Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Markov Chains: A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.United StatesOutcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Great BritainModels, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Value of Life: The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.

*  HCV Research and News: December 2013
2 and 3), subjects accrued costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at the end of each model year (stage), depending on ... Quality-adjusted life years gained per dollar spent were maximized in younger treatment cohorts. Using this model, the degree ... HCV = hepatitis C virus; CHC = chronic hepatitis C; QALY = quality-adjusted life year; ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ... ICER = incremental cost-effectiveness ratio; QALY = quality-adjusted life year; CHC = chronic hepatitis C; F0-F4 = Metavir ...
*  Putting a Price Tag on Your 3D-Printed Hip | Materialise - Innovators you can count on
A QALY (Quality-Adjusted Life Year) is a unit for determining the value of health outcomes. It factors in the length of life ... and quality of life. One QALY is equivalent to one year of perfect health. It's calculated by multiplying the length of life in ... One procedure, for example, could add two years to the original ten-year value, at a utility level of 0,5, thus increasing the ... but also in quality of life. Embracing it and integrating it in standardized hospital workflows will likely drive patient care ...
*  Cost-Effectiveness of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Drug Eluting Stents Versus Bypass Surgery for Patients With...
In-Trial Analysis of Costs, Life-Years, and Quality-Adjusted Life-Years Gained. The prolonged recruitment period for the ... 10 000 per life-year or quality-adjusted life-year gained across a broad range of assumptions regarding the effect of CABG on ... life-years, and QALYs were estimated, and (2) projections of post-trial costs, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life ... Over the first 5 years of follow-up, CABG improved life expectancy by ≈0.05 years and quality-adjusted life expectancy by ≈0.03 ...
*  York summer workshops - Centre for Health Economics, The University of York
The approaches considered include methods used in healthcare economic evaluation, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) ... To inform and promote understanding in key areas of quality of life assessment and health economic evaluation and to learn how ... 9.00am - 10.30am: Recent ISPOR Guidance on the Collection and Analysis of Quality of Life Data *Collecting health-state utility ... managing or interpreting economic evaluations or quality of life assessments of medicines and other technologies within ...
*  Quality-adjusted life year - Wikipedia
The quality-adjusted life year or quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) is a generic measure of disease burden, including both the ... A year of life lived in perfect health is worth 1 QALY (1 year of life × 1 Utility value). A year of life lived in a state of ... that quality of life can be measured in consistent intervals, that life-years and quality of life are independent of each other ... "Problems and solutions in calculating quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)". Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 1: 80. doi: ...
*  Bacteria and Influenza: The Streptococcus Vaccine Is One Way to Prepare Against the Unknown - Mike the Mad Biologist
QALY - Quality Adjusted Life Years. My speculation - the insurance companies don't want to pay that money; after age 65 ... I am 56-years-old and tried to get a pneumonia shot but was told that it is generally not given to someone under age 65 because ... my cousin who is 12 yrs.old is in the hospital fighting for her life from what we thought was Strep throat.now we found out ... In lieu of an influenza vaccine, these two steps could save many lives. And it wouldn't be a bad idea to have these systems in ...
*  The social costs of childhood lead exposure in the post-lead regulation era
quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. * increase in lifetime earnings. * reduction in administrative overhead for welfare ... Use the browser controls to adjust the font size, or print this page. ...
*  The Efficacy and Economics of Exercise Maintenance Post-Cardiac Rehabilitation - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
... and quality adjusted life years. Participants are linked to health administrative data to allow health care utilization to be ... Kasahara Y, Samejima H, Osada N. Long-term exercise maintenance, physical activity, and health-related quality of life after ... Quality of life measured by the the EuroQoL 5D [ Time Frame: 78 weeks ]. The EQ-5D is the current gold standard measure of ... generic quality of life, has been used in numerous studies and has been validated in many languages. The EQ-5D consists of 2 ...
*  Hepatitis A Vaccine Recommendations | FROM THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS | Pediatrics
173000 per life-year gained and $24000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained. When out-of-cohort herd immunity was ... QALY-quality-adjusted life-year. REFERENCES. *↵. Armstrong GL, Bell BP. Hepatitis A virus infections in the United States: ... one for use in children 12 months to 18 years of age and another for use in individuals 19 years of age and older. Twinrix ... All children who live in the United States should receive hepatitis A vaccine at 1 year of age (ie, 12-23 months of age) as a 2 ...
*  A Clinical Trial of IntensiVE Dialysis - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Quality of Life. Quality Adjusted Life Year. Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular. Blood Pressure. Hypertension. Anemia. Hematinics. ... Quality of life and patient acceptability [ Time Frame: 12 months ]. *Safety outcomes [ Time Frame: 12 months ]. *Costs ... The primary end-point for this study is the difference in the change in quality of life between the two groups from ... As well as improved quality of life, improved functioning and beneficial changes in a variety of laboratory parameters, it has ...
*  Dexamethasone and Supportive Care With or Without Whole-Brain Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung...
