RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA Editing: A process that changes the nucleotide sequence of mRNA from that of the DNA template encoding it. Some major classes of RNA editing are as follows: 1, the conversion of cytosine to uracil in mRNA; 2, the addition of variable number of guanines at pre-determined sites; and 3, the addition and deletion of uracils, templated by guide-RNAs (RNA, GUIDE).RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.RNA, Catalytic: RNA that has catalytic activity. The catalytic RNA sequence folds to form a complex surface that can function as an enzyme in reactions with itself and other molecules. It may function even in the absence of protein. There are numerous examples of RNA species that are acted upon by catalytic RNA, however the scope of this enzyme class is not limited to a particular type of substrate.RNA Folding: The processes of RNA tertiary structure formation.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.RNA Helicases: A family of proteins that promote unwinding of RNA during splicing and translation.RNA, Antisense: RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.RNA Caps: Nucleic acid structures found on the 5' end of eukaryotic cellular and viral messenger RNA and some heterogeneous nuclear RNAs. These structures, which are positively charged, protect the above specified RNAs at their termini against attack by phosphatases and other nucleases and promote mRNA function at the level of initiation of translation. Analogs of the RNA caps (RNA CAP ANALOGS), which lack the positive charge, inhibit the initiation of protein synthesis.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.RNA, Plant: Ribonucleic acid in plants having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.RNA, Neoplasm: RNA present in neoplastic tissue.RNA Ligase (ATP): An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of linear RNA to a circular form by the transfer of the 5'-phosphate to the 3'-hydroxyl terminus. It also catalyzes the covalent joining of two polyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage. EC 6.5.1.3.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure where it transcribes DNA into RNA. It has specific requirements for cations and salt and has shown an intermediate sensitivity to alpha-amanitin in comparison to RNA polymerase I and II. EC 2.7.7.6.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.RNA, Nuclear: RNA molecules found in the nucleus either associated with chromosomes or in the nucleoplasm.RNA, Guide: Small kinetoplastid mitochondrial RNA that plays a major role in RNA EDITING. These molecules form perfect hybrids with edited mRNA sequences and possess nucleotide sequences at their 5'-ends that are complementary to the sequences of the mRNA's immediately downstream of the pre-edited regions.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.RNA Transport: The process of moving specific RNA molecules from one cellular compartment or region to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).RNA, Satellite: Small, linear single-stranded RNA molecules functionally acting as molecular parasites of certain RNA plant viruses. Satellite RNAs exhibit four characteristic traits: (1) they require helper viruses to replicate; (2) they are unnecessary for the replication of helper viruses; (3) they are encapsidated in the coat protein of the helper virus; (4) they have no extensive sequence homology to the helper virus. Thus they differ from SATELLITE VIRUSES which encode their own coat protein, and from the genomic RNA; (=RNA, VIRAL); of satellite viruses. (From Maramorosch, Viroids and Satellites, 1991, p143)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Archaeal: Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Oligoribonucleotides: A group of ribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.RNA, Heterogeneous Nuclear: Nuclear nonribosomal RNA larger than about 1000 nucleotides, the mass of which is rapidly synthesized and degraded within the cell nucleus. Some heterogeneous nuclear RNA may be a precursor to mRNA. However, the great bulk of total hnRNA hybridizes with nuclear DNA rather than with mRNA.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.RNA, Small Cytoplasmic: Small RNAs found in the cytoplasm usually complexed with proteins in scRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL CYTOPLASMIC).RNA 3' End Processing: The steps that generate the 3' ends of mature RNA molecules. For most mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), 3' end processing referred to as POLYADENYLATION includes the addition of POLY A.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.RNA, Small Untranslated: Short RNA, about 200 base pairs in length or shorter, that does not code for protein.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Ribonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds within RNA. EC 3.1.-.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.RNA, Small Nucleolar: Small nuclear RNAs that are involved in the processing of pre-ribosomal RNA in the nucleolus. Box C/D containing snoRNAs (U14, U15, U16, U20, U21 and U24-U63) direct site-specific methylation of various ribose moieties. Box H/ACA containing snoRNAs (E2, E3, U19, U23, and U64-U72) direct the conversion of specific uridines to pseudouridine. Site-specific cleavages resulting in the mature ribosomal RNAs are directed by snoRNAs U3, U8, U14, U22 and the snoRNA components of RNase MRP and RNase P.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.RNA Virus InfectionsProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)UridinePromoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Chloroplast: Ribonucleic acid in chloroplasts having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Single-Strand Specific DNA and RNA Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded regions of DNA or RNA molecules while leaving the double-stranded regions intact. They are particularly useful in the laboratory for producing "blunt-ended" DNA molecules from DNA with single-stranded ends and for sensitive GENETIC TECHNIQUES such as NUCLEASE PROTECTION ASSAYS that involve the detection of single-stranded DNA and RNA.Base Pairing: Pairing of purine and pyrimidine bases by HYDROGEN BONDING in double-stranded DNA or RNA.RNA, Helminth: Ribonucleic acid in helminths having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.RNA, Transfer, Phe: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying phenylalanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, Lys: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying lysine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.RNA, Transfer, Tyr: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tyrosine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Amanitins: Cyclic peptides extracted from carpophores of various mushroom species. They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, blocking the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. These peptides are important in the study of transcription. Alpha-amanitin is the main toxin from the species Amanitia phalloides, poisonous if ingested by humans or animals.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Nucleic Acid Denaturation: Disruption of the secondary structure of nucleic acids by heat, extreme pH or chemical treatment. Double strand DNA is "melted" by dissociation of the non-covalent hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions. Denatured DNA appears to be a single-stranded flexible structure. The effects of denaturation on RNA are similar though less pronounced and largely reversible.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Ribonuclease T1: An enzyme catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at the 3'-position of a guanylate residue. EC 3.1.27.3.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.RNA, Transfer, Amino Acyl: Intermediates in protein biosynthesis. The compounds are formed from amino acids, ATP and transfer RNA, a reaction catalyzed by aminoacyl tRNA synthetase. They are key compounds in the genetic translation process.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.RNA, Transfer, Ala: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying alanine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Ribonuclease P: An RNA-containing enzyme that plays an essential role in tRNA processing by catalyzing the endonucleolytic cleavage of TRANSFER RNA precursors. It removes the extra 5'-nucleotides from tRNA precursors to generate mature tRNA molecules.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.RNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: An enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template. It is encoded by the pol gene of retroviruses and by certain retrovirus-like elements. EC 2.7.7.49.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Transfer, Asp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying aspartic acid to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.TritiumRNA, Transfer, Met: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying methionine to sites on the ribosomes. During initiation of protein synthesis, tRNA(f)Met in prokaryotic cells and tRNA(i)Met in eukaryotic cells binds to the start codon (CODON, INITIATOR).Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Ribonuclease H: A ribonuclease that specifically cleaves the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids. It has been isolated from a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms as well as RETROVIRUSES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Polyribosomes: A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Exoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.RNA, Transfer, Gly: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying glycine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Transfer, His: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying histidine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.RNA, Transfer, Val: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying valine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Poly U: A group of uridine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each uridine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Nodaviridae: A family of RNA viruses infecting insects and fish. There are two genera: Alphanodavirus and Betanodavirus.Nucleic Acid Precursors: Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Defective Viruses: Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.RNA, Transfer, Arg: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying arginine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.RNA, Algal: Ribonucleic acid in algae having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.RNA, Transfer, Trp: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying tryptophan to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Terminator Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences recognized as signals to end GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Levivirus: A bacteriophage genus of the family LEVIVIRIDAE, whose viruses contain the short version of the genome and have a separate gene for cell lysis.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.PolynucleotidesTrypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.Guanosine: A purine nucleoside that has guanine linked by its N9 nitrogen to the C1 carbon of ribose. It is a component of ribonucleic acid and its nucleotides play important roles in metabolism. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.RNA, Transfer, Leu: A transfer RNA which is specific for carrying leucine to sites on the ribosomes in preparation for protein synthesis.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.

