given at once. The choice of drugs and the combination depends on the type of breast cancer and how much it has spread.. Chemotherapy is usually given as an outpatient treatment, which means you will not have to stay in hospital overnight. The drugs are usually given through a drip straight into the blood through a vein. In some cases, you may be given tablets that you can take at home. You may receive chemotherapy sessions once every two to three weeks, over a period of four to eight months, to give your body a rest in between treatments.. ...
hse.ie/eng/health/az/B/Breast-cancer-female-/

*  Joint ICTP-IAEA International Training Workshop on Transitioning from 2D to 3D Conformal Radiotherapy and Intensity Modulated...

Joint ICTP-IAEA International Training Workshop on Transitioning from 2D to 3D Conformal Radiotherapy and Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy , (smr 2378 ...
indico.ictp.it/event/a11198

*  Three-dimensional conformal radiation for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with involved-field irradiation may deliver...

Currently, to the best of our knowledge, there have not been any studies regarding dosimetric evaluation of IFI for ESCC with 3D-CRT. This study demonstrated that the incidental irradiation dose to high-risk nodal regions is considerable. The incidental irradiation dose in most of the high-risk regions with an EUD less than 40 Gy was significantly associated with the length and location of the esophageal tumor. However, this association did not exist between the length of the PTV located in the abdomen and incidental irradiation dose of region 3&7 of lower-thoracic ESCC. Uncertainty of the stomach anatomy may explain the lack of correlation. Additionally, all high-risk nodal regions likely do not receive high enough incidental irradiation doses in all patients studied, even when the median Dmean or EUD was more than 40 Gy, a typical dose for ENI in most nodal regions. However, it has been reported that worthwhile treatment benefits can be achieved by lower doses (e.g., 10-30 Gy), and that a ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/1748-717X-7-200

*  Target dose conformity in 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy | PolyU Institutional...

Background and purpose Dose conformity to the planning target volume is an important criterion in radiotherapy treatment planning, for which the conformity index is a useful assessment tool. The purpose of this study is to compare the differences in CI for the treatment planning of four cancers including the nasopharynx, oesophagus, lung and prostate. Patients and methods Seventy patients with cancers of nasopharynx (30), oesophagus (15), lung (15) and prostate (10) were recruited. Each of these patients was planned with three sets of treatment plans using the FOCUS treatment planning system: the forward and inverse 3DCRT plans and the IMRT plan. The CI was generated for each treatment plan. The mean CI from each cancer patient group was calculated and compared with the other three cancer groups. The mean value of CI was also compared among the three planning methods. Results The oesophageal and lung cancers demonstrated relatively higher overall mean CI values (0.64 and 0.62, respectively), ...
ira.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/10397/19330

*  3D-Conformal Radiation vs Helical Tomotherapy in Prostate Cancer - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Radical radiation therapy plays an important role in the management of prostate cancer, yielding comparable long-term outcomes to surgery. Unfortunately, long term disease free survival data using PSA criteria have shown that less than 50% of high-risk patients are free of disease at 10 years. To improve on the results of conventional dose radiotherapy dose escalation with three-dimensional conformal radiation has been employed. Due to the irregular shape of the prostate and the variable motion of this organ there is substantial radiation of adjacent normal surrounding tissue during treatment which results in radiation-induced toxicity. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a new form of radiation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests that IMRT improves the dose distribution during radiation therapy of the prostate. The hypothesis of this study is that IMRT delivered using Helical Tomotherapy can reduce late toxicity of radical radiotherapy as compared to ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00326638

*  Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated radiotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients with...

Because IMRT can deliver treatment to target organs while reducing the volumes of proximal normal structures that are irradiated, it appears to offer several advantages over conventional techniques for the treatment of malignancies [14] . However, studies on the effects of IMRT in reducing the irradiated volumes of the rectum, small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow have reported inconsistent findings [18, 26, 27, 30, 31, 36-41, 44, 45]. Therefore, we carried out a systematic review to identify all the relevant studies presenting data on DVHs of IMRT and 3D-CRT. Consequently, data from 13 studies were analyzed by calculating the pooled average percent irradiated volumes, and they were used in a comparative analysis of the effects of IMRT and 3D-CRT in the rectum, small bowel, bladder, and bone marrow at various radiation doses.. The studies by Heron et al.[26], Igdem et al.[31], and Roeske et al.[37] reported that IMRT at doses of 30 Gy, 40 Gy, and 45 Gy significantly reduced the irradiated volume ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/1748-717X-7-197

*  A comparison of dosimetric parameters between tomotherapy and three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in rectal cancer |...

IMRT modulates the beam intensity in several portals and has been demonstrated to achieve an effective coverage of the target tissue while avoiding damage to the normal tissue during treatment. Recently, IMRT has established an important role for the treatment of several malignancies through the promise of excellent local control of disease and reducing the potential complications inherent to external irradiation. Luxton G et al. reported that the accurate delivery of IMRT for prostate cancer could limit the dose to normal tissues and allow for a reduction in the rate of complication while maintaining the probability of tumor control [12]. A report by Bazan JG et al. indicated that IMRT was associated with less gastrointestinal, dermatologic, and hematologic toxicities, reduced need for treatment breaks, and excellent tumor control, compared with 3D-CRT in patients with anal cancer [13]. The National Comprehensive Consensus Network guidelines also recommend IMRT for the treatment of anal cancer ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/1748-717X-8-181

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Questionnaire based quality assurance for the RT01 trial of dose escalation in...

Questionnaire based quality assurance for the RT01 trial of dose escalation in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer (ISRCTN 47772397) Background and purpose: In order to ensure the validity of the outcome of the Medical Research Council's 'RT01 trial' of dose escalation in conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer it was considered important that the quality of treatment delivery should meet an adequate standard across all contributing centres. A questionnaire was therefore devised to ensure that all aspects of the planning and delivery process were adequately covered. Patients and methods: The questionnaire considered each step in the planning and delivery process and drew the attention of the participants to the specific requirements of the trial. Before entering patients into the trial each participating centre had to complete the questionnaire and an outlining exercise (reported elsewhere). Results: It was not practicable to define a detailed universally ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/1658/

*  Radiotherapy Bonn-Rhein-Sieg | Conformal radiotherapy

Die dreidimensionale konformale Strahlentherapie ist Standard an allen Standorten der Praxisgemeinschaft Strahlentherapie Bonn Rhein-Sieg.
strahlentherapie-bonn-rhein-sieg.de/english/conformal-radiotherapy.html

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Radiotherapy in locally advanced prostate cancer.

Dose-rate brachytherapy; external-beam radiation; iii randomized-trial; neoadjuvant androgen deprivation; intensity-modulated radiotherapy; extended pelvic lymphadenectomy; disease-free survival; conformal radiotherapy; radical radiotherapy; volume ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/2318/

*  Distortion-corrected T2 weighted MRI: a novel approach to prostate radiotherapy planning. - The Christie Research Publications...