Patient-assessed quality adjusted life years. Secondary Outcome Measures : *Overall survival. *Karnofsky performance status. * ... in terms of patient assessed quality adjusted life years, in patients with inoperable brain metastases secondary to non-small ... Supportive care improves the quality of life of patients with a serious or life-threatening disease, and prevents or treats ... Quality of Life After Radiotherapy & Steroids. A Phase III Multi-Centre Randomised Controlled Trial to Assess Whether Optimal ...
*  Economic evaluation of 5-grass pollen tablets versus placebo in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in adults.
... thereby reducing clinical symptoms and symptomatic medication intake and improving quality of life. Long-term AIT research has ... The ΔQoL indicator was used to adjust the 4-year time horizon of the model, thus obtaining incremental quality-adjusted life ... QALY incremental quality-adjusted life years, ICER incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, NHS national health system perspective ... Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal / diagnosis, drug therapy*, economics. Tablets. Treatment Outcome. ...
*  Preventing type 2 diabetes: systematic review of studies of cost-effectiveness of lifestyle programmes and metformin, with and...
quantified outcomes (such as change in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), life-years ... Life-years gained. A measure of the impact of a disease or treatment on the length of life. Years of life are not adjusted to ... are adjusted to reflect the quality of life. One QALY is equal to 1 year of life in perfect health. ... Quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). A measure of the state of health of a person or group in which the benefits, in terms of ...
*  GMS | GMS German Medical Science - an Interdisciplinary Journal | Electrocardiologic and related methods of non-invasive...
QALY: Quality-adjusted life years *SCD: Sudden cardiac death *STE-ASC: ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome = STEMI ... The number needed to treat to save one life with an ICD is above 10 patients over 2-year period, while an ICD was projected to ... Monitoring in daily life. Future electrocardiography will integrate methods like telemedicine and AAL into daily life to record ... met the primary endpoint of appropriate ICD discharge or SCD within 1 year. Primary results showed that MTWA achieved 1-year ...
*  U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: Aspirin Use for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Colorectal Cancer:...
... or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are ... willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years. ... in adults aged 50 to 59 years who have a 10% ... The USPSTF estimated life-years and quality-adjusted life-years saved as one part of its consideration of the balance of ... have a life expectancy of at least 10 years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least 10 years (Table 1). B ...
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Outcomes were expected quality-adjusted life years gained, costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. One-way, 2-way, ... Our results remained robust in 2-way sensitivity analyses varying the prolonged latency period up to 30 years, with either ... quality-adjusted life year. TCD. transcranial Doppler sonography. *© 2017 American Society of Neuroradiology ...
*  Search of: 'Colorectal Neoplasms' - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov
Quality-adjusted life years for each screening strategy. *Direct Health Care Costs for each CRC screening strategy ... Progression free survival (PFS) at 2 years and at 3 years. 168. All. 18 Years and older (Adult, Senior). NCT02842580. PRODIGE ... 17 Years to 70 Years (Child, Adult, Senior). NCT01310478. SIM-85. August 2010. May 2011. March 8, 2011. March 8, 2011. * ... Quality of Life of Patients With Colorectal Neoplasm and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Colorectal Cancer Screening. * ...
*  Cost-effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in UK patients with atrial...
The overall cost-effectiveness of dabigatran was quantified as incremental cost incurred per quality-adjusted year of life ( ... Modelled outcomes over a lifetime horizon included clinical events, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), total costs and ... 13 353/quality-adjusted life year (QALY)), while the grey bar shows the results using the second variation in the parentheses ( ... The effect of stroke and stroke prophylaxis with aspirin or warfarin on quality of life. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:1829-36. ...
*  Integrated Collaborative Care Teams for Youth With Mental Health and/or Addiction Challenges (YouthCan IMPACT) - Full Text View...
Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) [ Time Frame: One year ]. Measured using the Assessment of Quality of Life-6D (AQOL-6D) ... Problematic substance use [ Time Frame: One year ]. Assessed using the GAIN Short Screener and the substance use table of the ... Cost-effective analysis (CEA) and a cost-utility analysis (CUA) [ Time Frame: One year ]. Incremental costs of ICCT compared to ... Satisfaction with the service models [ Time Frame: One year ]. Assessed using the Ontario Perception of Care Tool for Mental ...
*  Wiley: Quality of Life: The Assessment, Analysis and Interpretation of Patient-reported Outcomes, 2nd Edition - Peter M. Fayers...
17.5 Quality-adjusted life years. 17.6 Q-TWiST. 17.7 Sensitivity analysis. 17.8 Prognosis and variation with time. 17.9 Healthy ... 1.4 Why measure quality of life? 1.5 Which clinical trials should assess quality of life? 1.6 How to measure quality of life. ... E10 Quality of Life in Epilepsy (QOLIE-89). E11 Paediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ). Domain-specific ... 18.7 Impact of state of quality of life. 18.8 Changes in relation to life events. 18.9 Effect size. 18.10 Effect sizes and meta ...
*  Prevention of Hepatitis C by Screening and Treatment in United States Prisons
It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life ... peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. ... quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); total cost to prisons and ... Prevention of HCV transmission and associated-disease in prisons and society, costs, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), ... we assigned health-related quality-of-life (QOL) weights, with 0 denoting death and 1 denoting perfect health, and adjusted ...
