REM Sleep Behavior Disorder: A disorder characterized by episodes of vigorous and often violent motor activity during REM sleep (SLEEP, REM). The affected individual may inflict self injury or harm others, and is difficult to awaken from this condition. Episodes are usually followed by a vivid recollection of a dream that is consistent with the aggressive behavior. This condition primarily affects adult males. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p393)Sleep, REM: A stage of sleep characterized by rapid movements of the eye and low voltage fast pattern EEG. It is usually associated with dreaming.Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders: Parasomnias characterized by behavioral abnormalities that occur during the transition between wakefulness and sleep (or between sleep and wakefulness).Clonazepam: An anticonvulsant used for several types of seizures, including myotonic or atonic seizures, photosensitive epilepsy, and absence seizures, although tolerance may develop. It is seldom effective in generalized tonic-clonic or partial seizures. The mechanism of action appears to involve the enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptor responses.Dreams: A series of thoughts, images, or emotions occurring during sleep which are dissociated from the usual stream of consciousness of the waking state.Polysomnography: Simultaneous and continuous monitoring of several parameters during sleep to study normal and abnormal sleep. The study includes monitoring of brain waves, to assess sleep stages, and other physiological variables such as breathing, eye movements, and blood oxygen levels which exhibit a disrupted pattern with sleep disturbances.Narcolepsy: A condition characterized by recurrent episodes of daytime somnolence and lapses in consciousness (microsomnias) that may be associated with automatic behaviors and AMNESIA. CATAPLEXY; SLEEP PARALYSIS, and hypnagogic HALLUCINATIONS frequently accompany narcolepsy. The pathophysiology of this disorder includes sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which normally follows stage III or IV sleep. (From Neurology 1998 Feb;50(2 Suppl 1):S2-S7)Multiple System Atrophy: A syndrome complex composed of three conditions which represent clinical variants of the same disease process: STRIATONIGRAL DEGENERATION; SHY-DRAGER SYNDROME; and the sporadic form of OLIVOPONTOCEREBELLAR ATROPHIES. Clinical features include autonomic, cerebellar, and basal ganglia dysfunction. Pathologic examination reveals atrophy of the basal ganglia, cerebellum, pons, and medulla, with prominent loss of autonomic neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1076; Baillieres Clin Neurol 1997 Apr;6(1):187-204; Med Clin North Am 1999 Mar;83(2):381-92)Lewy Body Disease: A neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, mild parkinsonism, and fluctuations in attention and alertness. The neuropsychiatric manifestations tend to precede the onset of bradykinesia, MUSCLE RIGIDITY, and other extrapyramidal signs. DELUSIONS and visual HALLUCINATIONS are relatively frequent in this condition. Histologic examination reveals LEWY BODIES in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and BRAIN STEM. SENILE PLAQUES and other pathologic features characteristic of ALZHEIMER DISEASE may also be present. (From Neurology 1997;48:376-380; Neurology 1996;47:1113-1124)Acetogenins: Polyketides of up to a few dozen carbons in length, formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES and oxygenated to form tetrahydrofuran and lactone rings along the length of the chain. They are found in ANNONACEAE and other PLANTS. Related compounds cyclize to MACROLIDES.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)REM Sleep Parasomnias: Abnormal behavioral or physiologic events that are associated with REM sleep, including REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Parasomnias: Movements or behaviors associated with sleep, sleep stages, or partial arousals from sleep that may impair sleep maintenance. Parasomnias are generally divided into four groups: arousal disorders, sleep-wake transition disorders, parasomnias of REM sleep, and nonspecific parasomnias. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p191)Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Cataplexy: A condition characterized by transient weakness or paralysis of somatic musculature triggered by an emotional stimulus or physical exertion. Cataplexy is frequently associated with NARCOLEPSY. During a cataplectic attack, there is a marked reduction in muscle tone similar to the normal physiologic hypotonia that accompanies rapid eye movement sleep (SLEEP, REM). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p396)Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders: Includes two similar disorders: oppositional defiant disorder and CONDUCT DISORDERS. Symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors.Olfaction Disorders: Loss of or impaired ability to smell. This may be caused by OLFACTORY NERVE DISEASES; PARANASAL SINUS DISEASES; viral RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SMOKING; and other conditions.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Sleep Stages: Periods of sleep manifested by changes in EEG activity and certain behavioral correlates; includes Stage 1: sleep onset, drowsy sleep; Stage 2: light sleep; Stages 3 and 4: delta sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, telencephalic sleep.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Guadeloupe: The name of two islands of the West Indies, separated by a narrow channel. Their capital is Basse-Terre. They were discovered by Columbus in 1493, occupied by the French in 1635, held by the British at various times between 1759 and 1813, transferred to Sweden in 1813, and restored to France in 1816. Its status was changed from colony to a French overseas department in 1946. Columbus named it in honor of the monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Spain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p470 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p221)Autonomic Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.Sleep Disorders, Intrinsic: Dyssomnias (i.e., insomnias or hypersomnias) associated with dysfunction of internal sleep mechanisms or secondary to a sleep-related medical disorder (e.g., sleep apnea, post-traumatic sleep disorders, etc.). (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Eye Movement Measurements: Methods and procedures for recording EYE MOVEMENTS.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.

*  REM sleep behavior disorder | Behavenet

This Parasomnia is characterized by such vigorous, even violent, integrated motor activity during sleep that many suffer injury ... REM sleep behavior disorder. (rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder) is a kind of: * mental disorder ... mental disorder » Parasomnias * mental disorder » Sleep Disorders » Parasomnias * mental disorder » Sleep Disorders ...

*  REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire - Wikipedia

"REM sleep behavior disorder in Japanese patients with Parkinson's disease: a multicenter study using the REM sleep behavior ... "The REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire: Validation study of a Japanese version". Sleep Medicine. 10 (10): 1151 ... "The REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire-A New Diagnostic Instrument". Movement Disorders. 22 (16): 2386-2393. ... "Utility of the REM sleep behavior disorder screening questionnaire (RBDSQ) in Parkinson's disease patients". Sleep Medicine. 12 ...

*  The Dangers of REM Behavior Disorder - Sleep Center - Everyday Health

REM behavior disorder is a dangerous sleep disorder in which people physically act out their dreams during REM sleep. Learn who ... REM Behavior Disorder: No Sweet Dreams. REM sleep disorder is the acting out of dreams during the REM phase of sleep. During ... REM behavior disorder is a sleep disorder characterized by intense physical activity during REM sleep.. People who experience ... Everyday Health Sleep Disorders Sleep The Dangers of REM Behavior Disorder. Kicking, punching, hitting, grabbing, and leaping ...

*  Dr. David Karas, MD - Madison, CT - Ear, Nose, and Throat & Pediatric Otolaryngology (Ear, Nose & Throat) |

Sleep Disorders. Sleep Disorders. includes other areas of care:. - REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. ... Sleep Apnea. Sleep Apnea. includes other areas of care:. - Central Sleep Apnea. ...

*  Dr. Paul Abramson, MD - San Francisco, CA - Family Medicine & Infectious Disease Medicine & Hospital Medicine & Alternative...

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. *Recurrent Fever. *Restless Leg Syndrome. *Rheumatic Diseases. *Rheumatoid Arthritis ...