The purpose of this study was to evaluate distortion-corrected MRI as a radiotherapy planning tool for prostate cancer and the resultant implications for dose sparing of organs at risk. 11 men who were to be treated with radical conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer had an MRI scan under radiotherapy planning conditions, which was corrected for geometric distortion. Radiotherapy plans were created for planning target volumes derived from the MRI- and CT-defined prostate. Dose volume histograms were produced for the rectum, bladder and penile bulb. The mean volume of the prostate as defined on CT and MRI was 41 cm3 and 36 cm3, respectively (p = 0.009). The predicted percentage of the rectum treated to dose levels of 45-65 Gy was significantly lower for plans delineating the prostate with MRI than for those with CT. The rectal-sparing effect was confined to the lowermost 4 cm of the rectum (anal canal). There were no differences ...
christie.openrepository.com/christie/handle/10541/70296

*  Targeting Galectin-1 with radiation in lung cancer - Quynh-Thu Le

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a highly lethal disease. Despite dose escalation with conformal radiotherapy (RT), there is still a high intrathoracic fai...
grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-CA161585-02

*  INTENSITY-MODULATED RADIOTHERAPY FOR SINONASAL TUMORS: GHENT UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL UPDATE

article{700587, abstract = {Purpose: To report the long-term outcome of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for sinonasal tumors. Methods and Materials: Between July 1998 and November 2006, 84 patients with sinonasal tumors were treated with IMRT to a median dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. Of the 84 patients, 73 had a primary tumor and 11 had local recurrence. The tumor histologic type was adenocarcinoma in 54, squamous; cell carcinoma in 17, esthesioneuroblastoma in 9, and adenoid cystic carcinoma in 4. The tumors were located in the ethmoid sinus in 47, maxillary sinus in 19, nasal cavity in 16, and multiple sites in 2. Postoperative IMRT was performed in 75 patients and 9 patients received primary IMRT. Results: The median follow-up of living patients was 40 months (range, 8-106). The 5-year local control, overall survival, disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and freedom from distant metastasis rate was 70.7\%, 58.5\%, 67\%, 59.3\%, and 82.2\%, respectively. No difference ...
https://biblio.ugent.be/publication/700587

*  SLRON - Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT)

Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) is a form of external beam radiotherapy that uses linear accelerators to deliver multiple small radiation beams to a tumour.. It allows shaping of the radiation dose to improve the targeting of the tumour and minimise the radiation dose to the surrounding normal organs.. This therapy is mainly used where a tumour is situated close to normal tissues that have a high risk of damage from radiation.. IMRT is available where necessary in all St Luke's Radiation Oncology Network (S.L.R.O.N.) centres.. ...
stlukesnetwork.ie/treatments/treatment/intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Improvements in target coverage and reduced spinal cord irradiation using intensity...

Improvements in target coverage and reduced spinal cord irradiation using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Background and purpose: External beam radiotherapy for thyroid carcinoma poses a significant technical challenge as the target volume lies close to or surrounds the spinal cord. The potential of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) to improve the dose distributions was investigated. Materials and methods: A planning study was performed on patients with thyroid carcinoma. Plans were generated to irradiate the thyroid bed alone or to treat the thyroid bed and the loco-regional lymph nodes in two phases. Conventional plans with minimal beam shaping were compared to three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) and inverse-planned IMRT plans to assess target coverage and normal tissue sparing. IMRT techniques were optimized to find the minimum number of equispaced beams required ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/276/

*  Comparison of photon volumetric modulated arc therapy, intensity-modulated proton therapy, and intensity-modulated carbon ion...

To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first study comparing photon VMAT with IMPT and IMCIT in the definitive treatment of loco-regionally confined lung tumors with hypo-fractionated radiotherapy. Although their clinical significance remains to be determined, our results indicated that fixed-beam IMCIT, compared with fixed-beam IMPT, may improve dose distribution for the tumor target, an effect possibly related to the sharper lateral dose gradient associated with carbon ions. The target volume dose coverage between VMAT and fixed-beam IMCIT was similar. Although the D95 was slightly improved with IMCIT compared with VMAT, the difference may be too small to have any clinical impact. However, fixed-beam IMCIT with 3 fields is greatly limited by the number and angles of beams that can be used to generate the most conformal treatment plan. In contrast, VMAT is one of the most mature and sophisticated forms of intensity-modulated photon therapy, and it can generate excellent dose ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-017-0866-0

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Dose to bone marrow using IMRT techniques in prostate cancer patients.

Dose to bone marrow using IMRT techniques in prostate cancer patients Purpose: To investigate the dose distribution in active bone marrow of patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer and compare it to the distribution in the same patients, if they had been treated using conformal plans, in order to develop criteria for optimization to minimize the estimated risk of secondary Leukemia. Patients and Methods: Mean bone marrow doses were calculated for ten patients with Localized prostate cancer who underwent whole- pelvis IMRT and compared to three-dimensional conformal (3-D CRT) plans prepared for the same patients. Also for comparison, the IMRT and 3-D CRT plans were produced to simulate the treatment of the prostate gland only. To measure the dose to extrapelvic bone marrow, three thermoluminescent diode (TLD) chips were placed in the middle of the sternum region inside the Rando phantom. Results: For both the pelvic and prostate- only volumes, the IMRT ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/2043/

*  Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy of benign skull-base tumors: a dosimetric comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy...

VMAT using RA and non-coplanar DA in FSRT for benign skull-base tumors both provided acceptable dosimetric results. However, RA was more conformal and homogeneous and offered better sparing of OARs. RA also had a faster treatment time.. Target-volume coverage was acceptable for both techniques, with the 95 % isodose covering a higher volume for RA (98.8 vs. 95.9 %; p = 0.09). However, this difference was not significant, probably due to the small number of patients in our study. One limit of this comparison is that (especially for DA, which is a forwardly planned technique), the experience of the planner to some extent determines the quality of the plan and thus influences the results of this comparative study.. Few published studies have compared DA and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for intracranial tumors; most have used step-and-shoot IMRT and not VMAT [29-31]. Ding et al. [29] performed a planning study in 15 patients and compared 3D conformal radiotherapy, DA, ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-016-0632-8

*  Dosimetric comparison between helical tomotherapy and volumetric modulated arc-therapy for non-anaplastic thyroid cancer...

To our knowledge, no previous study compared VMAT and HT specifically for thyroid cancer treatment.. We found that HT for non anaplastic-thyroid cancer provided statistically better tumor coverage index and homogeneity index in comparison with VMAT essentially for low risk PTV. On the other side, we found poorer results with HT for healthy tissue conformity index, conformation number and Dice Similarity Coefficient for low risk and for high risk PTV. Regarding OAR, by comparison with VMAT, HT mainly statistically decreased the maximum dose to the medullary canal.. VMAT and HT represent the ultimate evolution of IMRT since they both allow highly modulated treatments. However, few data are available regarding their direct comparison in the anatomical sites of thyroid cancer irradiation: i.e. median and low cervical regions and upper mediastinum.. For oropharyngeal cancer, several studies are available comparing HT and VMAT. Clemente et al. compared in eight patients also VMAT with both IMRT and HT ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-014-0247-x

*  Volumetric modulated arc therapy planning for distal oesophageal malignancies.

Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is a novel form of intensity-modulated radiation therapy that allows the radiation dose to be delivered in a single gantry rotation using conformal or modulated fields. The capability of VMAT to reduce heart an
biomedsearch.com/nih/Volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-planning/21427179.html

*  mARC vs. IMRT radiotherapy of the prostate with flat and flattening-filter-free beam energies | Radiation Oncology | Full Text

Only few studies have investigated the plan properties and treatment times associated with mARC planning [1],[4],[5]. Their observed treatment times for prostate cancer are of the same order of magnitude as those reported here, again for comparable plan qualities between mARC and IMRT treatments.. Several past studies have evaluated plan quality for VMAT/RapidArc treatment as compared with IMRT (for an overview, see [15]). While details differ between these studies - due on the one hand to variations in the considered prostate PTV contours, and on the other hand to different planning approaches - it was generally found that VMAT treatment offers at least as good quality plans as IMRT treatment, sometimes even with better sparing of organs at risk. Depending on whether one or two arcs were chosen for VMAT treatment and whether constant or variable dose rate irradiation was allowed, plan quality measures and OAR DVH values sometimes favoured IMRT, sometimes VMAT treatment [16]-[24]; however, all ...
ro-journal.biomedcentral.com.preview-live.oscarjournals.springer.com/articles/10.1186/s13014-014-0250-2

*  Rensselaer researcher wins $1.4 million NIH grant to enable faster cancer treatmen... ( Troy N.Y. Rensselaer Polytechnic In.....