*  3.3.1 U.S. Device Public Reimbursement - University of Minnesota | Coursera
Quality-adjusted life years are not explicitly used but. they're certainly considered sometimes in a reimbursement strategy and ... to under the features of likely successful medical device before it goes to market and competes to enhance and save lives. ...
*  Criticism of the National Health Service (England) - Wikipedia
"Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs)". National Library for Health. March 2006. Retrieved 2007-12-09. "So what is a QALY?". ... The NHS measures medical need in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), a method of quantifying the benefit of medical ... In 1997, the waiting time for a non-urgent operation could be two years, there were ambitions to reduce it to 18 weeks despite ... It is contested that this system is fairer - if a medical complaint is acute and life-threatening, a patient will reach the ...
*  The Cost-Effectiveness of Sildenafil | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
Cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.. Results of Base-Case Analysis:. The cost per QALY gained for sildenafil ... Values for the efficacy and safety of sildenafil and quality-of-life utilities were obtained from the published medical ... Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) in men 65 to 74 years of age was cost-effective for AAA mortality at 10 years ... per year, mortality was less than 0.55% per year, treatment was successful in more than 40.2% of patients, or sildenafil cost ...
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Disease burden: Disease burden is the impact of a health problem as measured by financial cost, mortality, morbidity, or other indicators. It is often quantified in terms of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) or disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), both of which quantify the number of years lost due to disease (YLDs).Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Vladimir Andreevich Markov: Vladimir Andreevich Markov (; May 8, 1871 – January 18, 1897) was a Russian mathematician, known for proving the Markov brothers' inequality with his older brother Andrey Markov. He died of tuberculosis at the age of 25.Penalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.Value of control: The value of control is a quantitative measure of the value of controlling the outcome of an uncertainty variable. Decision analysis provides a means for calculating the value of both perfect and imperfect control.Recursive partitioning: Recursive partitioning is a statistical method for multivariable analysis. Recursive partitioning creates a decision tree that strives to correctly classify members of the population by splitting it into sub-populations based on several dichotomous independent variables. The process is termed recursive because each sub-population may in turn be split an indefinite number of times until the splitting process terminates after a particular stopping criterion is reached.List of U.S. states by life expectancy: This article presents a list of United States states sorted by their life expectancy at birth and by race/ethnicity in every state where the population of that racial or ethnic group is sufficiently large for robust estimates. The data is taken from the Measure of America's third national human development report, The Measure of America 2013–2014 width="25%" align="center" |Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Precautionary savings: Precautionary saving is saving (non-expenditure of a portion of income) that occurs in response to uncertainty regarding future income. The precautionary motive to delay consumption and save in the current period rises due to the lack of completeness of insurance markets.Pavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Monte Carlo methods for option pricing: In mathematical finance, a Monte Carlo option model uses Monte Carlo methods Although the term 'Monte Carlo method' was coined by Stanislaw Ulam in the 1940s, some trace such methods to the 18th century French naturalist Buffon, and a question he asked about the results of dropping a needle randomly on a striped floor or table. See Buffon's needle.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Cancer screeningResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Inverse probability weighting: Inverse probability weighting is a statistical technique for calculating statistics standardized to a population different from that in which the data was collected. Study designs with a disparate sampling population and population of target inference (target population) are common in application.Von Neumann regular ring: In mathematics, a von Neumann regular ring is a ring R such that for every a in R there exists an x in R such that . To avoid the possible confusion with the regular rings and regular local rings of commutative algebra (which are unrelated notions), von Neumann regular rings are also called absolutely flat rings, because these rings are characterized by the fact that every left module is flat.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Interval boundary element method: Interval boundary element method is classical boundary element method with the interval parameters.
List of kanji by stroke count: This Kanji index method groups together the kanji that are written with the same number of strokes. Currently, there are 2,186 individual kanji listed.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingClosed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaAge adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Tumor progression: Tumor progression is the third and last phase in tumor development. This phase is characterised by increased growth speed and invasiveness of the tumor cells.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Global Risks Report: The Global Risks Report is an annual study published by the World Economic Forum ahead of the Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos, Switzerland. Based on the work of the Global Risk Network, the report describes changes occurring in the global risks landscape from year to year and identifies the global risks that could play a critical role in the upcoming year.Cancer survival rates: Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.