*  Dr. Marlene Bednar, MD - Greenville, PA - Adult Neurology & Clinical Neurophysiology |

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. *Radiculitis. *Radiculopathy (Not Due to Disc Displacement). *Rapid-Onset Dystonia Parkinsonism ( ...

*  Dr. Suzanne Turner, MD - Roswell, GA - Family Medicine & Other & Alternative Care |

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. *Raynaud's Disease. *Recurrent Fever. *Renal Hypertension. *Respiratory Diseases ...

*  Video Gallery : CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology

Video demonstrates aggressive behavior in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder necessitating prompt safety modifications ... Video demonstrates REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) in a child. RBD in children is narcolepsy unless proven otherwise. ... Video demonstrates REM sleep behavior disorder in an adult man. Note the purposeful body movements correlating with dream ... Video demonstrates benign sleep myoclonus in infancy, a disorder of quiet sleep. Its main characteristics include rhythmic ...

*  Video Gallery : CONTINUUM: Lifelong Learning in Neurology

Video montage of REM sleep behavior disorder demonstrating vigorous, aggressive, and violent behaviors during REM sleep in an ... Video demonstrates aggressive behavior in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder necessitating prompt safety modifications ... Video demonstrates aggressive behavior in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder necessitating prompt safety modifications ... Video demonstrates REM sleep behavior disorder in an adult man. Note the purposeful body movements correlating with dream ...

*  Decreased phasic EMG activity during rapid eye movement sleep in treatment-naïve Parkinson's disease: Effects of treatment with...

Louis, Bradley F. Boeve, REM Sleep Behavior Disorder and REM Sleep Without Atonia as an Early Manifestation of Degenerative ... Ariel B. Neikrug, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Diagnostic tools for REM sleep behavior disorder, Sleep Medicine Reviews, 2012, 16, 5, ... REM sleep behavior disorder: Association with motor complications and impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease, ... The clinical and pathophysiological relevance of REM sleep behavior disorder in neurodegenerative diseases, Sleep Medicine ...

*  Parkinson's disease: clinical features and diagnosis | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry

REM sleep behavior disorders in multiple system atrophy. Neurology 1997;48:1094-7. ... Sleep disorders. Although sleep disturbances (eg, excessive sleepiness, sleep attacks) were once largely attributed to the ... Pathophysiology of REM sleep behaviour disorder and relevance to neurodegenerative disease. Brain 2007;130(Pt 11):2770-88. ... of 29 older men initially diagnosed with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Neurology 1996;46:388-93. ...

*  Professor Simon Lewis - The University of Sydney

Unified techniques are needed to diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder. Movement Disorders, 29(14), 1836-1836. [More Information ... Unified techniques are needed to diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder. Movement Disorders, 29(14), 1836-1836. [More Information ... The relationship between actigraphically defined sleep disturbance and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's Disease. ... The relationship between actigraphically defined sleep disturbance and REM sleep behaviour disorder in Parkinson's Disease. ...

*  Frontiers | The influences of age on olfaction: a review | Psychology

2013). Longitudinal assessment of olfactory function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Parkinsonism Relat. Disord. 19 ... Recently it has been shown that sleep apnea, a disorder associated with restriction of nasal airflow that increases in ... Doty, R. L. (2012a). Olfaction in Parkinson's disease and related disorders. Neurobiol. Dis. 46, 527-552. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd. ... Such disorders include AD, PD, Down syndrome, Parkinson-Dementia complex of Guam, Korsakoff syndrome, amyotrophic lateral ...

*  Cited In for PubMed (Select 12815652) - PubMed - NCBI

FDG PET, dopamine transporter SPECT, and olfaction: Combining biomarkers in REM sleep behavior disorder. ...

*  kill children Archives - International Coalition for Drug Awareness - ICFDA

LEARN HOW REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER PLAYS A ROLE IN SCHOOL SHOOTINGS ... REM SLEEP BEHAVIOR DISORDER PLAYS A ROLE IN SCHOOL SHOOTINGS. Posted on December 18, 2012. December 18, 2012. by Ann Blake- ... You will be able to clearly see that what he describes is a REM Sleep Behaviour disorder reaction steming from a switch from ... antidepressants and their families are not being told and desperately need to be warned of is the REM Sleep Behavior Disorder ...

*  Sleep Disorder Early Sign Of Parkinson's Disease | EmaxHealth

The sleep disorder is called REM sleep behavior disorder. People with the disorder do not have the normal lack of muscle tone ... Postuma noted that the study involved only people with no known cause for the REM sleep behavior disorder. The disorder can ... REM sleep disorder from these causes does not necessarily carry the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disease, he said. ... People with a sleep disorder that causes them to kick or cry out during their sleep may be at greater risk of developing ...

*  Capgras Syndrome in DLB Associated with Anxiety and Hallucinations | Lewy Body Dementia Association

REM sleep behavior disorder was also marginally associated with Capgras syndrome; there were no differences seen in self- ... This would suggest that Capgras delusions, visual hallucinations and other disorders of identification may share common causes. ...

*  Trouble Sleeping

REM sleep behavior disorder - you act out dreams as you sleep.. -Unusual behaviors during sleep - you do unusual activities ... NREM sleep, Periodic limb movement disorder, Polysomnography, REM, Sleep apnea, sleep Apnea cure, Sleep disorders, Sleep Study ... Problems to sleep, Sleep, Sleep apnea, Sleep disorders, Trouble Sleeping The Benefits of Sleep. Posted on November 19, 2013. by ... Sleep, Sleep apnea, Sleep disorders, Sleeping problems, Trouble Sleeping CAN YOU DIE FROM SLEEP APNEA?. Posted on April 3, 2014 ...

*  Dr. Rajesh Harrykissoon, MD - College Station, TX - Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine & Critical Care Medicine |

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder. *Respiratory Diseases. *Respiratory Failure. *Restless Leg Syndrome. *Sarcoidosis ... "Welcome to our office! We are here for you and at your service! At the College Station Center for Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders ... College Station Center for Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders. 1602 Rock Prairie Rd Ste 2000. ... strive to provide optimal quality of life to you through the diagnosis and management of many types of lung and sleep disorders ...

*  Clonazepam - Wikipedia

Ferini-Strambi, L.; Zucconi, M. (Sep 2000). "REM sleep behavior disorder". Clin Neurophysiol. 111 Suppl 2: S136-40. doi:10.1016 ... While benzodiazepines induce sleep, they tend to reduce the quality of sleep by suppressing or disrupting REM sleep. After ... A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences". Sleep. 30 (6): 683-702. ... Wolkove, N.; Elkholy, O.; Baltzan, M.; Palayew, M. (May 2007). "Sleep and aging: 2. Management of sleep disorders in older ...

*  Movement Disorders - The Clinical Advisor

REM-sleep behavior disorder can be seen with all forms of Parkinsonism ... Two classes: Hyperkinetic movement disorders and hypokinetic movement disorders.. *. Hyperkinetic movement disorders (too much ... Movement Disorders. I. Problem/Condition.. A movement disorder is an abnormality of movement, defined as either abnormal ... Remember that most primary neurologic movement disorders disappear with sleep, the exceptions being periodic limb movement ...