Health, ...Troy N.Y. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Professor Richard Radke i...This promising method called intensity-modulated radiation therapy (I...Creating an acceptable IMRT plan however requires several hours of p...Collaborating with colleagues at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer C...,Rensselaer,researcher,wins,$1.4,million,NIH,grant,to,enable,faster,cancer,treatment,planning,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
bio-medicine.org/medicine-news-1/Rensselaer-researcher-wins--241-4-million-NIH-grant-to-enable-faster-cancer-treatment-planning-72731-1/

*  PLEASE STOP Advising YOUR Friends About VITAMINS | BOOM-QA.com

I'm blown away by a recent "artery cleansing" therapeutic program that I read. It was sent to me by a very, very good friend who had good intentions and who believed that the author had specialized knowledge.. The author exhibited no specialized knowledge. He was providing his plan of attack to counteract the damage he did to his arteries and heart over a lifetime of 70 years. He was inventing an experiment involving gulping down a handful of vitamins which he hopes will be helpful. Some readers would consider that guy to be an expert merely because he posts articles about supplements. Those readers would likely blindly accept his "artery cleansing therapy" as valid science. It would not even occur to such readers that there might be terrible dangers to health from following that guy's therapy plan, either because of dangers within the supplements and their interactions, or from substituting that guy's therapy plan in place of a valid, proven therapy plan developed by qualified doctors.. As an ...
boom-qa.com/vitamins-bad-advice/

*  Institute of Cancer Research Repository - Positron emission tomography for target volume definition in the treatment of non...

Positron emission tomography for target volume definition in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer The additional benefit of positron emission tomography (PET) in the initial staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has generated interest in F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET as a means of defining the extent of primary lung tumour for radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). A review of published data suggests that PET results in a reduction in the CT-derived GTV for NSCLC primary target volume in 15% of the patients. This is principally due to the ability of PET to distinguish tumour from atelectasis. However, the difficulty of tumour edge definition, limited spatial resolution and tumour motion during image acquisition currently limits the accuracy of PET in target volume delineation in NSCLC without adjacent lung consolidation. This is compounded by the lack of data correlating PET with spatial pathology at the primary tumour site. With the current technical limitations, it is ...
publications.icr.ac.uk/2055/

*  北京大学医学部机构知识库(IR@PKUHSC): Comparison of efficacy of regional and extensive clinical target volumes in postoperative radiotherapy...

Purpose: To compare and analyze the effect of different clinical target volumes (CTVs) on survival rate after postoperative radiotherapy (RT) for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).. Methods and Materials: We studied 102 patients who underwent postoperative RT after radical resection for esophageal SCC (T3/4 or N1). The radiation dose was >= 50 Gy. In the extensive portal group (E group, 43 patients), the CTV encompassed the bilateral supraclavicular region, all mediastinal lymph nodes, the anastomosis site, and the left gastric and pericardial lymphatic. In the regional portal group (R group, 59 patients), the CTV was confined to tumor bed and the lymph nodes in the immediate region of the primary lesion. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were compared between the groups, and multivariate/univariate analysis for factors predicting survival was studied.. Results: For the entire group, the 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates were 76.3%, 50.5%, and 42.9%, respectively (median survival, ...
ir.bjmu.edu.cn/handle/400002259/56258

*  Nike Wmns Air Max Thea Pinnacle Light Bone/ Light Bone-Sail | Foot shop

Nike Wmns Air Max Thea Pinnacle Light Bone/ Light Bone-Sail jsi můžete vybrat ve Footshopu jenom za 3990 Kč. Značka: Nike, Barva: Modrá, Dostupné velikosti
fandsf.cz/produkt/nike-wmns-air-max-thea-pinnacle-light-bone-light-bone-sail/

*  SLRON - External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT)

External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) refers to radiation directed at you from outside the body. This can be delivered in a number of different ways, including via a Linear Accelerator (Linac), Cobalt or Orthovoltage units.. Treatment is painless and non-invasive and is similar to having an x-ray taken. The patient must remain as still as possible during treatment. The treatment time for each patient differs depending on the dose of radiation prescribed, it can take up to twenty minutes to deliver the treatment. The radiation therapists bring the patient into the treatment room and set the patient up they leave the room and go to the control area to switch on the beam. During the treatment the patient is alone in the treatment room but the radiation therapists constantly monitor them via cameras in the treatment rooms.. Depending on the area to be targeted, different methods of delivering treatment are chosen and your team will discuss your case with you in detail before starting treatment.. ...
stlukesnetwork.ie/treatments/treatment/radiotherapy.html

*  NZIMRT

Vision: The NZIMRT strives for excellence within our profession. To be the leading professional organisation promoting excellence in Medical Imaging and Radiotherapy Services in New Zealand. Mission: To have well educated, continuously improving, professionally oriented and patient focussed Medical Radiation Technologists and Radiation Therapists.. ...
nzimrt.co.nz

*  Radiation Doses and Fractionation Schedules in Non-low Risk Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) of the Breast

Hypotheses: 1. The addition of tumour bed boost after BCS in women with non-low risk DCIS reduces the risk of local recurrence (invasive o
knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00470236/

*  Phase I Study of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy and Anti-PD1 Antibody (Pembrolizumab) in the Treatment of Advanced Bladder...

PLUMMB is an phase I trial to investigate the safety, tolerability and effectiveness of an immunotherapy drug called Pembrolizumab used in combination with
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700261285

*  Phase I/II Study of Escalating Doses of Taxol Used Concurrently With Ethyol and Accelerated Hyperfractionated Radiotherapy in...

Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you don't have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700045073

*  Data Models and Statistical Analysis sub-cluster 78

To fit urinary toxicity data of patients treated with postprostatectomy radiation therapy with the linear quadratic (LQ) model with/without introducing a time factor. Between 1993 and 2010, 1176 patients were treated with conventional fractionation (1.8 Gy per fraction, median 70.2 Gy, n=929) or hypofractionation (2.35-2.90 Gy per fraction, n=247). Data referred to 2004-2010 ...
biomedsearch.com/cluster/3/Data-Models-and-Statistical-Analysis/sub-78.html

*  Altered Fractionation - Isocentre Archive

Dear everybody. If we talk about the evidence, the real benefit of altered fractionation is in stage III patients, younger and fitter patients(MARCH meta analysis, forest plot). This is the same subgroup of patients where chemorads works best as well. Unfortunately there is no head on comparison between altered fractionation in strict sense vs chemorad with conventional fractionation (ofcourse except the ORO trial which is actually a poor comparison). Unless there is a head on comparison, between these modalities there will be never a consensus and the chemorad is going to have an upper hand as it has a superior biological rationale. coming to T3 N0M0, there may be evidence to suggest that the chemo may have less benefit, but there is no evidence for a great benefit with altered fractionation as well. These patients probably do well even with conventional radiotherapy.. HPV + oro tumors are again well behaved relatively, so if there is no need for intensification with chemo, it may also be ...
isocentre.wikidot.com/forum/t-221559/altered-fractionation

*  Items where Author is "Hart, D" - Surrey Research Insight Open Access

Soranzo, N, Rivadeneira, F, Chinappen-Horsley, U, Malkina, I, Richards, JB, Hammond, N, Stolk, L, Nica, A, Inouye, M, Hofman, A, Stephens, J, Wheeler, E, Arp, P, Gwilliam, R, Jhamai, PM, Potter, S, Chaney, A, Ghori, MJ, Ravindrarajah, R, Ermakov, S, Estrada, K, Pols, HA, Williams, FM, McArdle, WL, van Meurs, JB, Loos, RJ, Dermitzakis, ET, Ahmadi, KR, Hart, DJ, Ouwehand, WH, Wareham, NJ, Barroso, I, Sandhu, MS, Strachan, DP, Livshits, G, Spector, TD, Uitterlinden, AG and Deloukas, P (2009) Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for human adult stature identifies novel Loci and associations with measures of skeletal frame size. ...
epubs.surrey.ac.uk/view/creators/Hart,_D.html