(1/1559) Breastfeeding promotion and priority setting in health.

An increase in exclusive breastfeeding prevalence can substantially reduce mortality and morbidity among infants. In this paper, estimates of the costs and impacts of three breastfeeding promotion programmes, implemented through maternity services in Brazil, Honduras and Mexico, are used to develop cost-effectiveness measures and these are compared with other health interventions. The results show that breastfeeding promotion can be one of the most cost-effective health interventions for preventing cases of diarrhoea, preventing deaths from diarrhoea, and gaining disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). The benefits are substantial over a broad range of programme types. Programmes starting with the removal of formula and medications during delivery are likely to derive a high level of impact per unit of net incremental cost. Cost-effectiveness is lower (but still attractive relative to other interventions) if hospitals already have rooming-in and no bottle-feeds; and the cost-effectiveness improves as programmes become well-established. At an annual cost of about 30 to 40 US cents per birth, programmes starting with formula feeding in nurseries and maternity wards can reduce diarrhoea cases for approximately $0.65 to $1.10 per case prevented, diarrhoea deaths for $100 to $200 per death averted, and reduce the burden of disease for approximately $2 to $4 per DALY. Maternity services that have already eliminated formula can, by investing from $2 to $3 per birth, prevent diarrhoea cases and deaths for $3.50 to $6.75 per case, and $550 to $800 per death respectively, with DALYs gained at $12 to $19 each.  (+info)

(2/1559) Opening the debate on DALYs (disability-adjusted life years).