*  Peer review 2011 - site-eoc

Longitudinal study of cognitive function in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep 34, no. 5 (May): 619-625.. ... Laughing as a manifestation of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Parkinsonism Relat Disord 17, no. 5 (Jun): 382-385. ... Patients with idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder show normal gastric motility assessed by the 13C-octanoate ... 2011.Postprandial ghrelin response is reduced in patients with Parkinson's disease and idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder ...

*  Gould, G.A. and Gugger, M. (1988) Breathing pattern and eye movement density during REM sleep in humans. American Review of...

Breathing pattern and eye movement density during REM sleep in humans. American Review of Respiratory Disease, 138, 874-877. ... Lack of Association between Impulse Control Disorders and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Patients with Parkinson's Disease ... Gould, G.A. and Gugger, M. (1988) Breathing pattern and eye movement density during REM sleep in humans. American Review of ... Sleep disordered breathing in coronary heart disease patients with mild and moderate heart failure ...

*  Christopher Bollyn

The REM Sleep Behavior Disorder (RBD) is often referred to as a drug withdrawal state. This "cold turkey" withdrawal approach ... 3) at some point, the REM sleep deprivation forces him into an REM sleep state while awake; and, 4) because of a bypass of the ... Depriving a person of enough REM sleep over time can cause the reaction of the person going into a REM sleep state while awake ... The deepest level of sleep is called REM sleep, which stands for Rapid Eye Motion (the eyes move rapidly in this state). While ...

*  New Genes Causing Hereditary Parkinson's Disease or Parkinsonism

... and two REM-sleep behavior disorder. An additional member with PD was deceased at the time of study. Four members of the ... There were no indications for REM-sleep behavioral disorder, and MIBG scintigraphy showed normal cardiac sympathetic ... Heterozygous PINK1 p.G411S in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Brain. 2017;140(6):e32. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx076. [ ... Reply: heterozygous PINK1 p.G411S in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. Brain. 2017;140(6):e33. doi: 10.1093/brain/ ...

Exploding head syndrome: Exploding head syndrome (EHS) is a condition in which a person hears loud noises (such as a bomb exploding, a gunshot, or a cymbal crash) or experiences an explosive feeling when falling asleep or waking up. These noises have a sudden onset, are typically brief in duration, and are often jarring for the sufferer.ClonazepamNightmare: A nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong emotional response from the mind, typically fear but also despair, anxiety and great sadness. The dream may contain situations of discomfort, psychological or physical terror.PolysomnographyNarcolepsyGregor Wenning: Gregor K. Wenning (* born 21st March1964 in Horstmar, Westfalia) is a German Neurologist best known for his clinical and scientific work in Parkinson's disease and atypical Parkinsonian disorders, particularly multiple system atrophy (MSA).Dennis Walsh: Dennis Walsh (12 June 1933 – 1 June 2005) was an English astronomer, born into a poor family in Manchester. He was best known for his discovery in 1979 of the first example of a gravitational lens which he made while studying quasars found in the Jodrell Bank 966MHz survey.Jerry L. McLaughlin: Jerry L. McLaughlin is a researcher who has conducted research for 28 years studying plants looking for molecules that fight cancer at Purdue University's School of Pharmacy.Causes of Parkinson's disease: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system. Most people with PD have idiopathic Parkinson's disease (having no specific known cause).Non-rapid eye movement sleepProfessional DiscAging movement control: Normal aging movement control in humans is about the changes on the muscles, motor neurons, nerves, sensory functions, gait, fatigue, visual and manual responses, in men and women as they get older but who do not have neurological, muscular (atrophy, dystrophy...) or neuromuscular disorder.Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus: Benign neonatal sleep myoclonus (BNSM) is the occurrence of myoclonus (jerky movements) during sleep. It is not associated with seizures.Centre for Research in Neurodegenerative DiseasesCataplexyOlfactory sulcus: The medial orbital gyrus presents a well-marked antero-posterior sulcus, the olfactory sulcus, for the olfactory tract.Invasion of Guadeloupe (1794): The Invasion of Guadeloupe was a British attempt in 1794 to take and hold the island of Guadeloupe in the West Indies during the French Revolutionary Wars. The British had negotiated with the French planters, Ignace-Joseph-Philippe de Perpignan and Louis de Curt, who wished to gain British protection, as the French Constitutional Assembly was passing a law abolishing slavery.Quantitative electroencephalography: Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a field concerned with the numerical analysis of electroencephalography data and associated behavioral correlates.Central tegmental tract: The central tegmental tractKamali A, Kramer LA, Butler IJ, Hasan KM. Diffusion tensor tractography of the somatosensory system in the human brainstem: initial findings using high isotropic spatial resolution at 3.

(1/116) Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder: demographic, clinical and laboratory findings in 93 cases.

We describe demographic, clinical, laboratory and aetiological findings in 93 consecutive patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD), which consists of excessive motor activity during dreaming in association with loss of skeletal muscle atonia of REM sleep. The patients were seen at the Mayo Sleep Disorders Center between January 1, 1991 and July 31, 1995. Eighty-one patients (87%) were male. The mean age of RBD onset was 60.9 years (range 36-84 years) and the mean age at presentation was 64.4 years (37-85 years). Thirty-two per cent of patients had injured themselves and 64% had assaulted their spouses. Subdural haematomas occurred in two patients. Dream content was altered and involved defence of the sleeper against attack in 87%. The frequency of nocturnal events decreased with time in seven untreated patients with neurodegenerative disease. MRI or CT head scans were performed in 56% of patients. Although four scans showed brainstem pathology, all of these patients had apparently unrelated neurodegenerative diseases known to be associated with RBD. Neurological disorders were present in 57% of patients; Parkinson's disease, dementia without parkinsonism and multiple system atrophy accounted for all but 14% of these. RBD developed before parkinsonism in 52% of the patients with Parkinson's disease. Five of the 14 patients with multiple system atrophy were female, and thus the strong male predominance in RBD is less evident in this condition. Psychiatric disorders, drug use or drug withdrawal were rarely causally related to RBD. Clonazepam treatment of RBD was completely or partially successful in 87% of the patients who used the drug. We conclude that RBD is a well-defined condition and that descriptions from different centres are fairly consistent. It is commonest in elderly males and may result in serious morbidity to patients and bed partners. There is a strong relationship to neurodegenerative disease, especially Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and dementia, and neurologists should explore the possibility of RBD in patients with these conditions. RBD symptoms may be the first manifestations of these disorders and careful follow-up is needed. Neuroimaging is unlikely to reveal underlying disorders not suspected clinically. We confirm the effectiveness of clonazepam, but note that attention to the safety of the bed environment may be sufficient for patients with contraindications to the drug.  (+info)

(2/116) Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, depression and cognitive impairment. Case study.