*  Simon Hart MP, Carmarthen West and South Pembrokeshire - TheyWorkForYou

Read Simon Hart's contributions to Parliament, including speeches and questions, investigate their voting record, and get email alerts on their activity
https://theyworkforyou.com/mp/24813/simon_hart/carmarthen_west_and_south_pembrokeshire

*  Election Panel's Attorneys Say Hart Shouldn't Get Matching Money - tribunedigital-orlandosentinel

The general counsel of the Federal Election Commission Tuesday recommended rejection of Gary Hart's request for up to $940,000 in federal matching funds for his aborted presidential campaign.The
articles.orlandosentinel.com/1987-06-03/news/0130280200_1_gary-hart-fec-regulations-general-counsel

*  PPT - Radiation Injury Therapeutic Pipeline Review, H1 2015 PowerPoint Presentation - ID:7182405

Global Markets Direct\'s, \'Radiation Injury - Pipeline Review, H1 2015\' on RnRMarketResearch.com the Report provides an overview of the Radiation Injury\'s therapeutic pipeline. Slideshow 7182405 by rudra777
slideserve.com/rudra777/radiation-injury-therapeutic-pipeline-review-h1-2015

*  Radiation Therapy - FAQ - Canada.com

Whether used alone or in combination with another treatment, radiation therapy is an option for many people with cancer. High doses of radiation are used to kill cancer cells by damaging their DNA (modules that holds the genetic information passed down during cell division). Cancer cells multiply more rapidly than normal cells, and as a result they are more sensitive to damage from radiation therapy.
bodyandhealth.canada.com/procedure/getprocedure/x-ray-therapy

*  Image Reconstruction and Inverse Treatment Planning - Sharpening the Edge - Thomas Bortfeld I.CT Image Reconstruction II...

3 Syllabus 3/27Inverse treatment planning and optimization (Bortfeld) 4/3Optimization with motion and uncertainties (Trofimov, Unkelbach) 4/10Mathematics of multi-objective optimization and robust optimization (Craft, Chan) 4/17Dose painting (Grosu) 4/24Image-guided radiation therapy (Sharp) 5/1Special treatment techniques for moving targets (Engelsman)
slideplayer.com/slide/3894146/

*  BSN: Biotech Science News

head and neck cancer-- Integrating Intensity- Modulated Radiation Therapy/Image-Guided Radiation Therapy and Systemic Therapy into a Combined Modality Therapeutic Strategy (M09 ...
biotechsciencenews.com/OrgsBySpecialty/EventsByOrg/Surgery_19412.html

*  Ouch, Couch! A Sad Sofa Saga…Part 1 | Laura's 'Rules'

ISO: Someplace (safe and healthy) to sit. So, it all began sometime after I thought I had done exactly the right thing. (And whenever I get THAT feeling, I should know better.) A friend of mine who runs an environmental organization wrote me after the New York Times piece came out a few weeks back…
https://laurasrules.org/2012/04/09/ouch-couch-a-sad-sofa-saga-part-1/

*  Radiotherapy Bonn-Rhein-Sieg | Image-guided radiotherapy

Mithilfe der bildgeführten Bestrahlung (IGRT) kann die Lage beweglicher innerer Organe wie Lunge, Prostata oder Darm exakt verortet werden.
strahlentherapie-bonn-rhein-sieg.de/english/image-guided-radiotherapy.html

*  "Estimation of daily interfractional larynx residual setup error after " by Charles A Baron, Musaddiq J Awan et al.

Larynx may alternatively serve as a target or organs at risk (OAR) in head and neck cancer (HNC) image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). The objective of this study was to estimate IGRT parameters required for larynx positional error independent of isocentric alignment and suggest population-based compensatory margins. Ten HNC patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) with daily CT on-rails imaging were assessed. Seven landmark points were placed on each daily scan. Taking the most superior-anterior point of the C5 vertebra as a reference isocenter for each scan, residual displacement vectors to the other six points were calculated postisocentric alignment. Subsequently, using the first scan as a reference, the magnitude of vector differences for all six points for all scans over the course of treatment was calculated. Residual systematic and random error and the necessary compensatory CTV-to-PTV and OAR-to-PRV margins were calculated, using both observational cohort data and a ...
jdc.jefferson.edu/medfp/144/

*  Survey - Do you care about IGRT Training? - Isocentre Archive

Our department at Tata Medical Center, Kolkata is planning to develop a course on IGRT concepts and applications for trainee radiation oncologists in India. Prior to embarking on a project like this we are conducting a survey of trainees (junior and senior registrars, fellows etc) to assess the scope and demand for IGRT training in India. Can I request you to participate in this survey and also forward this link to other trainees you know. We are hoping for as many participants as possible. The survey is on till Dec 22nd.. Link to the ...
isocentre.wikidot.com/forum/t-292552/survey-do-you-care-about-igrt-training

*  Can a doctor suggest a good treatment for painful ankle and joints due to slipping from staircase ? - Doctor's insight on...

Question - Can a doctor suggest a good treatment for painful ankle and joints due to slipping from staircase ?. Ask a Doctor about when and why MRI is advised, Ask an Orthopaedic Surgeon
healthcaremagic.com/questions/Can-a-doctor-suggest-a-good-treatment-for-painful-ankle-and-joints-due-to-slipping-from-staircase/277018

*  Determinants of virological failure after 1 year's antiretroviral therapy in Vietnamese people with HIV: findings from a...

Results Only 63% (2010/3199) of patients had access to routine viral load testing after 1 year of ART. After adjusting for other factors, patients with a baseline CD4 count of 50-100, 101-200 and 201-350 cells/mm3 were 0.48 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.74), 0.63 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.82) and 0.73 times (95% CI 0.14 to 0.95) as likely to have virological failure, respectively, as those with a baseline CD4 count ,50 cells/mm3. After adjusting for other factors, patients with good treatment adherence were 0.54 times as likely to have viraemia as those with poor treatment adherence (95% CI 0.28 to 0.81) and patients with immunological failure were 1.43 times as likely to have viraemia (95% CI 1.31 to 1.65) as those without. The PPV of immunological criteria was 60.1% (95% CI 57.1% to 69.3%).. ...
sti.bmj.com/content/early/2014/03/11/sextrans-2013-051353

*  A Phase II, Randomized, Open-Label Clinical Trial to Study the Efficacy and Safety of the Combination Regimen of Elbasvir...

This is a randomized, multi-site, open-label trial of the co-administration of a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of elbasvir (50 mg)/grazoprevir (100 mg)
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700263067

*  Open label study to establish the efficacy of intravenous loading doses of Ibandronate 6 mg in patients with lung cancer and...

This trial evaluated the efficacy of intravenous loading doses of ibandronic acid in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and skeletal metastases
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700041833

*  Paclitaxel With / Without GW572016 (Lapatinib) As First Line Therapy For Women With Advanced Or Metastatic Breast Cancer - Full...

PFS is defined as the interval between the date of randomization and the earliest date of disease progression or death due to any cause, if sooner. Six months PFS is defined as PFS at six months from the time of randomization. Raw data for 6 months PFS are not available; thus, data are presented as the number of participants who progressed or died at or prior to 6 months. For TLs, progressive disease is defined asat least a 20% increase in the sum of the LD of TLs or the appearance of 1 or more new lesions. For NTLs, progressive disease is defined as the appearance of 1 or more new lesions and/or unequivocal progression of existing NTLs. PFS was assessed in participants who died or progressed, as well as in those who were censored and completed follow-up and those who were censored but are still being followed. For censored participants (those without a documented date of disease progression/death due to breast cancer), the date of the last radiographic assessment was used ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT00075270

*  An 18 Month Open Label Study Of The Tolerability And Efficacy Of An Antisense Oligonucleotide In Patients With Wild-Type...

The aim of the study is to determine whether lowering the blood levels of TTR, by a weekly injection of ISIS-TTRrx [Isis 420915/GSK 299872] will slow the
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700265406

*  Articles about Belviq, Arena Pharma, Etc.