The 1993 World Development Report is proving to be an influential document for the development of the health sector policies in developing countries. One important aspect of the Report concerns its proposals for Disability Adjusted Life Years as a measure of health change and hence effectiveness of interventions. This article comments on the use of such measures in the health policy arena.  (+info)

(3/1559) A critical review of priority setting in the health sector: the methodology of the 1993 World Development Report.

The 1993 World Development Report, Investing in Health, suggests policies to assist governments of developing countries in improving the health of their populations. A new methodology to improve government spending is introduced. Epidemiological and economic analyses from the basis for a global priority setting exercise, leading to a recommended essential public health and clinical services package for low- and middle-income countries. Ministries of Health in many countries have expressed an interest in designing a national package of essential health services, using the methodology. Given the apparent importance attached to the study and its far reaching potential consequences, this article provides an overview of the method, the main issues and problems in estimating the burden of disease as well as the cost-effectiveness of interventions. Strengths and weaknesses in the databases, value judgements and assumptions are identified, leading to a critical analysis of the validity of the priority setting exercise on the global level.  (+info)

(4/1559) Antiviral therapy for neonatal herpes simplex virus: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

Each year, about 1,600 infants in the United States are infected with neonatal herpes simplex virus. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of antiviral drug therapy (acyclovir) for three forms of herpes simplex virus infection: skin, ear, and mouth (SEM), central nervous system (CNS), and disseminated multiorgan (DIS) disease. Five levels of patient outcomes were examined (normal, mild, moderate, severe, dead). We obtained information on disease occurrence and survival from clinical trials and historical reviews of untreated newborns. We considered approaches for treating all or any of the forms of the disease and compared them with no use of antiviral drugs. The main measure of effectiveness was lives saved, including those of descendants of survivors. Costs were measured from a societal perspective and included direct medical costs, institutional care, and special education. We used a discount rate of 3% and valued dollars at 1995 levels. We also considered the perspective of a managed care organization. From a societal viewpoint relative to no treatment, antiviral therapy for SEM resulted in a gain of 0.8 lives and a cost reduction of $78,601 per case. For the treatment of CNS and DIS disease, antiviral therapy saved more lives but at increased cost, with respective marginal costs per additional life saved of $75,125 and $46,619. From a managed care perspective, antiviral therapy is more cost-effective than from a societal viewpoint because costs of institutional care and special education are not the responsibility of managed care organizations. Development of at-home therapies will further improve the cost-effectiveness of antiviral therapy for neonatal herpes simplex virus infection.  (+info)

(5/1559) A cost-effectiveness clinical decision analysis model for schizophrenia.

A model was developed to estimate the medical costs and effectiveness outcomes of three antipsychotic treatments (olanzapine, haloperidol, and risperidone) for patients with schizophrenia. A decision analytic Markov model was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of treatments and outcomes that patients treated for schizophrenia may experience over a 5-year period. Model parameter estimates were based on clinical trial data, published medical literature, and, when needed, clinician judgment. Direct medical costs were incorporated into the model, and outcomes were expressed by using three effectiveness indicators: the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, quality-adjusted life years, and lack of relapse. Over a 5-year period, patients on olanzapine had an additional 6.8 months in a disability-free health state based on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and more than 2 additional months in a disability-free health state based on quality-adjusted life years, and they experienced 13% fewer relapses compared with patients on haloperidol. The estimated 5-year medical cost associated with olanzapine therapy was $1,539 less than that for haloperidol therapy. Compared with risperidone therapy, olanzapine therapy cost $1,875 less over a 5-year period. Patients on olanzapine had approximately 1.6 weeks more time in a disability-free health state (based on Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores) and 2% fewer relapses compared with patients on risperidone. Sensitivity analyses indicated the model was sensitive to changes in drug costs and shortened hospital stay. Compared with both haloperidol and risperidone therapy, olanzapine therapy was less expensive and provided superior effectiveness outcomes even with conservative values for key parameters such as relapse and discontinuation rates.  (+info)