BACKGROUND: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder is a relatively new diagnostic category. It has never before been associated with a treatable depressive condition. AIMS: To report on a 74-year-old man with a history of depression and REM sleep behaviour disorder, associated with mild cognitive impairment. METHOD: Assessment using brain CT, MRI, PET, electroencephalography, neuropsychological testing and nocturnal polysomnography. RESULTS: Depression was treated with sertraline. Sleep laboratory studies supported a diagnosis of REM sleep behaviour disorder, which was treated with clonazepam. Sleep apnoea, revealed later, was treated with nasal continuous positive airways pressure. Brain MRI showed mild atrophy, but neuropsychological testing indicated no progressive cognitive deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: This case draws attention to REM sleep behaviour disorder and its potential interaction with depression and cognitive impairment, producing symptoms which can be mistaken for early dementia. The diagnosis of REM sleep behaviour disorder is easily missed, and it requires careful history-taking and sleep investigation in all suspected sufferers. Associated neurological, sleep and psychiatric conditions (including depression and cognitive impairment) may confound the diagnosis.  (+info)

(3/116) Interobserver reliability of ICSD-R criteria for REM sleep behaviour disorder.

We estimated the interobserver reliability (IR) of the diagnosis of rapid eye movement (REM) Sleep Behaviour Disorder (RBD) among trained neurologists, with the application of International Classification of Sleep Disorders Revised (ICSD-R), by means of videotaped interviews of people with motor sleep behaviour disorders of different nature. IR of clinical judgement for the diagnosis of RBD was "substantial" (Kappa 0.65); nevertheless, some criteria ('limb or body movement associated with dream mentation', criterion B, and 'sleep behaviours (that) disrupt sleep continuity', criterion C3) showed a 'moderate' IR, resulting from the intrinsic limitations of the patient report and terminological ambiguity. Further clarification of terminology of the ICSD-R criteria would be useful to improve the reliability.  (+info)

(4/116) Falling asleep.

We describe a 74-year-old woman who presented with a history of falling from bed in association with vivid dreams and physical violence towards her spouse. A clinical diagnosis of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was made and complete resolution of her symptoms was achieved with first line treatment.  (+info)

(5/116) Combination of 'idiopathic' REM sleep behaviour disorder and olfactory dysfunction as possible indicator for alpha-synucleinopathy demonstrated by dopamine transporter FP-CIT-SPECT.

REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) and olfactory dysfunction are common and very early features of alpha-synucleinopathies, in particular Parkinson's disease. To investigate the hypothesis that these two clinical features in combination are an indicator of evolving alpha-synucleinopathy, olfactory function was assessed in RBD. We studied 30 patients (18 male, 12 female; mean age 48 +/- 14 years, range 19-78 years) with clinical (idiopathic, n = 6; symptomatic, n = 13, mostly associated with narcolepsy) or subclinical (n = 11, associated with narcolepsy) RBD according to standard criteria and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using standardized 'Sniffin' Sticks'. RBD patients had a significantly higher olfactory threshold (P = 0.0001), lower discrimination score (P = 0.003), and lower identification score (P = 0.001). Compared with normative data, 97% of the RBD patients had a pathologically increased olfactory threshold, 63% an impaired odour discrimination score, and 63% a decreased identification score. On neurological examination, signs of parkinsonism were newly found in five patients with clinical RBD (not associated with narcolepsy), who usually had a long history of 'idiopathic' RBD. Four of the five patients fulfilled the UK Brain Bank criteria for the clinical diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. The underlying nigrostriatal degeneration of clinical Parkinson's disease was confirmed by I-123-FP-CIT SPECT in one patient and early nigrostriatal degeneration was identified by SPECT in a further two patients with 'idiopathic' clinical RBD out of 11 RBD patients who agreed to undergo SPECT studies. Our study shows that RBD patients have a profound impairment of olfactory function. Five patients with clinical RBD not associated with narcolepsy had clinical or imaging signs of nigrostriatal degeneration. This new clinical finding correlates with the neuropathological staging of Parkinson's disease (stages 1-3) as proposed by Braak. In stage 1, the anterior olfactory nucleus or the olfactory bulb is affected (along with the dorsal motor nucleus of the glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves). In stage 2, additional lesions consistently remain confined to the medulla oblongata and pontine tegmentum, which are critical areas for RBD. Midbrain lesions are found only in stage 3, in particular degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Thus, 'idiopathic' RBD patients with olfactory impairment might present with stage 2 preclinical alpha-synucleinopathy. Since narcoleptic patients are not known to have an increased risk of developing parkinsonism, the pathophysiology and clinical relevance of hyposmia in RBD/narcolepsy patients requires further research.  (+info)

(6/116) Impaired rapid eye movement sleep in the Tg2576 APP murine model of Alzheimer's disease with injury to pedunculopontine cholinergic neurons.

Impaired rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is commonly observed in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting injury to mesopontine cholinergic neurons. We sought to determine whether abnormal beta-amyloid peptides impair REMS and injure mesopontine cholinergic neurons in transgenic (hAPP695.SWE) mice (Tg2576) that model brain amyloid pathologies. Tg2576 mice and wild-type littermates were studied at 2, 6, and 12 months by using sleep recordings, contextual fear conditioning, and immunohistochemistry. At 2 months of age, REMS was indistinguishable by genotype but was reduced in Tg2576 mice at 6 and 12 months. Choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons in the pedunculopontine tegmentum of Tg2576 mice at 2 months evidenced activated caspase-3 immunoreactivity, and at 6 and 12 months the numbers of pedunculopontine tegmentum choline acetyltransferase-positive neurons were reduced in the Tg2576 mice. Other cholinergic groups involved in REMS were unperturbed. At 12 months, Tg2576 mice demonstrated increased 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in cholinergic projection sites but not in cholinergic soma. We have identified a population of selectively compromised cholinergic neurons in young Tg2576 mice that manifest early onset REMS impairment. The differential vulnerability of these cholinergic neurons to Abeta injury provides an invaluable tool with which to understand mechanisms of sleep/wake perturbations in Alzheimer's disease.  (+info)

(7/116) Visual hallucinations in posterior cortical atrophy.

BACKGROUND: Visual hallucinations have been reported to occur in up to 25% of patients who meet the criteria for posterior cortical atrophy (PCA). It is not known, however, whether patients who meet the criteria for PCA and have hallucinations are different from those who meet the criteria and do not have hallucinations. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and imaging features of patients with PCA with and without well-formed visual hallucinations. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Tertiary care medical center. PATIENTS: Fifty-nine patients fulfilling the criteria for PCA were retrospectively identified and divided into 2 groups based on the presence (n = 13) or absence (n = 46) of visual hallucinations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Statistically significant clinical differences and imaging differences using voxel-based morphometry between the 2 groups. RESULTS: In patients with PCA and hallucinations, parkinsonism and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder occurred more frequently, as did myoclonic jerks (P<.001 for both). Voxel-based morphometry showed greater atrophy in a network of structures, including the primary visual cortex, lentiform nuclei, thalamus, basal forebrain, and midbrain, in patients with hallucinations. CONCLUSIONS: Hallucinations in patients with PCA are associated with parkinsonism, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and myoclonic jerks. The voxel-based morphometry results suggest that hallucinations in PCA cannot be exclusively attributed to atrophy of the posterior association cortices and may involve a circuit of thalamocortical connections.  (+info)

(8/116) Olfactory dysfunction in patients with narcolepsy with and without REM sleep behaviour disorder.

Patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) frequently develop Parkinson's disease and the majority present with hyposmia, which is a potential preclinical non-motor sign of Parkinson's disease. Accordingly, it has been proposed that the clinical symptoms of hyposmia and RBD in combination have to be considered as very early symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Since not only patients with idiopathic RBD but also patients in whom RBD is associated with narcolepsy present with an olfactory dysfunction we investigated if hyposmia in RBD patients with concomitant narcolepsy is RBD specific or if narcolepsy per se is associated with olfactory dysfunction. We studied olfactory function in 20 narcoleptic patients each with RBD (9 male and 11 female; mean age 45.4 +/- 14.0 years, range 20-75 years) and without associated RBD (8 male and 12 female; mean age 44.4 +/- 13.40 years, range 20-70 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects using standardized 'Sniffin' Sticks'. Both, narcoleptics with (Narc/+RBD) and without RBD (Narc/-RBD) had a significantly higher olfactory threshold (Narc/+RBD, P = 0.0001; Narc/-RBD, P = 0.0001), lower discrimination scores (P = 0.001; P = 0.014) and lower identification scores (P = 0.057; P = 0.003) than controls. There were no symptoms or signs for early parkinsonism in both patient groups. Our results show for the first time that narcolepsy per se is associated with olfactory dysfunction. In contrast to patients with idiopathic RBD, hyposmia in patients with RBD associated with narcolepsy is unlikely to be a predictor for developing parkinsonism.  (+info)


  • It is a symptom of some parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and breakdown syndromes), but is more often associated with drug abuse. (
  • Parasomnias are a category of sleep disorders that involve abnormal movements, behaviors, emotions, perceptions, and dreams that occur while falling asleep, sleeping, between sleep stages, or during arousal from sleep. (
  • Most parasomnias are dissociated sleep states which are partial arousals during the transitions between wakefulness and NREM sleep, or wakefulness and REM sleep. (
  • NREM parasomnias are arousal disorders that occur during stage 3 (or 4 by the R&K standardization) of NREM sleep-also known as slow wave sleep (SWS). (
  • Some NREM parasomnias (sleep-walking, night-terrors, and confusional arousal) are common during childhood but decrease in frequency with increasing age. (
  • Sleep disorders are broadly classified into dyssomnias, parasomnias, circadian rhythm sleep disorders involving the timing of sleep, and other disorders including ones caused by medical or psychological conditions and sleeping sickness. (
  • Parasomnias, disruptive sleep-related events involving inappropriate actions during sleep, for example sleep walking, night-terrors and catathrenia. (
  • Children with parasomnias are not systematically monitored during sleep, although past studies have suggested that patients with sleep terrors or sleepwalking have an elevated level of brief EEG arousals. (
  • Studies of twin cohorts and families with sleep terror and sleepwalking suggest genetic involvement of parasomnias. (
  • Because a number of parasomnias may be confused with RBD, it is necessary to conduct formal sleep studies such as polysomnography (PSG) performed at sleep centers that are experienced in evaluating parasomnias in order to establish a diagnosis. (
  • In RBD, a single night of extensive monitoring of sleep, brain, and muscle activity will almost always reveal the lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep, and it will also eliminate other causes of parasomnias. (
  • Parasomnia disorders are classified into the following categories: arousal disorders sleep-wake transition disorders parasomnias associated with REM sleep Symptoms of sexsomnia include, but are not limited to: masturbation fondling intercourse with climax sexual assault or rape Reports of masturbation during sleep was first reported as a clinical disorder in 1986. (
  • Disorder of initiating and maintain sleep (DIMS) - Insomnias Disorder of Excessive sleep (DOES) - Hypersomnias Disorder of sleep wake schedule Parasomnias The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) uses a multiaxial system for stating and coding diagnoses both in clinical reports or for data base purposes. (
  • Disorder of initiating and maintain sleep (DIMS) - Insomnias Disorder of Excessive sleep (DOES) - Hypersomnias Parasomnias The first comprehensive classification of disorders of sleep and arousal was developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) in association with the European Sleep Research Society, the Japanese Society of Sleep Research, and the Latin American Sleep Society in 1990 and later revised as ICSD-R in 1997. (
  • Dyssomnias Intrinsic Sleep Disorders Extrinsic Sleep Disorders Circadian Rhythm Sleep Disorders Parasomnias Arousal Disorders Sleep-Wake Transition Disorders Parasomnias Usually Associated with REM Sleep Other Parasomnias Sleep Disorders Associated with Mental, Neurologic, or Other Medical Disorders Associated with Mental Disorders Associated with Neurologic Disorders Associated with Other Medical Disorders 4. (


  • After the identification of the sleep disorder sleep apnea in the 1970s, the breathing functions respiratory airflow and respiratory effort indicators were added along with peripheral pulse oximetry. (
  • These indications include sleep apnea, obesity, a risky neck diameter, or risky fullness of the flesh in the oropharynx. (
  • Some common sleep disorders include sleep apnea (stops in breathing during sleep), narcolepsy and hypersomnia (excessive sleepiness at inappropriate times), cataplexy (sudden and transient loss of muscle tone while awake), and sleeping sickness (disruption of sleep cycle due to infection). (
  • Sleep apnea, obstructive sleep apnea, obstruction of the airway during sleep, causing lack of sufficient deep sleep, often accompanied by snoring. (
  • Other forms of sleep apnea are less common. (
  • Stops of breathing of at least ten seconds, 30 times within seven hours of sleep, classifies as apnea. (
  • Other forms of sleep apnea include central sleep apnea and sleep-related hypoventilation. (
  • Sexsomnia affects individuals of all age groups and backgrounds but present as an increased risk for individuals who possess the following: coexisting sleep disorders sleep disruption secondary to obstructive sleep apnea sleep related epilepsy certain medications Behaviors of pelvic thrusting, sexual arousal, and orgasms are often attributed to sleep related epilepsy disorder. (
  • Many sufferers also have other sleep related disorders, like sleep apnea. (
  • Other sleep related disorders like sleep apnea are ruled out by examining the patients' respiratory effort, air flow, and oxygen saturation. (
  • Charles Burwell in 1956 recognized obstructive sleep apnea as Pickwickian syndrome. (
  • As an example, snoring without associated airway compromise, sleep disturbance, or other consequences is essentially normal, whereas heavy snoring is often part of obstructive sleep apnea. (

circadian rhythm sl

  • It is usually performed at night, when most people sleep, though some labs can accommodate shift workers and people with circadian rhythm sleep disorders and do the test at other times of day. (
  • Although it is not directly useful in diagnosing circadian rhythm sleep disorders, it may be used to rule out other sleep disorders. (
  • and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. (
  • Circadian rhythm sleep disorders were discovered in 1981 by Weitzman as delayed sleep phase syndrome in contrast to advanced sleep phase syndrome in 1979. (


  • This Parasomnia is characterized by such vigorous, even violent, integrated motor activity during sleep that many suffer injury. (
  • Hyperekplexia Many forms of parasomnia and other sleep disorders are treated with clonazepam. (
  • Up to 3% of adults suffer from sleep terrors and exhibited behavior of this parasomnia can range from mild to extremely violent. (
  • citation needed] REM sleep behavior disorder or RBD is the most common REM sleep parasomnia in which muscle atonia is absent. (
  • It is classified as a sleep disorder belonging to the parasomnia family. (
  • Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a sleep disorder (more specifically a parasomnia) that involves abnormal behavior during the sleep phase with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. (
  • Sexsomnia, also known as sleep sex, is a distinct form of parasomnia, or an abnormal activity that occurs while an individual is asleep. (
  • While parasomnia disorders like somnabulism (sleep walking), sleep talking, and night terrors are widely researched and discussed, lack of research and hesitance associated with the discussion of the disorder arises from its sexually aggressive nature. (
  • Symptoms of sexsomnia can be caused by or be associated with: stress factors sleep deprivation Consumption of alcohol or other drugs Pre-existing parasomnia behaviors Sleep deprivation is known to have negative effects on the brain and behavior. (


