Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Life: The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Water Quality: A rating of a body of water based on measurable physical, chemical, and biological characteristics.Total Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.Food Quality: Ratings of the characteristics of food including flavor, appearance, nutritional content, and the amount of microbial and chemical contamination.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Life Tables: Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Life Support Care: Care provided patients requiring extraordinary therapeutic measures in order to sustain and prolong life.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Management Quality Circles: Participation of employees with management as a labor-management team, in decisions pertaining to the operational activities of the organization or industry.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Life Style: Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sleep Disorders: Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Great BritainEvidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Survivors: Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)GermanyHealth Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Self Concept: A person's view of himself.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.EuropeHospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Medical Audit: A detailed review and evaluation of selected clinical records by qualified professional personnel for evaluating quality of medical care.BrazilFeasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Process Assessment (Health Care): An evaluation procedure that focuses on how care is delivered, based on the premise that there are standards of performance for activities undertaken in delivering patient care, in which the specific actions taken, events occurring, and human interactions are compared with accepted standards.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Insurance, Life: Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Reimbursement, Incentive: A scheme which provides reimbursement for the health services rendered, generally by an institution, and which provides added financial rewards if certain conditions are met. Such a scheme is intended to promote and reward increased efficiency and cost containment, with better care, or at least without adverse effect on the quality of the care rendered.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Accreditation: Certification as complying with a standard set by non-governmental organizations, applied for by institutions, programs, and facilities on a voluntary basis.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Spirituality: Sensitivity or attachment to religious values, or to things of the spirit as opposed to material or worldly interests. (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed, and Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Review Literature as Topic: Published materials which provide an examination of recent or current literature. Review articles can cover a wide range of subject matter at various levels of completeness and comprehensiveness based on analyses of literature that may include research findings. The review may reflect the state of the art. It also includes reviews as a literary form.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Proxy: A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.EnglandMedical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Research Report: Detailed account or statement or formal record of data resulting from empirical inquiry.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Human Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Disease Management: A broad approach to appropriate coordination of the entire disease treatment process that often involves shifting away from more expensive inpatient and acute care to areas such as preventive medicine, patient counseling and education, and outpatient care. This concept includes implications of appropriate versus inappropriate therapy on the overall cost and clinical outcome of a particular disease. (From Hosp Pharm 1995 Jul;30(7):596)Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Delphi Technique: An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Biogenesis: The origin of life. It includes studies of the potential basis for life in organic compounds but excludes studies of the development of altered forms of life through mutation and natural selection, which is BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION.Peer Review, Health Care: The concurrent or retrospective review by practicing physicians or other health professionals of the quality and efficiency of patient care practices or services ordered or performed by other physicians or other health professionals (From The Facts On File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988).Life Support Systems: Systems that provide all or most of the items necessary for maintaining life and health. Provisions are made for the supplying of oxygen, food, water, temperature and pressure control, disposition of carbon dioxide and body waste. The milieu may be a spacecraft, a submarine, or the surface of the moon. In medical care, usually under hospital conditions, LIFE SUPPORT CARE is available. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary)Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Hospital Administration: Management of the internal organization of the hospital.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.

*  Quality of Life in Escondido : Real Estate Advice

Ask a question about real estate , quality of life in Escondido, and get answers from local experts. ... Advice about quality of life in Escondido on Trulia Voices. ... Quality of Life in Escondido : Real Estate Advice. change ...
https://trulia.com/voices/popular/Escondido-Quality_of_Life-28-13812

*  Quality-of-Life Assessment of Patients Who Have Cancer of the Esophagus - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Quality-of-Life Assessment of Patients Who Have Cancer of the Esophagus. This study has been completed. ... RATIONALE: Questionnaires that measure quality of life may improve the ability to plan treatment for patients who have cancer ... PURPOSE: This clinical trial studies quality-of-life assessments of patients with cancer of the esophagus who are receiving ... Quality-of-Life Assessment of Patients Who Have Cancer of the Esophagus. ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00003321

*  Clinical Trials sub-cluster 6

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The effect of a foot ulcer on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with diabetes mellitus and ... Health-related quality of life of diabetic foot ulcer patients and their caregivers. ... METHODS: HRQoL according to the 36-item health-related quality of life questionnaire (SF-36) of 294 patients (ulcer duration ... Quality of life (QoL), weight loss (WL), and reoperation were evaluated. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 85 of 129 ...
biomedsearch.com/cluster/19/Clinical-Trials/sub-6-p9.html

*  Pao Yue-kong Library PolyU Electronic Theses Database - Living with dysphagia : striving hard to preserve...