*  5.8S ribosomal RNA - Wikipedia
Page for 5.8S ribosomal RNA at Rfam Arabidopsis 5.8S rRNA sequence Rice 5.8S rRNA sequence. ... In molecular biology the 5.8S ribosomal RNA (5.8S rRNA) is a non-coding RNA component of the large subunit of the eukaryotic ... "5.8S Ribosomal RNA" (PDF). Cell. 33: 320-322. "An overview of pre-ribosomal RNA prcoessing in eukaryotes". WIREs RNA. 6 (2): ... 5.8S rRNA can be used as a reference gene for miRNA detection..The 5.8S ribosomal RNA is used to better understand other rRNA ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/5.8S_ribosomal_RNA
*  RNA5-8SP4 Gene - GeneCards | RNA5-8SP4 Pseudogene
5.8S Ribosomal Pseudogene 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The ... RNA5-8SP4 (RNA, 5.8S Ribosomal Pseudogene 4) is a Pseudogene, and is affiliated with the rRNA class. ... RNA, 5.8S Ribosomal Pseudogene 4 2 3 5 * RNA, 5.8S Ribosomal 4 2 ... Browse OriGene Inhibitory RNA Products For RNA5-8SP4. *Browse ... The GeneCards human gene database index: 2 3 5 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ...
  http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=RNA5-8SP4
*  Candida parapsilosis (Ashford) Langeron et Talice ATCC ® 22019&tra
S)-1,3-butanediol dehydrogenase Produces lipase Quality control Quality control strain Susceptibility disc testing ... 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : L11352 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, sequence Nucleotide (GenBank) : U45754 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial ... Candida parapsilosis ribosomal RNA large subunit gene sequence. Nucleotide (GenBank) : U10987 5.8S rRNA gene and internal ...
  https://www.atcc.org/Products/Cells_and_Microorganisms/Microbial_Panels/Antifungal_Susceptibility_Testing_Panel/22019.aspx
*  Flea News 46
Shimada, T. Distribution of split 5.8S ribosomal RNA in Diptera. Insect Molecular Biology 1(1): 45-48. (Ctenocephalides felis ... Marchiondo, A.A., S. Akers, S.W. Fogt, D.L. Heimbichner & R. Young. Efficacy and safety of Fenoxycarb EC and WP formulations ... George, R.S. Bat fleas (Siphonaptera) in the Channel Islands. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine 127(1528): 195.. Good, J.A. & P.S ... Bartig, J.L., T.L. Best & S.L. Burt. Tamias bulleri. Mammalian Species 438: 1-4.. Best, T.L. Tamias palmeri. Mammalian Species ...
  http://www.public.iastate.edu/~entomology/FleaNews/FleaNews46.html
*  LMG 3293 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
Inonotus linteus strain KFDA 016 internal transcribed spacer 1, partialsequence; 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, complete sequence; ... Mycoplasma bovis strain HEK-FDA 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer, complete ... S Pharmacopeia Antibiotics--microbial assays In: US Pharmacopeia 23rd rev Rockville, MD, U.S. Pharmacopeia; 1995, 1690 ... RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region (ITS) as complementary ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/52808
*  VTT D-01672 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2,complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ATCC ... 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... Aspergillus brasiliensis strain CBS 733.88 internal transcribed spacer 1, partial sequence; 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, complete ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/794692
*  NRRL 4753 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... Aspergillus parvulus strain CBS 136.61 internal transcribed spacer 1, partial sequence; 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, complete ... Aspergillus parvulus isolate NRRL 4753 RNA polymerase beta gene, partial cds. NRRL 4753. T ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/417674
*  Candida tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout ATCC ® 750™
18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF218992 Candida tropicalis strain ATCC 750T 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, ... Gunisova S, et al. Identification and comparative analysis of telomerase RNAs from Candida species reveal conservation of ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : U45749 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence Nucleotide (GenBank) : M60308 C. tropicalis small ...
  https://www.atcc.org/en/Products/Quality_Control_Strains/By_Organization__Company/750.aspx
*  Meyerozyma guilliermondii (Wickerham) Kurtzman et M. Suzuki ATCC ®
18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF218967 Pichia guilliermondii strain ATCC 6260T 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene ... Daniel HM, Meyer W. Evaluation of ribosomal RNA and actin gene sequences for the identification of ascomycetous yeasts. Int. J ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : M60304 C.guilliermondii small subunit ribosomal RNA. ...
  https://www.atcc.org/Products/Collections/Preceptrol_Cultures/6260.aspx
*  Det Vogler
Cullings, K.W., and Vogler, D.R. (1998). A 5.8S nuclear ribosomal RNA gene sequence database: Applications to ecology and ... Sequence alignment: View the 5.8S rRNA sequence alignment in NEXUS format; or, download a PAUP version of the 5.8S sequence ... U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Region Five, Forest Insect and Disease Management, Report No. 78-1. 17 pp. Published Abstracts. * ... U.S.D.A., Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note PSW-386. 2 pp.. *Vogler, D. R., ...
  https://nature.berkeley.edu/brunslab/people/dv.html
*  Cryptococcus laurentii (Kufferath) Skinner ATCC ® 18803™
18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF218974 Cryptococcus laurentii strain ATCC 18803T 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AF075469 Cryptococcus laurentii 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... D1D2 region of the 26S ribosomal RNA gene ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : EU266564 ITS including 5.8S rRNA gene ...
  https://www.atcc.org/Products/Quality_Control_Strains/By_Organization__Company/18803.aspx
*  Sydney Brenner - Wikipedia
Rubin, Gerald Mayer (1974). Studies on 5.8 S Ribosomal RNA (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500553465. EThOS uk.bl. ... S.; Elgar, G.; Sanford, R.; Macrae, A.; Venkatesh, B.; Aparicio, S. (1993). "Characterization of the pufferfish (Fugu) genome ... This led Francis Crick to propose the concept of the adaptor or as it is now known "transfer RNA (tRNA)". The physical ... Sulston, J.; Brenner, S. (1974). "The DNA of Caenorhabditis elegans". Genetics. 77 (1): 95-104. PMC 1213121 . PMID 4858229. " ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sydney_Brenner
*  Ribosomal DNA - Wikipedia