Arena had a classic case of Founder's Syndrome where the challenge gets too big for a founder. A lot of people helped it get FDA approval on its very important drug, Belviq despite attempts by some short sellers to dissuade FDA against its approval despite the very clean safety and good efficacy of Belviq, the obesity pandemic, and proof that diet and exercise alone don't work in most cases because of the changes in the brain and metabolism of obese people - and it can lead to some 50 diseases (as per Dr. Aronne, a top specialist).. Belviq's excellent safety and efficacy can be summarized as follows (with full details on belviq.com).. · In clinical trials, patients on Belviq had a 10.6 to 1 odds of losing weight versus quitting due to adverse side effects. (1 out of 10.6 patients quit), while Contrave had a 2 to 1 ratio of success to side effects related discontinuation (1 out of 2 patients quit). So Belviq is far more tolerable and has milder side effects. Its most common side effects are a ...
belsuccess.yolasite.com/Articles.php

*  A Phase I, Open-label, Non-randomized Study, to Assess the Safety and Tolerability of Cediranib (AZD2171) in Combination With...

The primary objective of the study is to assess the safety and tolerability of cediranib in combination with Cisplatin plus a Fluoropyrimidine (Capecitabine or
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700048095

*  OPSITE Post-Op post-operative dressings from Smith & Nephew | Smith & Nephew - Corporate

OPSITE Post-Op and OPSITE Post-Op Visible both meet the criteria for an ideal post-operative dressing and provide several important benefits
smith-nephew.com/key-products/advanced-wound-management/opsite-post-op/

*  What We Do

The CEBM is a not-for-profit organisation dedicated to the practice, teaching and dissemination of high quality evidence based medicine to improve healthcare in everyday clinical practice.. Research. One of our objectives is to produce high quality research capable of changing or improving current clinical practice. We use a variety of methods to achieve this including carrying out clinical trials, conducting systematic reviews, qualitative work, theoretical modelling, database analysis and quantitative analysis. We currently have several project themes led by various members of CEBM. Examples of some of our active research themes include research into Non-Communicable Disease which includes a research collaboration with the World Health Organisation. We also have a strong Diagnostic theme which includes assessing novel Diagnostic Technologies relevant to improving the diagnosis of disease in primary care.. One of the core objectives of each of our research projects is to have impact through the ...
cebm.net/what-we-do/

*  Plus it

The aim of drug regulation is to ensure that only effective and safe treatments reach patients. Ideally, regulatory decisions are based on good quality data from large trials measuring real world, patient centred outcomes. Licensing agencies, however, routinely approve treatments on the basis of small placebo controlled trials evaluating short term, surrogate endpoints in selected populations. Consequently, medicines are commonly prescribed without good quality data on their long term benefits and harms.1 2 Current licensing standards are inadequate to predict the real world therapeutic value of new medications.3. This is particularly problematic for preventive treatments given to large populations, which should be subject to a high standard of proof of benefit and absence of appreciable harm. These drugs present interesting challenges because, firstly, the real world benefits often take many years to arise and, secondly, those benefits are often modest, although clinically important. Trials ...
bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h5260

*  Intervention Steps and Best Practices - Alcohol Rehab

Stage four is the pre-intervention meeting. It is during this time that the interventionist will discuss in detail who will be attending, where and when the event is going to take place, who will speak and for how long, and what they will say. A fool-proof plan will ensure that all possible outcomes have been considered, and will mean a stronger intervention. It is also during this time that the interventionist may suggest each member writes a letter to the client. This letter is to be read to the alcoholic to show them how their behavior is affecting others. It is done to give them a picture of how they are not just destroying themselves, but also those who care about them. The letter should be succinct and comprehensively detail how the person cares about them, are scared for them, and how they want to help them on their road to recovery. By writing a letter, it ensures that each person can clearly say what they want without being distracted by the emotions of the intervention.. ...
alcoholrehab.com/drug-addiction/intervention-steps-best-practices/

*  Sebelipase alfa Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of sebelipase alfa. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/sebelipase-alfa-side-effects.html

*  A prospective phase I and consecutive phase II, two arm, randomized multi-center trial of temsirolimus in combination with...

This trial will investigate the efficacy and tolerability of temsirolimus in combination with pioglitazone, etoricoxib, trofosfamide versus dacarbazine in
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700213782

*  Rayos Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Rayos (prednisone). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/rayos-side-effects.html

*  Aredia Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Aredia (pamidronate). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/aredia-side-effects.html

*  Follicle stimulating hormone Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of follicle stimulating hormone. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/follicle-stimulating-hormone-side-effects.html

*  Excedrin Back & Body Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Excedrin Back & Body (acetaminophen/aspirin). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/excedrin-back-body-side-effects.html

*  Remifentanil Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of remifentanil. Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/remifentanil-side-effects.html

*  Instacort Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Instacort (hydrocortisone). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/instacort-side-effects.html

*  Tempra 2 Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Tempra 2 (acetaminophen). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/tempra-2-side-effects.html

*  Solfoton Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Solfoton (phenobarbital). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/solfoton-side-effects.html

*  AH-Chew D Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of AH-Chew D (phenylephrine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/ah-chew-d-side-effects.html

*  Adeno-jec Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Adeno-jec (adenosine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/adeno-jec-side-effects.html

*  Egrifta Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Egrifta (tesamorelin). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/egrifta-side-effects.html

*  Iopidine Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Iopidine (apraclonidine). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/iopidine-side-effects.html

*  Netromycin Side Effects in Detail - Drugs.com

Learn about the potential side effects of Netromycin (netilmicin). Includes common and rare side effects information for consumers and healthcare professionals.
https://drugs.com/sfx/netromycin-side-effects.html

*  Levoxyl

... is a prescription drug that can treat an underactive thyroid and certain types of thyroid problems. This eMedTV page offers an overview of the drug, including information on how it works, potential side effects, and some general precautions.
drugs.emedtv.com/m/levoxyl/levoxyl.html

*  Phase I/II Study to Evaluate the Safety and Tolerability of Avelumab in Combination With Other Anti-Cancer Therapies in...

Objectives: Primary Objectives: - For Arms C-G, to establish the safety, tolerability, and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of different treatment combinations
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700286997

*  surgery

The patients, who have suffered a surgical intervention by an experienced surgeon, have a rate of mortality on long term with 22% inferior to those who have been treated by surgeons with a lower volume of surgical interventions in their list of achievements.. According to which criteria should one chose his/her doctor or surgeon in case of a relatively severe disease? The experience is an important factor of the doctor´s quality. A new proof has been given by Swedish researchers who have substantiated that a patient suffering of oesophagus cancer benefits from a longer survival on long term if he/she has been operated on by an experienced surgeon, who has the experience of such difficult interventions, in comparison with a novice or a doctor not specialized in this pathology. As one could have suspected, they have substantiated it in a masterly manner. The researchers at the Institut Karolinska, who have published their result on the 7th of January in The Journal of Clinical Oncology , ...
blog.mejobs.eu/tag/surgery/

*  outcome - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for outcome

outcome - MedHelp's outcome Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for outcome. Find outcome information, treatments for outcome and outcome symptoms.
medhelp.org/tags/show/15715/outcome

*  Oxygen For Life

... - Our purpose is to facilitate the global improvement of the health and well-being of humans, plants and animals. By providing advanced natural oxygenating products, together with informed service and purposeful education, we work at enhancing the existence of the Earths inhabitants purifying all sources of water and waste; and improving the productivity of our soils, for the general upliftment of mankind.
oxygenforlife.co.za/cellvet_testimonials.asp

*  Improving Drug Treatments In Mammals

An improved method for identifying the size, shape and duration of drug exposure necessary to improve drug treatment in a subject with a bacterial infection. In addition, an improved method for identification of new dosing strategies which optimize the probability of positive treatment outcomes in subjects using resistance inhibitory concentration
freshpatents.com/-dt20150528ptan20150148315.php

*  A Phase II Study to Evaluate the Efficacy of TKI258 for the Treatment of Patients With FGFR2 Mutated or Wild-type Advanced and...