With quantitative survey using MOS SF-36, the quality of life of NPC survivors was noted to be depressed compared with their ... This study aims to explore how dysphagia, a long term complication of radiotherapy, impacts on the lives of this group of ... However, post-radiotherapy side effects affect the lives of the survivors after recovery from the disease. ... the study complemented and supplemented each other and enhanced a deeper understanding of the impacts of dysphagia in the life ...
theses.lib.polyu.edu.hk/handle/200/4430

*  An Interventional Study to Assess the Efficacy and Safety of Buprenorphine in Korean Patients With Spinal Disorders - Full Text...

... to measure health-related quality of life on a scale from 0-1. A higher score indicates better quality of life. ... Change in Quality of Life at 8 Week of Treatment With Study Drug From Baseline [ Time Frame: 8 weeks ]. The Euroqol Health ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01818700?recr=Open&cond="Spinal Diseases"&rank=3

*  Tadalafil for Sarcoidosis Associated Pulmonary Hypertension - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

The SGRQ ranges from 0 (no impairment of quality of life) to 100 (highest impairment of quality of life) ... SF- 36 investigates the standard of quality of life through a general health assessment and not specific to a particular ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01324999?term=hypertension&recr=Open&no_unk=Y&rank=11

*  Factors associated with health-related quality of life in elderly patients on hemodialysis

Health-related quality of life was measured with the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF) and the Medical ... The following instruments were used for assessing quality of life: Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form (KDQOL-SF)4 and ... quality of well-being scale, short-form-6D, and the kidney disease quality of life instrument. Qual Life Res. 2008;17(8):1103- ... Development of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life (KDQOLTM) instrument. Qual Life Res. 1994;3(5):329-38. DOI:10.1007/BF00451725 ...
scielosp.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-89102011000600015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

*  Quality of Life Predicts Cancer Survival - Redorbit

"Low quality of life may have value in screening patients for recurrence. By identifying patients with poor quality of life, we ... Patients want improved quality of life after cancer treatment""whether it be to improve survival or simply to improve everyday ... "Although it is not yet clear how the association works between survival and quality of life related to head and neck pain, it ... Perhaps in the future, quality of life data will be routinely collected in a standardized way, and trends in pain scores will ...
redorbit.com/news/health/1408422/quality_of_life_predicts_cancer_survival/

*  Developing the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire: a new disease-specific quality of life measure for use in lower limb...

The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an easily used disease-specific quality of life (QOL) measure for ... Developing the Vascular Quality of Life Questionnaire: a new disease-specific quality of life measure for use in lower limb ... Quality of Life*. Questionnaires*. Reproducibility of Results. Walking. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National ... AIMS: The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an easily used disease-specific quality of life (QOL) measure for ...
biomedsearch.com/nih/Developing-Vascular-Quality-Life-Questionnaire/11296317.html

*  The Effect of Diabetes Complications on Health-Related Quality of Life: The Importance of Longitudinal Data to Address Patient...

Alva, M. (2013). The Effect of Diabetes Complications on Health-Related Quality of Life: The Importance of Longitudinal Data to ... The Effect of Diabetes Complications on Health-Related Quality of Life: The Importance of Longitudinal Data to Address Patient ...
https://rti.org/publication/effect-diabetes-complications-health-related-quality-life-importance-longitudinal-data

*  Repairing and treating damaged or dysfunctional brains | Gresham College

... functions as a result of brain damage or dysfunction can clearly have a significant negative impact on quality of life. What... ... Of course, it has given back a really great quality of life to individuals who were not responding to drugs. It is an extreme ... One group has generated this life experience quotient, which tries to assess how much you use your brain, and they have shown ... at some stage during our lives, from clinical depression; 1/10 from some form of social anxiety disorder or social phobia; 1/ ...
maybeorstaging.com/neuroscience/repairing-and-treating-damaged-or-dysfunctional-brains

*  Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Life Impact - PecFent® - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Patient Satisfaction and Quality of Life Impact - PecFent® (Qualipec). The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The ... A French, Multicentre, Open-label, Observational Study to Assess Quality of Life and Satisfaction in Subjects Taking PecFent® ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01693328

*  Does quality of life assessment in palliative care look like a complex screening program? | Health and Quality of Life Outcomes...