Nazar, R. N.; Sitz, T. O.; Busch, H. (1976). "Sequence homologies in mammalian 5.8S ribosomal RNA". Biochemistry. 15 (3): 505- ... Human 5.8S rRNA has 75% identity with yeast 5.8S rRNA. In cases for sibling species, comparison of the rDNA segment including ... ribosomal RNA, 16S ribosomal RNA and 5S rRNA. The 16S rRNA is widely used for phylogenetic studies. In the large rDNA array, ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a DNA sequence that codes for ribosomal RNA. Ribosomes are assemblies of proteins and rRNA molecules ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ribosomal_DNA
*  Gerald M. Rubin - Wikipedia
Rubin, Gerald Mayer (1974). Studies on 5.8 S Ribosomal RNA (PhD thesis). University of Cambridge. OCLC 500553465. EThOS uk.bl. ... Rubin, G. (1974). "Three forms of the 5.8-S ribosomal RNA species in Saccharomyces cerevisiae". European Journal of ... for studies on 5.8S ribosomal RNA supervised by Sydney Brenner. Following his PhD, Rubin did postdoctoral research at Stanford ... S.; Li, P.; Hoskins, R.; Galle, R. F.; George, R. A.; Lewis, S. E.; Richards, S.; Ashburner, M.; Henderson, S. N.; Sutton, G. G ...
  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerald_M._Rubin
*  NBRC 1622 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
T.delbrueckii gene for 5.8S and 26S ribosomal RNA. CBS 817 T ... Spacer 2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae precursor ribosomal RNA ... Functional analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ribosomal DNA ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/480426
*  Candida tropicalis (Castellani) Berkhout ATCC ® 750D-5™
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... and 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... Candida tropicalis strain ATCC 750 5.8 ribosomal RNA gene, ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AY282527 Candida tropicalis strain ATCC 750 small subunit ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal ... Nucleotide (GenBank) : AY939810 Candida tropicalis strain ATCC 750 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal ...
  https://www.atcc.org/en/Global/Products/8/2/3/1/750D-5.aspx
*  PDB-5t6r: Nmd3 is a structural mimic of eIF5A, and activates the cpGTPase L... - Yorodumi
A: 25S Ribosomal RNA. B: 5S Ribosomal RNA. C: 5.8S Ribosomal RNA. ... Ubiquitin-60S ribosomal protein L40. Ribosomal Protein uL1. 60S ribosomal export protein NMD3/RNA Complex. (60S ribosomal ... RNA chain , 3 types, 3 molecules A. B. C. #1: RNA chain. A. 25S. Ribosomal. RNA. Details. Sequence. Sites (81). ... cleavage in ITS2 between 5.8S rRNA and LSU-rRNA of tricistronic rRNA transcript (SSU-rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, LSU-rRNA) (GO: 0000448)* ...
  https://pdbj.org/emnavi/quick.php?id=pdb-5t6r
*  CBS 142 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 26S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... Cryptococcus albidus strain ATCC 10666T 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partialsequence; internal transcribed spacer 2, complete ... Cryptococcus albidus strain ATCC 10666 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partialsequence; internal transcribed spacer 2, complete ... and5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ATCC 10666 T ATCC 10666 is type strain of:. Cryptococcus albidus var. albidus. ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/100929
*  A Fluorescence in Situ Hybridization System for Karyotyping Soybean | Genetics
1991) that is composed of arrays of genes encoding 18S−5.8S−28S ribosomal RNA (rDNA). Because the CentGm oligonucleotide ... Schlueter, J. A., J. Y. Lin, S. D. Schlueter, I. F. Vasylenko-Sanders, S. Deshpande et al., 2007 Gene duplication and ... Jackson, S. A., D. Rokhsar, G. Stacey, R. C. Shoemaker, J. Schmutz et al., 2006 Toward a reference sequence of the soybean ... Skorupska, H., M. C. Albertsen, K. D. Langholz and R. G. Palmer, 1989 Detection of ribosomal RNA genes in soybean, Glycine max ...
  http://www.genetics.org/content/185/3/727
*  RCSB PDB - 4D5Y: Cryo-EM structures of ribosomal 80S complexes with termination factors and cricket paralysis virus...
Cryo-Em Structures of Ribosomal 80S Complexes with Termination Factors and Cricket Paralysis Virus Ires Reveal the Ires in the ... 28S Ribosomal RNA 2. 5025 Oryctolagus cuniculus 5.8S Ribosomal RNA 3. 194 Oryctolagus cuniculus ... 60S RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN UL2 A 257 Oryctolagus cuniculus Gene Name(s): RPL8 Gene View ... Deposition author(s): Muhs, M., Hilal, T., Mielke, T., Skabkin, M.A., Sanbonmatsu, K.Y., Pestova, T.V., Spahn, C.M.T. ...
  http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/explore/explore.do?structureId=4D5Y
*  LMG 202 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. LMG ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/2512
*  Stud Mycol 58, 219-234, 2007 Publication Passport - StrainInfo
CBS 350.83 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal ... CBS 834.96 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal ... CBS 112222 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal ... CBS 114772 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and internal ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/publications/123492
*  455 D1 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. CBS ... Streptomyces blastmyceticus strain NRRL B-5480 16S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. NRRL B-5480 T ... Habitat and Host Indicate Lineage Identity in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. from Wild and Agricultural Landscapes in ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/100405
*  MUCL 19343 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ... Hawari J, Halasz A, Beaudet S, Paquet L, Ampleman G, Thiboutot S ... Camarero S, Galletti GC, Martinez AT. Preferential degradation ... Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 90(15), 7411-7413, 1993 ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/192353
*  CBS 490 Strain Passport - StrainInfo
Sporidiobolus salmonicolor 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence;internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene and ... Sporidiobolus salmonicolor 18S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence;internal transcribed spacer 1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, and ... Sporidiobolus salmonicolor strain ATCC 36400T 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene,partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 2, complete ... and5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. ATCC 36400 T ATCC 36400 is type strain of:. Blastoderma salmonicolor. ...
  http://www.straininfo.net/strains/50055