  • anti-LGI-1 encephalitis: Patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis have limbic encephalitis with amnesia and/or confusion (100%) and seizures (84-92 %) Other reported features include hyponatremia (in 60%), movement disorders (myoclonus/dyskinesia), sleep disorders (hypersomnia, insomnia, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleep reversal) and ataxia. (
  • In addition to its antidepressant properties, mirtazapine has anxiolytic, sedative, antiemetic, and appetite stimulant effects and is sometimes used in the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, and to produce weight gain when desirable. (
  • Polysomnography should not be routinely used to screen for sleep disorders in workers who complain of insomnia or fatigue. (
  • Insomnia disorder (primary insomnia), chronic difficulty in falling asleep and/or maintaining sleep when no other cause is found for these symptoms. (
  • Insomnia can also be comorbid with or secondary to other disorders. (
  • Classification of sleep disorders, as developed in the 19th century, used primarily three categories: Insomnia, Hypersomnia and Nightmare. (


  • The exact cause of REM behavior disorder is unknown, but its onset is associated with several degenerative neurological conditions, especially Parkinson's disease, and it often precedes Parkinson's by several years. (
  • Around 30 percent of people with REM behavior disorder develop Parkinson's disease within three years," says Kuo. (
  • RBDSQ has the potential to be useful as a screening instrument for neurodegenerative disorder, such as the α-synucleinopathies, Parkinson's disease or multiple system atrophy which may enable early diagnosis and also recruitment of RBD patients necessary for research studies as well as for therapeutic trials. (
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterised by a large number of motor and non-motor features that can impact on function to a variable degree. (
  • He is the Director of the Parkinson's Disease Research Clinic at the Brain & Mind Research Institute and heads the NSW Movement Disorders Brain Donor program. (
  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. (


  • Though current research has reversed the myth that dreaming occurs only during REM sleep, it has also shown that the dreams reported in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM differ qualitatively and quantitatively, suggesting that the mechanisms that control each are different. (
  • During normal sleep cycles, humans alternate between NREM sleep and REM sleep. (
  • These electrodes will provide a readout of the brain activity that can be "scored" into different stages of sleep (N1, N2, N3 which combined are referred to as NREM sleep, and Stage R which is rapid eye movement sleep or REM, and Wakefulness). (
  • Sleepwalking occurs during slow-wave sleep (N3) of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM sleep) cycles. (
  • Sexsomnia is characterized by an individual engaging in sexual acts while in non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. (
  • Sexual behaviors that result from sexsomnia are not to be mistaken with normal nocturnal sexual behaviors, which do not occur during NREM sleep. (
  • Sleep is divided into two broad types: non-rapid eye movement (non-REM or NREM sleep) and rapid eye movement (REM sleep). (
  • The sleep cycle of alternate NREM and REM sleep takes an average of 90 minutes, occurring 4-6 times in a good night's sleep. (
  • The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) divides NREM into three stages: N1, N2, and N3, the last of which is also called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep. (
  • The majority of RMD episodes occur during NREM sleep, although REM movements have been reported. (

Restless Leg Synd

  • A 2012 review focused on antidepressants and sleep found that in many people with sleep disorders caused by depression, mirtazapine reduces the time it takes to fall asleep and increases the quality of sleep, but that in some people it can disturb sleep, causing restless leg syndrome in 8 to 28% of people, and in rare cases causes REM sleep behavior disorder. (
  • In the study "sleepwalking and sleep terrors in prepubera children", it was found that, if a child had another sleep disorder such as restless leg syndrome (RLS) or sleep-disorder breathing (SDB), there was a greater chance of sleepwalking. (


  • Idiopathic hypersomnia, a primary, neurologic cause of long-sleeping, sharing many similarities with narcolepsy. (


  • Somniphobia, one cause of sleep deprivation, a dread/ fear of falling asleep or going to bed. (
  • These include a delay in the maturity of the central nervous system, increased slow wave sleep, sleep deprivation, fever, and excessive tiredness. (
  • This causes them to be aware of things while they are sleeping, which can result in sleep deprivation. (
  • Extended periods of sleep deprivation often results in the malfunctioning of neurons, directly effecting an individual's behavior. (


  • Bruxism is a common sleep disorder where the individual grinds their teeth during sleep. (
  • Disruptions in sleep can be caused by a variety of issues, from teeth grinding (bruxism) to night terrors. (
  • The most common sleep disorders include: Bruxism, involuntarily grinding or clenching of the teeth while sleeping. (
  • The disorder can be differentially diagnosed into small subcategories, including sleep related bruxism, thumb sucking, hypnagonic foot tremor, and rhythmic sucking, to name a few. (


  • Kleine-Levin syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by persistent episodic hypersomnia and cognitive or mood changes. (

night terrors

  • REM behavior disorder is sometimes confused with sleepwalking and night terrors, but there are differences. (
  • These disorders of arousal can range from confusional arousals, somnambulism, to night terrors. (
  • Other disorders include sleepwalking, night terrors and bed wetting. (
  • Broughton in 1968 developed classification of the arousal disorders as confusional arousals: night terrors and sleep walking. (


  • As a result, motor neurons are not stimulated, a condition known as REM atonia. (
  • The major and arguably only abnormal feature of RBD is loss of muscle atonia (i.e., the loss of paralysis) during otherwise intact REM sleep (during which paralysis is not only normal but necessary). (
  • Rapid eye movement behavior disorder (RBD) occurs when there is a loss of normal voluntary muscle atonia during REM sleep resulting in motor behavior in response to dream content. (

Association of Sleep Disorders Centers

  • The classification was developed as a revision and update of the Diagnostic Classification of Sleep and Arousal Disorders (DCSAD) that was produced by both the Association of Sleep Disorders Centers (ASDC) and the Association for the Psychophysiological Study of Sleep and was published in the journal Sleep in 1979. (


  • But for people with REM (rapid eye movement) behavior disorder, dreaming is much more than mental. (
  • Rapid eye movement sleep Rapid eye movement behavior disorder Non-rapid eye movement sleep Stiasny-Kolster K, Mayer G, Schäfer S, Möller JC, Heinzel-Gutenbrunner M, Oertel WH (2007). (
  • Rapid eye movement behavior disorder responds well to low doses of clonazepam. (
  • Because of their effectiveness, tolerability, and rapid onset of anxiolytic action, benzodiazepines are frequently used for the treatment of anxiety associated with panic disorder. (
  • This kind of sleep became known as rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and Kleitman and Dement's experiment found a correlation of 0.80 between REM sleep and dreaming. (
  • Suggestive symptoms are rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep behavior disorder and abnormalities detected in PET or SPECT scans. (
  • This helps to determine when REM sleep occurs, of which rapid eye movements are characteristic, and also essentially aids in determining when sleep occurs. (
  • Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD), acting out violent or dramatic dreams while in REM sleep, sometimes injuring bed partner or self (REM sleep disorder or RSD). (
  • Although REM stands for "rapid eye movement", this mode of sleep has many other aspects, including virtual paralysis of the body. (
  • In the 20th century, increasingly in the last half of it, technological discoveries led to rapid advances in the understanding of sleep and recognition of sleep disorders. (