Quality of life Outcome assessment Palliative care Complex intervention Background. Quality of life in palliative care. ... Bowling A: Current state of the art in quality of life assessment. In Quality of life. 1st edition. Edited by: Carr AJ, ... Higginson IJ, Carr AJ: Measuring quality of life: Using quality of life measures in the clinical setting. BMJ 2001, 322: 1297- ... Elmqvist MA, Jordhøy MS, Bjordal K, Kaasa S, Jannert M: Health-related quality of life during the last three months of life in ...
https://hqlo.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1477-7525-11-7

*  Quality-of-life program may help cancer patients | Reuters

A therapy program focused on improving quality of life can help people being treated for advanced cance ... The Mayo Clinic program didn't have any impact on how caregivers reported their own quality of life, the researchers wrote in ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A therapy program focused on improving quality of life can help people being treated for advanced ... When researchers surveyed patients about their quality of life four weeks later, people who had gone through the program scored ...
reuters.com/article/us-cancer-idUSBRE88D1ED20120914

*  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20044573 - The economic burden of disease by industry: differences in quality-adjusted life...

Methods: Data from the 1997 to 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate quality-adjusted life years ( ... This study compares differences in quality-adjusted life expectancy across the eight original National Occupational Research ... Quality-standards; Author Keywords: quality-adjusted life years; QALYs; burden of disease; NORA; years of healthy life ... Methods: Data from the 1997 to 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate quality-adjusted life years ( ...
https://cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20044573.html

*  Column: Quality of Life

That is an in-e-quality of life with which I'm not particularly pleased. Life goes on though, and for that, I'm over-the-top ... Ergo my quality of life. Diagnosis-to-date however, I have always opted to continue to damn the torpedoes and infuse full speed ... As I progress through year seven, I am wondering yet again about quality of life. Though we are not at any kind of crossroads ... my quality of life has always been important to him. Whenever there has been a treatment blip on my radar, and changes had to ...
connectionnewspapers.com/news/2015/jul/01/column-quality-life/

*  Quality of Life - Special Education

Quality of Life - specialeducation is a personally written site at BellaOnline ... Quality of Life. The needs and desires met for an individual determines the quality of life. Individuals with Intellectual ... Proper transition education can improve the quality of life by providing information on community services, life skills, ... The quality of life consists of three domains that bring satisfaction. They are being, belonging, and becoming.. It is ...
bellaonline.com/ArticlesP/art173510.asp

*  Lifetime Costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved From HI... : JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

Lifetime Costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved From HIV Prevention in the Test and Treat Era. Farnham, Paul G. PhD*; ... Home , October 1, 2013 - Volume 64 - Issue 2 , Lifetime Costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved From HI... ... Lifetime Costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved From HIV Prevention in the Test and Treat Era ...
journals.lww.com/jaids/Citation/2013/10010/Lifetime_Costs_and_Quality_Adjusted_Life_Years.22.aspx

*  LASIK Quality of Life Collaboration Project

... : Study Results Presentations at a Symposium of the American Academy of ... Introduction to the LASIK Quality of Life Collaboration Project - C. P. Wilkinson, M.D., Senior Staff Fellow, ODE/CDRH/FDA; ... Listening to the Patients - The Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis Quality of Life Collaboration Project. ... launched the LASIK Quality of Life Collaboration Project (LQOLCP) to help better understand the potential risk of severe ...
https://fda.gov/MedicalDevices/ProductsandMedicalProcedures/SurgeryandLifeSupport/LASIK/ucm190291.htm

*  Quality of life benefits: access Standard Errors

... Table 38. Standard errors for quality of life benefits: Access, State and ...
https://bls.gov/ncs/ebs/benefits/2010/ownership/govt/table24b.htm