YjdF RNA motifMT-RNR2: Mitochondrially encoded 16S RNA (often abbreviated as 16S) is a mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) that in humans is encoded by the MT-RNR2 gene. The MT-RNR2 gene also encodes the Humanin polypeptide that has been the target of Alzheimer's disease research.Transfer-messenger RNA: Transfer-messenger RNA (abbreviated tmRNA, also known as 10Sa RNA and by its genetic name SsrA) is a bacterial RNA molecule with dual tRNA-like and messenger RNA-like properties. The tmRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (tmRNP) together with Small Protein B (SmpB), Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), and ribosomal protein S1.Core enzyme: A core enzyme consists of the subunits of an enzyme that are needed for catalytic activity, as in the core enzyme RNA polymerase.Genetics: Analysis & Principles, 3rd Edition.Mycovirus: Mycoviruses (ancient Greek μύκης mykes: fungus and Latin virus) are viruses that infect fungi. The majority of mycoviruses have double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genomes and isometric particles, but approximately 30% have positive sense, single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) genomes.RNAi-Based Identification System and interference of Specific Cancer Cells: A “classifier” was created to classify cells by identifying specific characteristics of Cervical Cancer. These characteristics were consistent with HeLa cells, which served as the target cell line for cell death.Mature messenger RNA: Mature messenger RNA, often abbreviated as mature mRNA is a eukaryotic RNA transcript that has been spliced and processed and is ready for translation in the course of protein synthesis. Unlike the eukaryotic RNA immediately after transcription known as precursor messenger RNA, it consists exclusively of exons, with all introns removed.RNA interference: RNA interference (RNAi) is a biological process in which RNA molecules inhibit gene expression, typically by causing the destruction of specific mRNA molecules. Historically, it was known by other names, including co-suppression, post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), and quelling.Hairpin ribozymeTranscription preinitiation complex: The preinitiation complex (abbreviated PIC) is a large complex of proteins that is necessary for the transcription of protein-coding genes in eukaryotes (+archaea). The preinitiation complex helps position RNA polymerase II over gene transcription start sites, denatures the DNA, and positions the DNA in the RNA polymerase II active site for transcription.Cryptic unstable transcript: Cryptic Unstable Transcripts (CUTs) are a subset of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) that are produced from intergenic and intragenic regions. CUTs were first observed in S.Armitage–Doll multistage model of carcinogenesis: The Armitage–Doll model is a statistical model of carcinogenesis, proposed in 1954 by Peter Armitage and Richard Doll, which suggested that a sequence of multiple distinct genetic events preceded the onset of cancer. The original paper has recently been reprinted with a set of commentary articles.Masayori Inouye: Masayori Inouye is a Japanese biochemist who, along with his team, discovered natural antisense RNA.T-box leaderU6 spliceosomal RNADark matter halo: A dark matter halo is a hypothetical component of a galaxy that envelops the galactic disc and extends well beyond the edge of the visible galaxy. The halo's mass dominates the total mass.Nucleic acid structure: Nucleic acid structure refers to the structure of nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA. Chemically speaking, DNA and RNA are very similar.Symmetry element: A symmetry element is a point of reference about which symmetry operations can take place. In particular, symmetry elements can be centers of inversion, axes of rotation and mirror planes.DExD/H box proteins: DEAD box, DEAH, and the Ski families of proteins are all referred to as DExD/H box proteins. They are all quite distinct from one another and there is not one protein that belongs to more than one of these families.Coles PhillipsRNA-binding protein database: The RNA-binding Proteins Database (RBPDB) is a biological database of RNA-binding protein specificities that includes experimental observations of RNA-binding sites. The experimental results included are both in vitro and in vivo from primary literature.Lactis-leu-phe leader RNA motifSatellite (biology): A satellite is a subviral agent composed of nucleic acid that depends on the co-infection of a host cell with a helper or master virus for its replication. When a satellite encodes the coat protein in which its nucleic acid is encapsidated it is referred to as a satellite virus.Protein primary structure: The primary structure of a peptide or protein is the linear sequence of its amino acid structural units, and partly comprises its overall biomolecular structure. By convention, the primary structure of a protein is reported starting from the amino-terminal (N) end to the carboxyl-terminal (C) end.Translational regulation: Translational regulation refers to the control of the levels of protein synthesized from its mRNA. The corresponding mechanisms are primarily targeted on the control of ribosome recruitment on the initiation codon, but can also involve modulation of the elongation or termination of protein synthesis.List of strains of Escherichia coli: Escherichia coli is a well studied bacterium that was first identified by Theodor Escherich, after whom it was later named.Silent mutation: Silent mutations are mutations in DNA that do not significantly alter the phenotype of the organism in which they occur. Silent mutations can occur in non-coding regions (outside of genes or within introns), or they may occur within exons.Exonic splicing enhancer: In molecular