(6/1559) Economic benefits of aggressive lipid lowering: a managed care perspective.

Coronary heart disease (CHD) has high prevalence in the United States and is associated with significant mortality as well as costs to society. Hyperlipidemia is a major and common modifiable risk factor for CHD. In clinical trials, cholesterol-lowering strategies have a dramatic impact on CHD risk, cardiovascular events, and mortality. Cost-effectiveness data have established that clinical and economic benefits are gained by instituting early and aggressive lipid-lowering therapy. We present new evidence for the clinical benefits and cost effectiveness of aggressive lipid-lowering therapy as primary or secondary prevention of CHD and describe strategies that managed care organizations can take to benefit from a lipid management program.  (+info)

(7/1559) Willingness to pay in the context of an economic evaluation of healthcare programs: theory and practice.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is defined in the methodology literature as a form of economic evaluation in which both costs and consequences are measured in monetary terms. In recent years we have witnessed renewed enthusiasm for CBA and the use of willingness to pay (WTP) as a method of measuring benefits from healthcare providers. Using the economics perspective, this paper assesses the usefulness of the WTP measure in a context of CBA analysis for economic evaluation of healthcare interventions. Starting from the welfarist approach as the foundation of the analysis, this paper evaluates the benefit and cost of using WTP as a measure of outcome compared mainly with the most commonly used measure of outcome (i.e., quality-adjusted life years) as well as a newly suggested measure of outcome (i.e., healthy-years equivalents). This paper studies this issue from both theoretical and practical aspects. The analysis starts with the premise that we want to use the discipline of economics as the mode of thinking and evaluate the methods suggested using economic criteria. A framework that includes five indicators (or criteria) to help identify the measures of outcome that are proper for use in the context of an economic evaluation are described. Following this framework, the paper argues that from a theoretic perspective the WTP approach is the best available measure, despite its limitations. This paper also describes a new instrument that can be used to measure individuals' WTP as well as a recent experience assessing the feasibility of using such an instrument in the context of evaluating a new pharmaceutical agent in a managed care setting. The conclusion of this study is that this technique holds promise as a method that can generate monetary values for program benefits for future use in CBA.  (+info)

(8/1559) Preferences for health outcomes and cost-utility analysis.

Economic evaluation of health programs consists of the comparative analysis of alternative courses of action in terms of both costs and consequences. The five analytic techniques are cost-consequence analysis, cost-minimization analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, cost-utility analysis, and cost-benefit analysis. Although all techniques have the same objective of informing decision making in the health programs, they come from different theoretic backgrounds and relate differently to the discipline of economics. Cost-utility analysis formally incorporates the measured preferences of individuals for the health outcome consequences of the alternative programs. The individuals may be actual patients who are experiencing or have experienced the outcomes, or they may be a representative sample of the community, many of whom may someday face the outcomes. The health outcomes, at the most general level, consist of changes in the quantity and quality of life; that is, changes in mortality and morbidity. Changes in quantity of life are measured with mortality; changes in quality of life are measured with health-related quality-of-life instruments. Utilities represent a particular approach to the measurement of health-related quality of life that is founded on a well specified theory and provides an interval scale metric. Changes in quantity of life, as measured in years, can be combined with changes in quality of life, as measured in utilities, to determine the number of quality-adjusted life years gained by a particular health program. This can be compared with the incremental cost of the program to determine the cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Utilities may be measured directly on patients or other respondents by means of techniques such as visual analog scaling, standard gamble, or time trade-off. Utilities may be determined indirectly by means of a preference-weighted multi-attribute health status classification system such as the health utilities index. The health utilities index is actually a complete system for use in studies. It consists of questionnaires in various formats and languages, scoring manuals, and descriptive health status classification systems. The health utilities index is useful in clinical studies and in population health surveys, as well as in cost-utility analyses.  (+info)