  • Accumulated observation shows that dreams are strongly associated with REM sleep, during which an electroencephalogram shows brain activity to be most like wakefulness. (
  • Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness. (


  • It's the most active part of sleep, when most dreaming occurs. (
  • Dreaming occurs mainly during REM sleep, and brain scans recording brain activity have witnessed heavy activity in the limbic system and the amygdala during this period. (
  • The brain waves characteristic of dreaming that are observed during REM sleep are the most commonly studied in dream research because most dreaming occurs during the deep sleep which is signaled by REM. (
  • This, like the EOG, helps determine when sleep occurs as well as REM sleep. (
  • It occurs during slow wave sleep stage, in a state of low consciousness, with performance of activities that are usually performed during a state of full consciousness. (
  • It typically occurs within the first third of the night when slow-wave sleep is most prominent. (
  • REM sleep is the stage of sleep in which most vivid dreaming occurs. (
  • Sleep occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes known as non-REM and REM sleep. (
  • Non-REM sleep occurs first and after a transitional period is called slow wave sleep or deep sleep. (
  • REM sleep occurs as a person returns to stage 2 or 1 from a deep sleep. (
  • As an example, sleep talking occurs at some time in most normal sleepers. (

Advanced Sleep Phase Disorder

  • Other such disorders are advanced sleep phase disorder (ASPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake disorder (non-24) in the sighted or in the blind, and irregular sleep wake rhythm, all much less common than DSPD, as well as the situational shift work sleep disorder. (


  • Sedation Motor impairment Confusion Irritability and aggression Psychomotor agitation Lack of motivation Loss of libido Impaired motor function[vague]Impaired coordination Impaired balance Dizziness Cognitive impairments[vague]Hallucinations Short-term memory loss Anterograde amnesia (common with higher doses) Some users report hangover-like symptoms of drowsiness, headaches, sluggishness, and irritability upon waking up if the medication was taken before sleep. (
  • Other symptoms include sensory, sleep, and emotional problems. (
  • Evidence for treatments for the non-movement-related symptoms of PD, such as sleep disturbances and emotional problems, is less strong. (
  • Research studies have alluded to physiological behavior of the body that accounts for what causes the symptoms of RBD. (
  • Symptoms of Rhythmic Movement Disorder vary, but most sufferers share common large muscle movement patterns. (
  • Insomnias were classified as primary and secondary till 1970 when they were recognized as symptoms of other disorders. (
  • Disturbance of sleep first appeared in the 1955 revised edition of ICD-7-R as symptoms of disease. (
  • Chronotypes Noise health effects Polysomnography Polysomnographic technician Reversed vegetative symptoms Sleep hygiene Sleep medicine Sleep study Sundowning (dementia) White noise machine American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2001). (

Movement Disorders

  • Movement Disorders. (
  • 4th Asian and Oceanian Parkinson¿s Disease and Movement Disorders Congress Pattaya, Thailand November 2014. (
  • The Movement Disorders Society of South Korea, Seoul August 2014. (
  • MDS-AOS Outreach Education Course International Conference on PD and Movement Disorders Shanghai, China August 2014. (
  • Movement Disorders Society of Australasia, Queenstown, NZ August 2014. (
  • Movement Disorders Society, Stockholm June 2014. (


  • Items 1 to 4 address the frequency and content of dreams and their relationship to nocturnal movements and behavior. (
  • Item 6 consists of four subitems assessing nocturnal motor behavior more specifically, e.g., questions about nocturnal vocalization, sudden limb movements, complex movements, or bedding items that fell down. (
  • Tonic seizures, with movements of the leg, arm or face, refractory to treatment with anti-epileptic drugs may precede the disorders, and should lead to testing for anti-LGI1 antibodies. (
  • The PSG monitors many body functions including brain (EEG), eye movements (EOG), muscle activity or skeletal muscle activation (EMG) and heart rhythm (ECG) during sleep. (
  • The electromyogram (EMG) typically uses four electrodes to measure muscle tension in the body as well as to monitor for an excessive amount of leg movements during sleep (which may be indicative of periodic limb movement disorder, PLMD). (
  • Key physiological measurements indicators of sleep include EEG of brain waves, electrooculography (EOG) of eye movements, electromyography (EMG) of skeletal muscle activity. (
  • Sleep researchers also use simplified electrocardiography (EKG) for cardiac activity and actigraphy for motor movements. (
  • REM sleep (also known as paradoxical sleep), a smaller portion of total sleep time and the main occasion for dreams (or nightmares), is associated with desynchronized and fast brain waves, eye movements, loss of muscle tone, and suspension of homeostasis. (
  • Rhythmic Movement Disorder (or RMD) is a neurological disorder characterized by involuntary (however may sometimes be voluntary), repetitive movements of large muscle groups immediately before and during sleep often involving the head and neck. (
  • The disorder often leads to bodily injury from unwanted movements. (
  • Muscle movements during REM sleep are often twitches and occur simultaneously with normal sleep. (
  • reported that one individual showed entire body rolling movements while sleeping on his side while displaying head rolling movements when sleeping supine. (
  • Because of the abnormal writhing movements, often patients' sleep patterns are disrupted. (

multiple system

  • Multiple system atrophy (MSA), also known as Shy-Drager syndrome, is a rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, slow movement, muscle rigidity, and postural instability (collectively known as parkinsonism) due to dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system, and ataxia. (
  • Sleep-disordered breathing, a problem in multiple system atrophy, also may be a problem. (
  • however, it is most often associated with the elderly and in those with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, for example multiple system atrophy and Lewy body dementia. (


  • As normal REM sleep begins, some minor twitching of the body may occur, but most people don't actively move their arms and legs enough to allow kicking or punching during REM sleep because the muscles are temporarily immobile. (
  • This is very prevalent in those who suffer violent post-traumatic stress disorder (P.T.S.D.) They typically occur in stage 3 sleep. (
  • Polysomnography is a comprehensive recording of the biophysiological changes that occur during sleep. (
  • In a normal sleep cycle, REM sleep may be experienced at intervals of between 90 minutes and two hours every night, which means RBD episodes may occur up to four times a night. (
  • Episodes occur more towards the morning hours because that is when REM sleep is more frequent. (
  • The most pronounced physiological changes in sleep occur in the brain. (


  • Confusional arousal is a condition when an individual awakens from sleep and remains in a confused state. (
  • there is just quiet, slow-wave sleep until abrupt central nervous system (CNS) arousal prompts the heart rate to accelerate and the sleepwalking begins. (
  • In 1979 the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) published the first major classification of sleep disorders, the "Diagnostic Classification of Sleep and Arousal Disorders" (DCSAD). (
  • Diagnostic classification of sleep and arousal disorders. (


  • Idiopathic RBD is when the individual's sleep structure seems to be normal but there is a significant increase in the density of REM sleep as well as the percentage of slow wave sleep. (