biology, an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) is a DNA sequence motif consisting of 6 bases within an exon that directs, or enhances, accurate splicing of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) or pre-mRNA into messenger RNA (mRNA).Eukaryotic transcription: Eukaryotic transcription is the elaborate process that eukaryotic cells use to copy genetic information stored in DNA into units of RNA replica. Gene transcription occurs in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.MALAT1-associated small cytoplasmic RNAFasX small RNA: In molecular biology, the FasX small RNA (fibronectin/fibrinogen-binding/haemolytic-activity/streptokinase-regulator-X) is a non-coding small RNA (sRNA) produced by all group A Streptococcus. FasX has also been found in species of group D and group G Streptococcus.Ribonuclease T2: Ribonuclease T2 (, ribonuclease II, base-non-specific ribonuclease, nonbase-specific RNase, RNase (non-base specific), non-base specific ribonuclease, nonspecific RNase, RNase Ms, RNase M, RNase II, Escherichia coli ribonuclease II, ribonucleate nucleotido-2'-transferase (cyclizing), acid ribonuclease, RNAase CL, Escherichia coli ribonuclease I' ribonuclease PP2, ribonuclease N2, ribonuclease M, acid RNase, ribonnuclease (non-base specific), ribonuclease (non-base specific), RNase T2, ribonuclease PP3, ribonucleate 3'-oligonucleotide hydrolase, ribonuclease U4) is an enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionExtension Poly(A) Test: The extension Poly(A) Test (ePAT) describes a method to determine the poly(A) tail lengths of mRNA molecules. It was developed and described by A.MoniliellaDNA condensation: DNA condensation refers to the process of compacting DNA molecules in vitro or in vivo. Mechanistic details of DNA packing are essential for its functioning in the process of gene regulation in living systems.Long non-coding RNA database: This Long noncoding RNA(lncRNA) (also call lincRNA) database is a compilation of databases used for lncRNAs and their expressions. lncRNAs (lincRNAs) represent the leading edge of biological and medical research.Pyrococcus C/D box small nucleolar RNADNA binding site: DNA binding sites are a type of binding site found in DNA where other molecules may bind. DNA binding sites are distinct from other binding sites in that (1) they are part of a DNA sequence (e.Proximity ligation assay: Proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA) is a technology that extends the capabilities of traditional immunoassays to include direct detection of proteins, protein interactions and modifications with high specificity and sensitivity. Protein targets can be readily detected and localized with single molecule resolution and objectively quantified in unmodified cells and tissues.GC box: In molecular biology, a GC box is a distinct pattern of nucleotides found in the promoter region of some eukaryotic genes upstream of the TATA box and approximately 110 bases upstream from the transcription initiation site. It has a consensus sequence GGGCGG which is position dependent and orientation independent.Ribonuclease L: Ribonuclease L or RNase L (for latent), known sometimes as ribonuclease 4 or 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase-dependent ribonuclease — is an interferon (IFN)-induced ribonuclease which, upon activation, destroys all RNA within the cell (both cellular and viral). RNase L is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the RNASEL gene.Reaction coordinateTriparental mating: Triparental mating is a form of Bacterial conjugation where a conjugative plasmid present in one bacterial strain assists the transfer of a mobilizable plasmid present in a second bacterial strain into a third bacterial strain. Plasmids are introduced into bacteria for such purposes as transformation, cloning, or transposon mutagenesis.Burst kinetics: Burst kinetics is a form of enzyme kinetics that refers to an initial high velocity of enzymatic turnover when adding enzyme to substrate. This initial period of high velocity product formation is referred to as the "Burst Phase".Base pair: Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is subtly dependent on its nucleotide sequence.Wound tumor virus: Wound tumor virus is an invertebrate and plant virus found in the United States of America belonging to the genus Phytoreovirus and the family Reoviridae. The virus is a Type III virus under the Baltimore classification system; that is it has a double-stranded RNA genome.Zuotin: Z-DNA binding protein 1, also known as Zuotin, is a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast gene.Pituitary-specific positive transcription factor 1: POU domain, class 1, transcription factor 1 (Pit1, growth hormone factor 1), also known as POU1F1, is a transcription factor for growth hormone.Wybutosine: In biochemistry, wybutosine (yW) is a heavily modified nucleoside of phenylalanine transfer RNA that stabilizes interactions between the codons and anti-codons during protein synthesis. Ensuring accurate synthesis of protein is essential in maintaining health as defects in tRNA modifications are able to cause disease.Internal ribosome entry site: An internal ribosome entry site, abbreviated IRES, is a nucleotide sequence that allows for translation initiation in the middle of a messenger RNA (mRNA) sequence as part of the greater process of protein synthesis. Usually, in eukaryotes, translation can be initiated only at the 5' end of the mRNA molecule, since 5' cap recognition is required for the assembly of the initiation complex.Thermal cyclerAbscription: During normal transcription, RNA polymerase transcribes a number of short nonproductive oligonucleotides, and this process is called abortive transcription. The trapped RNAPs have been named abscriptases and the synthesis of specific length oligonucleotides called abscription.