This is a prospective, multi-center, open-label, single-arm, non-randomized, Phase II study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TKI258 as second-line
knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT01379534/

*  CardioMessenger Smart, a Device for Early Therapy Adjustments in Heart Patients

The device is fully automatic, passing the data through the GSM cellular network to physicians without any interaction from the patients.
medindia.net/news/cardiomessenger-smart-a-device-for-earlier-therapy-adjustments-in-heart-patients-148824-1.htm

*  A 12-month Open-label Study To Evaluate The Safety And Tolerability Of Pregabalin As Adjunctive Therapy In Pediatric Subjects 1...

This study is investigating the efficacy, long-term safety and tolerability of pregabalin as add-on therapy in paediatric patients aged 1 month to 16 years with
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700209089

*  A Randomized, Open-Label, Multicenter, Phase II Trial Evaluating the Safety and Activity of DNIB0600A Compared to Pegylated...

This randomized, multicenter, open-label study will evaluate the safety and efficacy of DNIB0600A (RO5541081) in comparison with PLD in participants with PROC,
adisinsight.springer.com/trials/700239188

*  First thoughts on Kin One and Two from teen reviewers | ZDNet

In order to help you understand if the new Microsoft Kin One and Two devices are an attractive option for teenagers I am having my two teen daughters evaluate the devices.
zdnet.com/article/first-thoughts-on-kin-one-and-two-from-teen-reviewers/

*  How fast growing cancer cells?; The tumor; Course of the cancer process; Doubling Time; Growth of the tumor; Uitzaaïngen

In healthy tissue cells often go lost, and it is of the utmost importance that is compensated for by the process of cell division, this loss of cells. If we are talking about a cancer, we
feelingkeep.com/article/how-fast-growing-cancer-cells

*  Conditions & Procedures | Nutrition | Functional Medicine

Nutrition is of the utmost importance for your health. They say you are what you eat and that is very true. Learn more at Top10MD.
top10md.com/conditions-procedures/functional-medicine/nutrition

*  Mayor Hospitalized With Chest Pains - tribunedigital-chicagotribune

Mayor Richard Sarallo was listed in stable condition in the cardiac care unit of Hinsdale Hospital after suffering chest pains Thursday morning, hospital officials said.According to city officials,
articles.chicagotribune.com/1991-12-13/news/9104220095_1_chest-pains-cardiac-care-unit-city-officials

*  Abstinence-The Only Way to Beat Addiction? Part 1 | Psychology Today

Some who struggle with addiction aren't ready to commit to abstinence, yet they're aware of their problem and want help. However, most treatment facilities require abstinence and see it as the only acceptable outcome. In fact, many of them will kick clients out of treatment for the very symptoms of their disorder-that is, using drugs or alcohol.
https://psychologytoday.com/blog/inside-rehab/201403/abstinence-the-only-way-beat-addiction-part-1

*  The Advisor's Guide to Succession Planning - AdvisorAnalyst.com

Here, I've compiled a brief advisor's guide to succession planning. It will give you a starting point, including questions you should be asking as you prepare for the next phase of your business and your life.. This question may seem obvious at first glance, but it's actually one of the most critical components of any succession plan-and perhaps the most difficult to grapple with. After all, you've spent countless hours, days, and years building a successful practice. Are you really ready to move onto the next phase of your life? Here, it's important to keep in mind that even if you decide to step down from handling the major wealth management responsibilities, there are options for you to stay involved in other aspects of your practice and continue to be compensated. If you feel you might miss being in the role of rainmaker, for example, a toe-in-the-water approach might work for you.. Don't be surprised if you have a hard time answering this question! Talking it out with those whom you trust ...
advisoranalyst.com/glablog/2017/03/15/the-advisors-guide-to-succession-planning.html

External beam radiotherapyImmunologic adjuvant: In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word “adjuvant” comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid.Abscopal effect: The abscopal effect is a phenomenon in the treatment of metastatic cancer where localized treatment of a tumor causes not only a shrinking of the treated tumor but also a shrinking of tumors in different compartments from the treated tumor. Initially associated with single-tumor, localized radiation therapy, the term has also come to encompass other types of localized treatments such as electroporation and intra-tumoral injection of therapeutics.Megavoltage X-raysFreund: __NOTOC__Philip D'Arcy HartTruebeamABCD rating: ABCD rating, also called the Jewett staging system or the Whitmore-Jewett staging system, is a staging system for prostate cancer that uses the letters A, B, C, and D.Radiation oncologist: A radiation oncologist is a specialist physician who uses ionizing radiation (such as megavoltage X-rays or radionuclides) in the treatment of cancer. Radiation oncology is one of the three primary specialties, the other two being surgical and medical oncology, involved in the treatment of cancer.Low-dose chemotherapy: Low-dose chemotherapy is being studied/used in the treatment of cancer to avoid the side effects of conventional chemotherapy. Historically, oncologists have used the highest possible dose that the body can tolerate in order to kill as many cancer cells as possible.Clinical endpoint: In a clinical research trial, a clinical endpoint generally refers to occurrence of a disease, symptom, sign or laboratory abnormality that constitutes one of the target outcomes of the trial, but may also refer to any such disease or sign that strongly motivates the withdrawal of that individual or entity from the trial, then often termed humane (clinical) endpoint.Breast cancer classification: Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes, each based on different criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes.Prostate brachytherapyPharmaceutic adjuvant: In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy or potency of other drugs when given at the same time.Radiosurgery: Radiosurgery is surgery using radiation, that is, the destruction of precisely selected areas of tissue using ionizing radiation rather than excision with a blade. Like other forms of radiation therapy, it is usually used to treat cancer.Head and Neck Cancer Alliance: The Head and Neck Cancer Alliance (HNCA) is a non-profit organization that works with health professionals and organizations, celebrities and survivors to enhance the overall effort in prevention, treatment, and detection of cancers of the head and neck region.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.Chemoradiotherapy: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT, CRTx) is the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy to treat cancer.http://www.Neurooncology: Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life-threatening (astrocytoma, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, ependymoma, pontine glioma, and brain stem tumors are among the many examples of these). Among the malignant brain cancers, gliomas of the brainstem and pons, glioblastoma multiforme, and high-grade (highly anaplastic) astrocytoma are among the worst.Squamous-cell carcinomaTargeted therapy of lung cancer: Targeted therapy of lung cancer refers to using agents specifically designed to selectively target molecular pathways responsible for, or that substantially drive, the malignant phenotype of lung cancer cells, and as a consequence of this (relative) selectivity, cause fewer toxic effects on normal cells.Lipoplatin: Lipoplatin (Liposomal cisplatin) is a nanoparticle of 110 nm average diameter composed of lipids and cisplatin. This new drug has successfully finished Phase I, Phase II and Phase III human clinical trials (2,3).Radiosensitizer: A radiosensitizer is a drug that makes tumor cells more sensitive to radiation therapy.Antileukemic drug: Antileukemic drugs, anticancer drugs that are used to treat one or more types of leukemia, include:Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory: Arizona Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory focuses on the study of cosmogenic isotopes, and in particular the study of radiocarbon, or Carbon-14. As a laboratory, part of its aim is to function as a research center, training center, and general community resource.Neoadjuvant therapyTemporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCabazitaxelIrradiance: In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength. The SI unit of irradiance is the watt per square metre (), while that of spectral irradiance is the watt per square metre per hertz (W·m−2·Hz−1) or the watt per square metre per metre (W·m−3)—commonly the watt per square metre per nanometre ().Lymphovascular invasionAutomatic exposure control: Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) is an X-ray exposure termination device. A medical radiography x-ray exposure is always initiated by a human operator.Adenocarcinoma of the lung: Adenocarcinoma of the lung (pulmonary adenocarcinoma) is a common histological form of lung cancer that contains certain distinct malignant tissue architectural, cytological, or molecular features, including gland and/or duct formation and/or production of significant amounts of mucus.DacarbazineRadiation-induced lung injuryUrogenital pelvic malignancyHapalonychia: Hapalonychia, also known as egg-shell nail, is a condition in which the top of a toe or finger nail becomes soft and thin, causing it to bend or break. This condition can manifest as a result of genetic discrepancy James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).MastectomyNodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin's lymphomaDense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Spaceflight radiation carcinogenesisProcarbazineDoxorubicinSentara Healthcare: Sentara Healthcare is a not-for-profit health care organization serving Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. It is headquartered in Norfolk, Virginia, and provides services to more than two million residents in the Hampton Roads region.Aluminium hydroxide oxide: (additive)PemetrexedAnaplastic carcinoma: Anaplastic carcinoma is a general term for a malignant neoplasm arising from the uncontrolled proliferation of transformed cells of epithelial origin, or showing some epithelial characteristics, but that reveal no cytological or architectural features of associated with more differentiated tumors, such as the glandular formation or special cellular junctions that typical of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively.Cobalt therapy: Cobalt therapy or cobalt-60 therapy is the medical use of gamma rays from the radioisotope cobalt-60 to treat conditions such as cancer. Beginning in the 1950s cobalt-60 was widely used in external beam radiotherapy (teletherapy) machines, which produced a beam of gamma rays which was directed into the patient's body to kill tumor tissue.Giant-cell glioblastoma: The giant-cell glioblastoma is a histological variant of glioblastoma, presenting a prevalence of bizarre, multinucleated (more than 20 nuclei) giant (up to 400 μm diameter) cells.Methotrexate-induced papular eruption: Methotrexate-induced papular eruption appears in patients being treated with methotrexate, such as those with rheumatic disease, presenting with erythematous indurated papules, usually located on the proximal extremities.James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005).Cervical screening: Cervical screening is the process of detecting abnormal changes in the cervix before they can develop into cervical cancer. If the abnormal tissue or cells can be removed, then the disease can be prevented from developing.Cobalt-60ImmunizationVinorelbineCommunity-based clinical trial: Community-based clinical trials are clinical trials conducted directly through doctors and clinics rather than academic research facilities. They are designed to be administered through primary care physicians, community health centers and local outpatient facilities.