  • Work in oneirology overlaps with neurology and can vary from quantifying dreams, to analyzing brain waves during dreaming, to studying the effects of drugs and neurotransmitters on sleeping or dreaming. (


  • These behaviors can be violent in nature and in some cases will result in injury to either the patient or their bed partner. (

transient loss

  • Supportive clinical features include repeated falls, syncope, a transient loss of consciousness, severe autonomic dysfunction, depression, systematized delusions, or hallucinations in other sensory and perceptual modalities.While these features may support the clinical diagnosis, they lack diagnostic specificity and can be seen in other neurodegenerative disorders. (

rhythmic movement

  • Rhythmic Movement Disorder is observed using the standard procedure for polysomnography, which includes video recording, EEG during sleep, EMG, and ECG. (

International Classific

  • Three systems of classification are in use worldwide: the International classification of diseases (ICD) developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) and intended for use by general and more specialized practitioners, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) from the American Psychiatric Association (APA) for psychiatrists and general practitioners, and the International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD), an advanced system cultured by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) for sleep specialists. (
  • The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) was produced by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) in association with the European Sleep Research Society, the Japanese Society of Sleep Research, and the Latin American Sleep Society. (
  • The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD) uses a multiaxial system for stating and coding diagnoses both in clinical reports or for database purposes. (
  • Proposed Sleep Disorders In 2005, the International Classification of Sleep Disorders underwent minor updates and modifications resulting in version 2 (ICSD-2). (
  • The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Revised (ICSD-R) (PDF). (
  • The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition (ICSD-2). (
  • The International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition (ICSD-3). (
  • International Classification of Sleep Disorders 3rd Ed. Darien, IL USA: American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (


  • For people with this sleep disorder, however, the temporary paralysis doesn't happen, allowing movement while dreaming. (
  • Sleep paralysis, characterized by temporary paralysis of the body shortly before or after sleep. (
  • Sleep paralysis may be accompanied by visual, auditory or tactile hallucinations. (


  • REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) often is a symptom first recognized by the patient's caretaker. (
  • In some cases, sleepwalking in adults may be a symptom of a psychological disorder. (
  • The position of the body during sleep may determine which motor symptom is displayed. (


  • Subsequently, in the 1965 ICD-8 it was expanded into two categories: Specific sleep disorder of sleep and Disturbance of sleep. (


  • They are caused by a physiological activation in which the patient's brain exits from SWS and is caught in between a sleeping and waking state. (

clinicians and researchers

  • Additional codes are included for procedures and physical signs of particular interest to sleep disorders clinicians and researchers. (

mental disorders

  • Current research seeks correlations between dreaming and current knowledge about the functions of the brain, as well as understanding of how the brain works during dreaming as pertains to memory formation and mental disorders. (


  • Clonazepam, sold under the brand name Klonopin among others, is a medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, and for the movement disorder known as akathisia. (


  • This can cause sleep disruption for the individual and also the bed partner. (

Shift Work Sle

  • Shift work sleep disorder (SWSD), a situational circadian rhythm sleep disorder. (


  • When this sleep disorder is sudden and severe, it's usually caused by drug or alcohol withdrawal. (


  • It's unknown exactly why clonazepam helps, but it's thought to suppress muscle activity during REM sleep. (
  • Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABAA receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. (
  • Because of these incessant muscle contractions, patients' sleep patterns are often disrupted. (
  • It differs from Restless Legs Syndrome in that RMD involves involuntary muscle contractions before and during sleep while Restless Legs Syndrome is the urge to move before sleep. (


  • In particular, these disorders involve activation of the autonomic nervous system, motor system, or cognitive processes during sleep or sleep-wake transitions. (


  • Whether the significant other is directly involved, in the case of sexual intercourse, or a bystander, in the case of masturbation behavior, they are often the first to recognize the abnormal behavior. (


  • During REM sleep, researchers theorize that the brain goes through a process known as synaptic efficacy refreshment. (

citation needed

  • citation needed] Symptomatic RBD is the more characteristically seen disorder. (
  • citation needed] It is uncertain whether RBD precedes these neurodegenerative disorders, whether they coincide, or whether it follows these disorders. (


  • Polysomnography (PSG), a type of sleep study, is a multi-parametric test used in the study of sleep and as a diagnostic tool in sleep medicine. (
  • Under DSM-5 criteria, there are 11 diagnostic groups that comprise sleep-wake disorders. (


  • The good news is that REM behavior disorder can usually be well managed with proper diagnosis and treatment. (
  • At the College Station Center for Pulmonary and Sleep Disorders we strive to provide optimal quality of life to you through the diagnosis and management of many types of lung and sleep disorders. (
  • Diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD) based on the characteristic movement disorder in PD, confirmed by Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). (
  • A consensus statement by a task force from the Movement Disorder Society for the diagnosis of PDD has just been published, providing criteria for probable and possible PDD. (


  • Excessive movement during sleep and mood changes such as depression are also common. (


  • Polysomnography and actigraphy are tests commonly ordered for some sleep disorders. (
  • Simultaneous collection of these measurements is called polysomnography, and can be performed in a specialized sleep laboratory. (

brain waves

  • This is observed as brain waves self-firing during sleep, in slow cycles at a rate of around 14 Hz, and is believed to serve the purpose of consolidating recent memories and reinforcing old memories. (


  • Night terror, Pavor nocturnus, sleep terror disorder, an abrupt awakening from sleep with behavior consistent with terror. (


  • Hypopnea syndrome, abnormally shallow breathing or slow respiratory rate while sleeping. (


  • These include olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS), and striatonigral degeneration (SND), which were once considered to be separate disorders. (


  • The discovery that dreams take place primarily during a distinctive electrophysiological state of sleep (REM), which can be identified by objective criteria, led to rebirth of interest in this phenomenon. (
  • RBD may also be caused by brainstem damage of the neural circuits which normally manage the phenomenon of REM sleep. (

anxiety disorders

  • Clonazepam has also been found effective in treating other anxiety disorders, such as social phobia, but this is an off-label use. (


  • Clonazepam is prescribed for epilepsy and panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. (
  • Panic disorder with or without agoraphobia. (
  • The effectiveness of clonazepam in the short-term treatment of panic disorder has been demonstrated in controlled clinical trials. (
  • However, there is disagreement among expert bodies regarding the long-term use of benzodiazepines for panic disorder. (
  • The American Psychiatric Association (APA) guidelines note that, in general, benzodiazepines are well tolerated, and their use for the initial treatment for panic disorder is strongly supported by numerous controlled trials. (
  • APA states that there is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the established panic disorder treatments over another. (


  • The REM Sleep Behavior Disorder Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) is a specific questionnaire for RBD developed by Stiasny-Kolster and team, to assess the most prominent clinical features of RBD according to the International Classification on Sleep Disorders. (
  • Admittedly, the development of sleep disorder classification remains as much an art as it is a science. (
  • The axial system is arranged as follows: Axis A ICSD Classification of Sleep Disorders Axis B ICD-9-CM Classification of Procedures Axis C ICD-9-CM Classification of Diseases (nonsleep diagnoses). (
  • ICSD-3 includes 60 specific diagnoses within the seven major categories, as well as an appendix for classification of sleep disorders associated with medical and neurologic disorders. (