(1/269) Identification of yeasts by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S rRNA gene and the two ribosomal internal transcribed spacers.

The identification and classification of yeasts have traditionally been based on morphological, physiological and biochemical traits. Various kits have been developed as rapid systems for yeast identification, but mostly for clinical diagnosis. In recent years, different molecular biology techniques have been developed for yeast identification, but there is no available database to identify a large number of species. In the present study, the restriction patterns generated from the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene were used to identify a total of 132 yeast species belonging to 25 different genera, including teleomorphic and anamorphic ascomycetous and basidiomycetous yeasts. In many cases, the size of the PCR products and the restriction patterns obtained with endonucleases CfoI, HaeIII and HinfI yielded a unique profile for each species. Accordingly, the use of this molecular approach is proposed as a new rapid and easy method of routine yeast identification.  (+info)

(2/269) Rapid identification of fungi by using the ITS2 genetic region and an automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis system.

Invasive fungal disease often plays an important role in the morbidity and mortality of immunocompromised patients. The poor sensitivity of current fungal blood culture and histological practices has led to the development of highly sensitive and specific molecular techniques, such as the PCR. Sequence variability of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungi is potentially useful in rapid and accurate diagnosis of clinical fungal isolates. PCR with fungus-specific primers targeted toward conserved sequences of the 5.8S and 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) results in amplification of the species-specific ITS2 regions, which are variable in amplicon length. We have made use of the ABI PRISM 310 genetic analyzer and the ABI PRISM 310 GeneScan analysis software for the determination of variable size differences of the ITS2 region of clinically important fungi, including Candida and non-Candida yeasts, Aspergillus species, and a variety of dermatophytes. No cross-reaction occurred when samples were tested against human and bacterial genomic DNA. We have found that most clinically significant fungal isolates can be differentiated by this method, and it therefore serves to be a promising tool for the rapid (<7 h) diagnosis of fungemia and other invasive fungal infections.  (+info)

(3/269) The roles of Rrp5p in the synthesis of yeast 18S and 5.8S rRNA can be functionally and physically separated.

The yeast nucleolar protein Rrp5p is the only known trans-acting factor that is essential for the synthesis of both 18S rRNA and the major, short form of 5.8S (5.8Ss) rRNA, which were thought to be produced in two independent sets of pre-rRNA processing reactions. To identify domains within Rrp5p required for either processing pathway, we have analyzed a set of eight deletion mutants that together cover the entire RRP5 sequence. Surprisingly, only one of the deletions is lethal, indicating that regions encompassing about 80% of the protein can be removed individually without disrupting its essential biological function. Biochemical analysis clearly demonstrated the presence of two distinct functional domains. Removal of each of three contiguous segments from the N-terminal half specifically inhibits the formation of 5.8Ss rRNA, whereas deleting part of the C-terminal region of the protein only blocks the production of 18S rRNA. The latter phenotype is also caused by a temperature-sensitive mutation within the same C-terminal region. The two functional regions identified by the mutational analysis appear to be correlated with the structural domains detected by computer analysis. They can even be physically separated, as demonstrated by the fact that full Rrp5p activity can be supplied by two contiguous protein fragments expressed in trans.  (+info)

(4/269) Nested allele-specific PCR primers distinguish genetic groups of Uncinula necator.