(1/2084) Reirradiation combined with hyperthermia in recurrent breast cancer results in a worthwhile local palliation.

Both experimental and clinical research have shown that hyperthermia (HT) gives valuable additional effects when applied in combination with radiotherapy (RT). The purpose of this study was evaluation of results in patients with recurrent breast cancer, treated at the Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center (DHCC) with reirradiation (re-RT; eight fractions of 4 Gy twice weekly) combined with HT. All 134 patients for whom such treatment was planned were included in the analysis. The complete response rate in 119 patients with macroscopic tumour was 71%. Including the 15 patients with microscopic disease, the local control rate was 73%. The median duration of local control was 32 months, and toxicity was acceptable. The complete response (CR) rate was higher, and the toxicity was less with the later developed 433-MHz HT technique compared with the 2450-MHz technique used initially. With this relatively well-tolerated treatment, palliation by local tumour control of a worthwhile duration is achieved in the majority of patients. The technique used for hyperthermia appeared to influence the achieved results. The value of HT in addition to this re-RT schedule has been confirmed by a prospective randomized trial in a similar patient group. In The Netherlands, this combined treatment is offered as standard to patients with breast cancer recurring in previously irradiated areas.  (+info)

(2/2084) When to consider radiation therapy for your patient.

Radiation therapy can be an effective treatment modality for both malignant and benign disease. While radiation can be given as primary treatment, it may also be used pre- or postoperatively, with or without other forms of therapy. Radiation therapy is often curative but is sometimes palliative. There are many methods of delivering radiation effectively. Often, patients tolerate irradiation well without significant complications, and organ function is preserved. To ensure that all patients with cancer have the opportunity to consider all treatment options, family physicians should be aware of the usefulness of radiation therapy.  (+info)

(3/2084) Improved survival and reduction in local failure rates after preoperative radiotherapy: evidence for the generalizability of the results of Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial.

OBJECTIVE: The Swedish Rectal Cancer Trial (SRCT) demonstrated that a short-term regimen of high-dose preoperative radiotherapy (5 x 5 Gy) not only reduced the local recurrence rates but also improved the overall survival rate. This compelling evidence will have a significant impact on the primary treatment of rectal cancer. The authors' aim was to explore the representativeness of the study. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Until the SRCT was presented in 1997, no major trial had established that radiotherapy has a positive effect on the overall survival rate. METHODS: A review of all rectal cancer cases reported to the Swedish Cancer Registry during the same period that the SRCT accrued patients (1987 to 1990) was performed at 57 of 68 participating hospitals. At these 57 hospitals, there were 2366 patients with invasive rectal cancer, with 1664 of these patients fulfilling the criteria for inclusion in the SRCT. RESULTS: Fifty-two percent (866/1664) of eligible patients were included in the SRCT. The patients not included, of whom 8% (67/798) received adjuvant radiotherapy, had an overall 5-year survival rate of 48%, which was identical to the overall survival rate in the SRCT surgery-alone group (48%) but was inferior to the SRCT radiotherapy group (58%). The cancer-specific 5-year survival rates were 65% and 66% among the patients not included and the surgery-alone group, respectively. The local recurrence rates reached 27% in both groups. The results were still comparable when stratifying for curative surgery, tumor stage, and surgical procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The achieved inclusion level of 52% in a randomized multicenter trial is comparatively high. Because the population in the SRCT was representative, it was concluded that the study results are reliable.  (+info)

(4/2084) Decreased BOLD functional MR activation of the motor and sensory cortices adjacent to a glioblastoma multiforme: implications for image-guided neurosurgery.

A patient with a glioblastoma multiforme and mild sensorimotor deficits had significantly less activation of the motor and sensory cortices on the side with the tumor than on the contralateral side on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MR images. This difference, which may be due to pressure effects or loss of vascular autoregulation, should be considered in preoperative planning in which BOLD functional MR imaging is used to identify eloquent cortices to be avoided during brain tumor surgery.  (+info)

(5/2084) The influence of margin width on local control of ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

BACKGROUND: Ductal carcinoma in situ is a non-invasive carcinoma that is unlikely to recur if completely excised. Margin width, the distance between the boundary of the lesion and the edge of the excised specimen, may be an important determinant of local recurrence. METHODS: Margin widths, determined by direct measurement or ocular micrometry, and standardized evaluation of the tumor for nuclear grade, comedonecrosis, and size were performed on 469 specimens of ductal carcinoma in situ from patients who had been treated with breast-conserving surgery with or without postoperative radiation therapy, according to the choice of the patient or her physician. We analyzed the results in relation to margin width and whether the patient received postoperative radiation therapy. RESULTS: The mean (+/-SE) estimated probability of recurrence at eight years was 0.04+/-0.02 among 133 patients whose excised lesions had margin widths of 10 mm or more in every direction. Among these patients there was no benefit from postoperative radiation therapy. There was also no statistically significant benefit from postoperative radiation therapy among patients with margin widths of 1 to <10 mm. In contrast, there was a statistically significant benefit from radiation among patients in whom margin widths were less than 1 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative radiation therapy did not lower the recurrence rate among patients with ductal carcinoma in situ that was excised with margins of 10 mm or more. Patients in whom the margin width is less than 1 mm can benefit from postoperative radiation therapy.  (+info)

(6/2084) Surgical management of esophageal carcinoma.

Surgical management of esophageal carcinoma is reviewed. The anatomy and biology are briefly mentioned, since these factors mitigate against the success of surgery. Staging, the key to proper treatment allocation and prognosis, is discussed, including the use of endoscopic ultrasonography, positron emission tomography, and thoracoscopy/laparoscopy. Patient selection and preparation for surgery are important considerations. Surgical techniques are then discussed, as are the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches, the morbidity of surgical resection, survival, and quality-of-life issues. Adjuvant treatment strategies (preoperative radiation, induction chemotherapy, induction chemoradiotherapy, and postoperative treatment) are summarized.  (+info)

(7/2084) External beam radiotherapy for pelvic node recurrence after curative resection of colon cancer: report of a case.