  • ICER
  • While the two conclusions of this article may indicate that industry-funded ICER measures are lower methodological quality than those published by non-industry sources, there is also a possibility that, due to the nature of retrospective or other non-public work, publication bias may exist rather than methodology biases. (wikipedia.org)
  • After discussions in 2016 ICER broadened its quality-adjusted life year threshold to $50,000 to $150,000. (wikipedia.org)
  • economic
  • In the few studies that evaluated other economic considerations, budget impact of prevention programmes was moderate (0.13%-0.2% of total healthcare budget), financial payoffs were delayed (by 9-14 years) and impact on incident cases of diabetes was limited (0.1%-1.6% reduction). (bmj.com)
  • Successful for over 20 years, and fully subscribed to in 2017, the York Summer Workshops are aimed at those involved in initiating, undertaking, managing or interpreting economic evaluations or quality of life assessments of medicines and other technologies within pharmaceutical and medical device companies, clinical and health services research and health care decision-making organisations. (york.ac.uk)
  • DALYs
  • This age-weighting system means that somebody disabled at 30 years of age, for ten years, would be measured as having a higher loss of DALYs (a greater burden of disease), than somebody disabled by the same disease or injury at the age of 70 for ten years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Population
  • YLD is determined by the number of years disabled weighted by level of disability caused by a disability or disease using the formula: YLD = I x DW x L In this formula I = number of incident cases in the population, DW = disability weight of specific condition, and L = average duration of the case until remission or death (years). (wikipedia.org)
  • assess
  • Consenting caregivers complete questionnaire over the telephone once a week to assess the impact of the patient's disease and treatment on the caregiver's quality of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A reasonable approach consistent with the evidence is to prescribe 81 mg per day (the most commonly prescribed dose in the United States), and assess CVD and bleeding risk factors starting at age 50 years and periodically thereafter, as well as when CVD and bleeding risk factors are first detected or change. (aafp.org)
  • HUI was modeled using multi-attribute utility theory to assess a participants overall health-related quality of life. (wikipedia.org)
  • cohort
  • The USPSTF used a calculator derived from the ACC/AHA pooled cohort equations to predict 10-year risk for first atherosclerotic CVD event. (aafp.org)
  • 2016
  • Building on the MDGs, a new Sustainable Development Agenda with 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been established for the years 2016-2030. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) issued an update to the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) for 2017. (wikipedia.org)
  • efficacy
  • Compare the efficacy of dexamethasone with vs without whole-brain radiotherapy in combination with optimal supportive care, in terms of patient assessed quality adjusted life years, in patients with inoperable brain metastases secondary to non-small cell lung cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Values for the efficacy and safety of sildenafil and quality-of-life utilities were obtained from the published medical literature. (annals.org)
  • terms
  • In health economics the purpose of CUA is to estimate the ratio between the cost of a health-related intervention and the benefit it produces in terms of the number of years lived in full health by the beneficiaries. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1996
  • In 1996, children living in populations with the highest rates of disease were targeted for immunization, and in 1999 the program was expanded to immunization of children 2 years and older living in states and counties with rates of hepatitis A that historically have been higher than the national average. (aappublications.org)
  • He became a Professor at Aberdeen in 1996 and, for five years of his tenure at Aberdeen, served as national organiser of the Health Economists' Study Group (HESG), the UK body for health economics researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adults
  • A DNA test using stool samples was approved in August 2014 by the FDA as a screening test for non-symptomatic, average-risk adults 50 years or older. (wikipedia.org)
  • acute
  • It is contested that this system is fairer - if a medical complaint is acute and life-threatening, a patient will reach the front of the queue quickly. (wikipedia.org)