Isolates of the obligately biotrophic fungus Uncinula necator cluster in three distinct genetic groups (groups I, II, and III). We designed PCR primers specific for these groups in order to monitor field populations of U. necator. We used the nucleotide sequences of the gene that encodes eburicol 14alpha-demethylase (CYP51) and of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), ITS2, and 5. 8S regions. We identified four point mutations (three in CYP51 and one in ITS1) that distinguished groups I and II from group III based on a sample of 132 single-spore isolates originating from Europe, Tunisia, Israel, India, and Australia. We developed a nested allele-specific PCR assay in which the CYP51 point mutations were used to detect and distinguish groups I and II from group III in crude mildewed samples from vineyards. In a preliminary study performed with samples from French vineyards in which isolates belonging to genetic groups I and III were present, we found that a shift from a population composed primarily of group I isolates to a population composed primarily of group III isolates occurred during the grapevine growing season.  (+info)

(5/269) Nucleolar factors direct the 2'-O-ribose methylation and pseudouridylation of U6 spliceosomal RNA.

The nucleolus has long been known as a functionally highly specialized subnuclear compartment where synthesis, posttranscriptional modification, and processing of cytoplasmic rRNAs take place. In this study, we demonstrate that the nucleolus contains all the trans-acting factors that are responsible for the accurate and efficient synthesis of the eight 2'-O-methylated nucleotides and three pseudouridine residues carried by the mammalian U6 spliceosomal small nuclear RNA. Factors mediating the formation of pseudouridine residues in the U3 small nucleolar RNA are also present and functionally active in the nucleolus. For selection of the correct target nucleotides in the U6 and U3 RNAs, the nucleolar 2'-O-methylation and pseudouridylation factors rely on short sequences located around the target nucleotide to be modified. This observation further underscores a recently proposed role for small nucleolar guide RNAs in the 2'-O-methylation of the U6 spliceosomal RNA (K. T. Tycowski, Z.-H. You, P. J. Graham, and J. A. Steitz, Mol. Cell 2:629-638, 1998). We demonstrate that a novel 2'-O-methylated nucleotide can be generated in the yeast U6 RNA by use of an artificial 2'-O-methylation small nucleolar guide RNA. We also show that a short fragment of the 5.8S rRNA, when expressed as part of the human U6 RNA, is faithfully 2'-O-methylated and pseudouridylated. These results are most consistent with a trafficking pathway in which the U6 spliceosomal RNA cycles through the nucleolus to undergo nucleolar RNA-directed modifications.  (+info)

(6/269) Mutagenesis of SNM1, which encodes a protein component of the yeast RNase MRP, reveals a role for this ribonucleoprotein endoribonuclease in plasmid segregation.

RNase MRP is a ribonucleoprotein endoribonuclease that has been shown to have roles in both mitochondrial DNA replication and nuclear 5.8S rRNA processing. SNM1 encodes an essential 22.5-kDa protein that is a component of yeast RNase MRP. It is an RNA binding protein that binds the MRP RNA specifically. This 198-amino-acid protein can be divided into three structural regions: a potential leucine zipper near the amino terminus, a binuclear zinc cluster in the middle region, and a serine- and lysine-rich region near the carboxy terminus. We have performed PCR mutagenesis of the SNM1 gene to produce 17 mutants that have a conditional phenotype for growth at different temperatures. Yeast strains carrying any of these mutations as the only copy of snm1 display an rRNA processing defect identical to that in MRP RNA mutants. We have characterized these mutant proteins for RNase MRP function by examining 5.8S rRNA processing, MRP RNA binding in vivo, and the stability of the RNase MRP RNA. The results indicate two separate functional domains of the protein, one responsible for binding the MRP RNA and a second that promotes substrate cleavage. The Snm1 protein appears not to be required for the stability of the MRP RNA, but very low levels of the protein are required for processing of the 5.8S rRNA. Surprisingly, a large number of conditional mutations that resulted from nonsense and frameshift mutations throughout the coding regions were identified. The most severe of these was a frameshift at amino acid 7. These mutations were found to be undergoing translational suppression, resulting in a small amount of full-length Snm1 protein. This small amount of Snm1 protein was sufficient to maintain enough RNase MRP activity to support viability. Translational suppression was accomplished in two ways. First, CEN plasmid missegregation leads to plasmid amplification, which in turn leads to SNM1 mRNA overexpression. Translational suppression of a small amount of the superabundant SNM1 mRNA results in sufficient Snm1 protein to support viability. CEN plasmid missegregation is believed to be the result of a prolonged telophase arrest that has been recently identified in RNase MRP mutants. Either the SNM1 gene is inherently susceptible to translational suppression or extremely small amounts of Snm1 protein are sufficient to maintain essential levels of MRP activity.  (+info)

(7/269) Kluyveromyces nonfermentans sp. nov., a new yeast species isolated from the deep sea.