*  The Quality of Life - TheaterMania.com

An amazing cast helps bring Jane Anderson's remarkable play about how to deal with death to life. - Oct 11, 2007 by Terri ... The Quality of Life. An amazing cast helps bring Jane Anderson's remarkable play about how to deal with death to life. ... personal rights issues concerning life and death in her remarkable and completely engrossing new play, The Quality of Life, ... Perhaps one of the most profound questions we face in life is how to deal with death. It doesn't seem to matter all that much ...
theatermania.com/los-angeles-theater/reviews/10-2007/the-quality-of-life_11824.html

*  Rehabilitation, Physical Activity and Quality-of-Life Research - Motion Analysis: Kenton R. Kaufman - Mayo Clinic Research

The goal of the procedure is to improve quality of life for patients by decreasing pain and improving physical function. ... The Mayo Clinic Motion Analysis Lab's research on rehabilitation, physical activity and quality of life includes the following ... Rehabilitation, Physical Activity and Quality-of-Life Research. ... Rehabilitation, Physical Activity and Quality-of-Life Research ... physical activity and quality of life in a group of people with spinal deformities. Lab members perform evaluations before and ...
mayo.edu/research/labs/motion-analysis/research/rehabilitation-physical-activity-quality-life-research

*  European Commission : CORDIS : Programmes : Quality of life

European Commission
cordis.europa.eu/programme/rcn/4025_en.html

*  Videos - Canadian Digestive Health Foundation

Adam Weizman explains how you can maximize your quality of life with simple, straight forward strategies to reduce flares and ... This syndrome impacts work, school, family and quality of life. This video features heartfelt discussions from people like you ... Like 5 million other Canadians living with GERD, her symptoms have affected her work, sleep, relationships and quality of life ... Proper Bowel Prep Can Save Your Life Too many people skip potentially life-saving procedures because of misunderstandings and ...
cdhf.ca/en/videos/ulcerative-colitis-

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

Because, of couse, in Real Life the actions of kids who are angry at the authority figures in their lives are always perfectly ... Red matter was made up for the show, so I'll assume it has qualities to explain anything explainable. For instance, it's of ... In real life yes. In Star Trek starships seem to exist mainly to get the captain around so he can be the "big damned hero" when ... Scotty had the time and the technology to solve the problem he may have tinkered with his whole life. As for why this may well ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