The role of radiotherapy in locally advanced or recurrent colon cancer has not yet been determined. A 59-year-old man undergoing curative resection for advanced descending colon cancer had pelvic lymph node metastasis detected by computed tomography 5 months postoperatively. Intravenous chemotherapy using 5-fluorouracil and CDDP was repeated bimonthly for 7 months; however, his condition deteriorated progressively. External beam radiotherapy (50 Gy) was started thereafter. His serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased promptly and abdominal computed tomography showed apparent shrinkage of the metastatic pelvic node with calcification. The patient maintained a partial response for at least 12 months. Radiotherapy has a more crucial role in the treatment of a subgroup of recurrent colorectal tumors.  (+info)

(8/2084) A randomised phase III trial comparing consolidation treatment with further chemotherapy to chest irradiation in patients with initially unresectable locoregional non-small-cell lung cancer responding to induction chemotherapy. European Lung Cancer Working Party.

PURPOSE: A phase III randomised trial was conducted in patients with non-metastatic unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer in order to compare, in responders to induction chemotherapy, consolidation treatment by further chemotherapy to chest irradiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 462 untreated NSCLC patients were eligible for three courses of induction chemotherapy (MIP) consisting of cisplatin (50 mg/m2), ifosfamide (3 g/m2) and mitomycin C (6 mg/m2). It was proposed that objective responders be randomised to either three further courses of MIP or to chest irradiation (60 Gy; 2 Gy per fraction given over six weeks). RESULTS: An objective response rate of 35% was achieved; 115 patients (including 52% with initial stage IIIA and 44% with initial stage IIIB) were randomised to consolidation treatment, 60 of them to further chemotherapy and 55 to chest radiotherapy. There was no significant difference in survival between the two arms, with a respective median and two-year survival of 42 weeks (95% confidence intervals (95% CI: 35-51) and 18% (95% CI: 8-28) for chemotherapy and 54 weeks (95% CI: 43-73) and 22% (95% CI: 11-33) for irradiation. There was also no statistical difference for response duration between the two arms but chest irradiation was associated with a significantly greater duration of local control than chemotherapy (median duration times: 158 vs. 31 weeks, P = 0.0007). CONCLUSIONS: For non-metastatic unresectable NSCLC treated by an induction chemotherapy regimen containing cisplatin and ifosfamide, if an objective response is obtained, consolidation treatments by further chemotherapy or by chest irradiation result in non-statistically different survival distributions, although a better local control duration is observed with radiotherapy.  (+info)



androgen deprivation


  • Compare the overall and disease-free survival of patients with high-risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy with or without mitoxantrone and prednisone after radical prostatectomy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

external beam radioth


  • Pts were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and brachytherapy (IVB) boost. (springer.com)
  • RT consisted of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in 1.8-2.0 Gy fractions to a cumulative dose of 40-54 Gy (median 45 Gy) and/or HDR intravaginal brachytherapy (IVB) in 5.0 Gy fractions to a cumulative dose of 10-20 Gy (median 10 Gy). (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether a single fraction of radiotherapy given intra-operatively and targeted to the tissues at the highest risk of local recurrence is equivalent to standard post-operative external beam radiotherapy after breast conserving surgery in women with early stage breast cancer in terms of local relapse within the treated breast. (clinicaltrials.gov)

chemotherapy regimen


  • We propose to evaluate in adjuvant situation an active and well tolerate chemotherapy regimen (FOLFIRI)in patients with metastatic gastric cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Within 10 weeks after surgery, patients receive at least 3 courses of an adjuvant chemotherapy regimen as determined by the investigator. (clinicaltrials.gov)

undergo


  • Beginning 12 weeks after mastectomy or 6 weeks after adjuvant chemotherapy, patients undergo radiotherapy 5 days a week for 3-5 weeks in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. (clinicaltrials.gov)

systemic


  • Adjuvant systemic therapy for breast cancer has been a primary focus of oncology research for more than 40 years. (womenshealthsection.com)
  • This chapter also briefly reviews our current understanding of the role of adjuvant systemic therapy in the management of breast cancer in the modern era. (womenshealthsection.com)

breast


  • All patients with breast conservative surgery must receive radiotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Determine the overall survival of women at intermediate risk for locoregional recurrence of breast cancer treated with ipsilateral chest wall adjuvant radiotherapy after mastectomy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to use the low power laser in patients with breast cancer undergoing radiotherapy treatment to evaluate the effects of Laser InGaAIP 660Nm in preventing radiodermatitis. (clinicaltrials.gov)

EBRT


  • Adjuvant RT with EBRT/IVB ensures adequate local control in type II EC, but control rates remain lower than in type I EC. (springer.com)
  • A benefit of additional adjuvant ChT could not be demonstrated and a general omission of EBRT cannot be recommended at this point. (springer.com)

surgery


  • From 2004-2012 forty-two pts with type II EC underwent surgery followed by adjuvant RT at our department. (springer.com)
  • Patients receive radiotherapy* within 6 months after surgery. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients may receive radiotherapy within 6 months after surgery and after the completion of chemotherapy OR integrated with chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite therapies consisting of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, median survival is only 15 to 18 months. (aacrjournals.org)

evaluate


  • Evaluate the effects of Laser InGaAIP 660Nm in preventing radiodermatitis in women submitted to adjuvant radiotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

outcome


  • The purpose of this retrospective analysis was to elucidate the meaning of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for clinical outcome and to define prognostic factors in these patients (pts). (springer.com)

recurrence


  • A single fraction of radiotherapy given intra-operatively and targeted to the tissues at the highest risk of local recurrence. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Chemoradiotherapy


  • Compare the clinical response, distant metastases, disease-free survival, and overall survival in patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, nonmetastatic nasopharyngeal cancer treated with radiotherapy alone vs concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are randomized to receive radiotherapy alone (arm I) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by adjuvant chemotherapy (arm II). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This chemoradiotherapy is followed 3 weeks later by adjuvant chemotherapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

treatment


  • To report a study measuring the quality of life and side effects in men receiving radiotherapy and hormone ablation for prostate cancer up to 1 year after treatment. (wiley.com)
  • At 4-6 weeks after radiotherapy, participants experienced the biggest relative decline in global quality of life, social, physical, and role functioning and an increase in treatment side effects. (wiley.com)
  • However, a minority of men were experiencing severe side effects of radiotherapy at 1 year post-treatment. (wiley.com)
  • Single men and men who had a low quality of life prior to radiotherapy, reported a lower quality of life at 1 year after treatment in comparison to married men. (wiley.com)
  • The global design of adjuvant treatment will be four FOLFIRI courses, radiotherapy (45 Gy)with 5FU IV continue then four FOLFIRI. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Concurrent radiotherapy is given once daily 5 times a week over the 7 week treatment period. (clinicaltrials.gov)

hormone


  • Postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive tumors are allowed to receive aromatase inhibitors as initial adjuvant hormone therapy or after tamoxifen. (clinicaltrials.gov)

receive


  • Arm I: Patients receive radiotherapy once daily 5 times a week for 7 weeks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • All patients randomised to receive conventional radiotherapy within this trial should be treated in accordance with a pre-specified policy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • They may receive any other adjuvant treatments as deemed necessary, except for neoadjuvant therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)

women


  • Screening our patient database we analyzed 410 women who underwent adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for EC at the Department of Radiation Oncology at the University Hospital Heidelberg in Germany between 2004 and 2012. (springer.com)

previously


  • During the radiotherapy we will use 5 FU continue infusion as previously reported. (clinicaltrials.gov)

days


standard