Eleven strains of a new species of the genus Kluyveromyces, characterized as having evanescent asci and Q-6 as the major ubiquinone, were isolated from sediments, a clam and a crab collected at depths of 1000-2000 m in Suruga Bay and Sagami Bay, Japan. A phylogenetic tree based on small-subunit (18S) rRNA gene sequences placed these isolates into a cluster of Kluyveromyces. DNA complementarity and phylogenetic trees of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and 5.8S rRNA genes showed that the isolates are closely related to Kluyveromyces aestuarii, but that these two species are genetically distinct. The isolates are described as Kluyveromyces nonfermentans sp. nov. Because this species lacks the fermentative ability considered to be an important criterion for the genus Kluyveromyces, the definition of the genus has been emended. The type strain of K. nonfermentans is strain SY-33T (= JCM 10232T).  (+info)

(8/269) rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 sequences of asexual, anthropophilic dermatophytes related to Trichophyton rubrum.

The ribosomal region spanning the two internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8S ribosomal DNA region was sequenced for asexual, anthropophilic dermatophyte species with morphological similarity to Trichophyton rubrum, as well as for members of the three previously delineated, related major clades in the T. mentagrophytes complex. Representative isolates of T. raubitschekii, T. fischeri, and T. kanei were found to have ITS sequences identical to that of T. rubrum. The ITS sequences of T. soudanense and T. megninii differed from that of T. rubrum by only a small number of base pairs. Their continued status as species, however, appears to meet criteria outlined in the population genetics-based cohesion species concept of A. R. Templeton. The ITS sequence of T. tonsurans differed from that of the biologically distinct T. equinum by only 1 bp, while the ITS sequence of the recently described species T. krajdenii had a sequence identical to that of T. mentagrophytes isolates related to the teleomorph Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii.  (+info)



  • molecule
  • This ribosomal RNA works in sync with the 28S rRNA molecule in various ways, i.e in the folding of the 5.8S rRNA molecule structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small nucleolar RNA SNORA72 (also known as U72) is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule which functions in the biogenesis (modification) of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • TB9Cs6H1 is a member of the H/ACA-like class of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule that guide the sites of modification of uridines to pseudouridines of substrate RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The exosome has an exoribonucleolytic function, meaning it degrades RNA starting at one end (the 3′ end in this case), and in eukaryotes also an endoribonucleolytic function, meaning it cleaves RNA at sites within the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • More specifically, U8 is a non-coding RNA (ncRNA) molecule which functions in the modification of other small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, but differs in three main ways: Unlike double-stranded DNA, RNA is a single-stranded molecule in many of its biological roles and has a much shorter chain of nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phosphate groups have a negative charge each, making RNA a charged molecule (polyanion). (wikipedia.org)
  • A second consequence of the presence of the 2'-hydroxyl group is that in conformationally flexible regions of an RNA molecule (that is, not involved in formation of a double helix), it can chemically attack the adjacent phosphodiester bond to cleave the backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • The ribosomal 5.8S RNA: eukaryotic adaptation or processing variant? (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of modifying RNA is located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell which is a major site of snRNA biogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the synthesis of eukaryotic ribosomes, four mature ribosomal RNAs (the 5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 25S) must be synthesized. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known as a small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) thus named because of its cellular localization in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes can be broken down into two subunits (the S in 16S represents Svedberg units), nt= length in nucleotides of the respective rRNAs, for exemplary species Escherichia coli (prokaryote) and human (eukaryote): Note that the S units of the subunits (or the rRNAs) cannot simply be added because they represent measures of sedimentation rate rather than of mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, the exosome complex is present in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and especially the nucleolus, although different proteins interact with the exosome complex in these compartments regulating the RNA degradation activity of the complex to substrates specific to these cell compartments. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the case of PNPase, which is a phosphorolytic RNA-degrading protein found in bacteria and the chloroplasts and mitochondria of some eukaryotic organisms, two RNase PH domains, and both an S1 and KH RNA binding domain are part of a single protein, which forms a trimeric complex that adopts a structure almost identical to that of the exosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic 5S rRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III, whereas other eukaroytic rRNAs are cleaved from a 45S precursor transcribed by RNA polymerase I. In Xenopus oocytes, it has been shown that fingers 4-7 of the nine-zinc finger transcription factor TFIIIA can bind to the central region of 5S RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • La protein is found in the nucleus in all eukaryotic organisms and associates with several types of RNAs transcribed by RNA pol III. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotic cells, ribosomal protein L5 associates and stabilizes the 5S rRNA forming a pre-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP) that is found in both cytosol and the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • internal transc
  • The 5.8S and 28S rRNA have both an ITS 1 and ITS 2 (Internal transcribed spacer) and a 5' and 3' ETS (External transcribed spacer) that is between them. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Like DNA, most biologically active RNAs, including mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, snRNAs, and other non-coding RNAs, contain self-complementary sequences that allow parts of the RNA to fold and pair with itself to form double helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • single stranded
  • 5.8S rRNA structure is approximately 150 nucleotides in size and it consists of plenty of folded strands, some of which are presumed to be single stranded. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrate
  • Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleotides
  • Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but unlike DNA it is more often found in nature as a single-strand folded onto itself, rather than a paired double-strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1991
  • He received his M.S. in Plant Pathology at the University of California, Berkeley in 1979 and his Ph.D., also in Plant Pathology, in 1991. (berkeley.edu)
  • subunits
  • In bacteria, a separate RNase PH protein exists that is involved in transfer RNA processing, which has been shown to adopt a similar six-membered ring structure, but in this case consisting of 6 identical protein subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural
  • An important structural feature of RNA that distinguishes it from DNA is the presence of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position of the ribose sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • whereas
  • The complementary base to adenine in DNA is thymine, whereas in RNA, it is uracil, which is an unmethylated form of thymine. (wikipedia.org)