  • prevalence
  • Global health can be measured as a function of various global diseases and their prevalence in the world and threat to decrease life in the present day. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Cost-effectiveness analyses are often visualized on a plane consisting of four-quadrants, the cost represented on the x-axis and the effectiveness on the y- axis. (wikipedia.org)
  • patient
  • Results Patients treated with dabigatran etexilate experienced fewer ischaemic strokes (3.74 dabigatran etexilate vs 3.97 warfarin) and fewer combined intracranial haemorrhages and haemorrhagic strokes (0.43 dabigatran etexilate vs 0.99 warfarin) per 100 patient-years. (bmj.com)
  • expenses
  • low income families tended to have higher prescription drug expenses during the year: 18.9% of poor households paid more than $4,724 compared to 13.2% and 12.5% who had prescription drug expenses between $2,084-$4,723 and $1-2,083, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • value
  • This implies a value of a full life of about £2.4 million. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, some people believe that life is priceless and there are ethical problems with placing a value on human life. (wikipedia.org)
  • extends
  • However, the involvement of the NHS in scandals extends back many years, including over the provision of mental health care in the 1970s and 1980s (ultimately part of the reason for the Mental Health Act 1983), and overspends on hospital newbuilds, including Guy's Hospital Phase III in London in 1985, the cost of which shot up from £29 million to £152 million. (wikipedia.org)
  • medical
  • This book is of interest for everyone involved in quality of life research, and it is applicable to medical and non-medical, statistical and non-statistical readers. (wiley.com)
  • You will be better prepared to under the features of likely successful medical device before it goes to market and competes to enhance and save lives. (coursera.org)
  • Treatment
  • Supportive care improves the quality of life of patients with a serious or life-threatening disease, and prevents or treats symptoms of cancer, side effects of treatment, and other problems related to cancer or its treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • METHODS: A post-hoc analysis was conducted using the Average Adjusted Symptom Score (AAdSS) to compare the effect of treatment of AR with 5-grass pollen tablets versus placebo treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Quality of life studies form an essential part of the evaluation of any treatment. (wiley.com)
  • As more expensive drugs are being developed and licensed it has become imperative especially in context of developing countries where resources are scarce to apply the principles of pharmacoeconomics for various drugs and treatment options so that maximum improvement in quality of life can be achieved in minimum cost. (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • For the 15 years before availability of hepatitis A vaccines (1980-1995), approximately 30000 cases of symptomatic hepatitis A infections (disease) were reported annually in the United States. (aappublications.org)
  • Study
  • The primary end-point for this study is the difference in the change in quality of life between the two groups from randomisation to the 12 month follow-up as measured by the EQ-5D instrument. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • journal
  • He has published over 250 refereed journal articles and seven books and, in almost 35 years in health economics research, Cam has won over £25m in competitive funding awards, over £10m of this as principal investigator. (wikipedia.org)
  • society
  • The American Cancer Society recommends screening with either DNA testing every 3 years, guaiac fecal occult blood test, or fecal immunochemical test every year starting at age 50. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • Immediately after his Masters, Donaldson worked as a Research Fellow during the first year of the Centre for Health Economics (CHE) at the University of York. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eligible
  • Registrants of new drugs are eligible for reward payments for ten years starting at the date of marketing approval of their product. (wikipedia.org)
  • human life
  • There he worked closely with Professor Michael Jones-Lee and Rachel Baker, now Professor of Health Economics and Director of the Yunus Centre for Social Business & Health at Glasgow Caledonian University, in translating Jones-Lee's work on valuing human life and safety into the health arena, leading major projects for the Department of Health in England and the European Commission. (wikipedia.org)