Time-trade-off: Time-Trade-Off (TTO) is a tool used in health economics to help determine the quality of life of a patient or group. The individual will be presented with a set of directions such as:Analytical quality control: Analytical quality control, commonly shortened to AQC refers to all those processes and procedures designed to ensure that the results of laboratory analysis are consistent, comparable, accurate and within specified limits of precision.analytical quality control (AQC) program to ensure the highest level of confidence in reported data Constituents submitted to the analytical laboratory must be accurately described to avoid faulty interpretations, approximations, or incorrect results.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Water quality law: Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, and stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed solely with reference to human health.HydrosilaSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Generalizability theory: Generalizability theory, or G Theory, is a statistical framework for conceptualizing, investigating, and designing reliable observations. It is used to determine the reliability (i.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Infrastructure Lifecycle Management: Infrastructure Lifecycle Management (ILM) is a term coined by the real estate sector. It covers the management of all core processes around planning, construction, operation, maintenance and commercialization of buildings or property.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingDavid Budescu: David Budescu is a psychologist and academic. He is the Anne Anastasi Professor of Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology at Fordham University.Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale: The Bristol Activities of Daily Living Scale (BADLS) is a 20-item questionnaire designed to measure the ability of someone with dementia to carry out daily activities such as dressing, preparing food and using transport.Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment: MOLST is an acronym for Medical Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment. The MOLST Program is an initiative to facilitate end-of-life medical decision-making in New York State, Massachusetts, Ohio and Maryland, that involves use of the MOLST form.Rating scales for depression: A depression rating scale is a psychiatric measuring instrument having descriptive words and phrases that indicate the severity of depression for a time period. When used, an observer may make judgements and rate a person at a specified scale level with respect to identified characteristics.Dysprosody: Dysprosody, which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely.Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.Avoidance coping: In psychology, avoidance coping, escape coping, or cope and avoid is a maladaptive coping mechanism characterized by the effort to avoid dealing with a stressor. Coping refers to behaviors that attempt to protect oneself from psychological damage.Non-communicable disease: Non-communicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is non-infectious or non-transmissible. NCDs can refer to chronic diseases which last for long periods of time and progress slowly.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.White meat: White meat or light meat refers to the lighter-colored meat of poultry as contrasted with dark meat. In a more general sense, white meat may also refer to any lighter-colored meat, as contrasted with red meats like beef and some types of game.Stressor: A stressor is a chemical or biological agent, environmental condition, external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism.Positivity offset: Positivity offset is a psychological term referring to two phenomena: People tend to interpret neutral situations as mildly positive, and most people rate their lives as good, most of the time. The positivity offset stands in notable asymmetry to the negativity bias.AIP Conference Proceedings: AIP Conference Proceedings is a serial published by the American Institute of Physics since 1970. It publishes the proceedings from various conferences of physics societies.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.Regression dilution: Regression dilution, also known as regression attenuation, is the biasing of the regression slope towards zero (or the underestimation of its absolute value), caused by errors in the independent variable.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.Hypervigilance: Hypervigilance is an enhanced state of sensory sensitivity accompanied by an exaggerated intensity of behaviors whose purpose is to detect threats. Hypervigilance is also accompanied by a state of increased anxiety which can cause exhaustion.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Maximum life span: Maximum life span is a measure of the maximum amount of time one or more members of a population has been observed to survive between birth and death. The term can also denote an estimate of the maximum amount of time that a member of a given species could survive between life and death, provided circumstances that are optimal to their longevity.Netherlands national rollball team: Vishwaraj JadejaClonal Selection Algorithm: In artificial immune systems, Clonal selection algorithms are a class of algorithms inspired by the clonal selection theory of acquired immunity that explains how B and T lymphocytes improve their response to antigens over time called affinity maturation. These algorithms focus on the Darwinian attributes of the theory where selection is inspired by the affinity of antigen-antibody interactions, reproduction is inspired by cell division, and variation is inspired by somatic hypermutation.Survivor Type: "Survivor Type" is a short story by Stephen King, first published in the 1982 horror anthology Terrors, edited by Charles L. Grant, and collected in King's 1985 collection Skeleton Crew.National Clinical Guideline CentreHealthcare Cost and Utilization Project: The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products from the United States that is developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). What is HCUP?Bio Base EuropeHalfdan T. MahlerNon-rapid eye movement sleepGlobal Health Delivery ProjectStandard evaluation frameworkElectron Microscopy Center: The Electron Microscopy Center is a scientific user facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The EMC works to solve materials problems using their unique capabilities for electron beam characterization.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.Baden, Lower Saxony: Baden is a town near Bremen, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is known to Africanists and Phoneticians as the place where Diedrich Hermann Westermann was born and died.Interpersonal reflex: Interpersonal reflex is a term created by Timothy Leary and explained in the book, Interpersonal Diagnosis of Personality: A functional theory and methodology for personality evaluation (1957).GA²LENCentral Cardiac Audit DatabaseUniversity of CampinasFeasibility Study (The Outer Limits): "Feasibility Study" is an episode of The Outer Limits television show. It was first broadcast on 11 July 1997, during the third season.Internet organizations: This is a list of Internet organizations, or organizations that play or played a key role in the evolution of the Internet by developing recommendations, standards, and technology; deploying infrastructure and services; and addressing other major issues.Home of the future: The home of the future, similar to the office of the future, is a concept that has been popular to explore since the early 20th century, or perhaps earlier. There have been many exhibits, such as at World's Fairs and theme parks, purporting to show how future homes will look and work, as well as standalone model "homes of the future" sponsored by builders, developers, or technology companies.Semen quality: Semen quality is a measure of the ability of semen to accomplish fertilization. Thus, it is a measure of fertility in a man.Parent structure: In IUPAC nomenclature, a parent structure, parent compound, parent name or simply parent is the denotation for a compound consisting of an unbranched chain of skeletal atoms (not necessarily carbon), or consisting of an unsubstituted monocyclic or polycyclic ring system.Online patient education: Online Patient Education also known as Online Patient Engagement is a method of providing medical information and education to patients using Learning Management Systems delivered through the Internet.Evaluation of bariatric Centers of Excellence Web sites for functionality and efficacy.

(1/17899) Life devoid of value.

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(2/17899) A chiropractic service arrangement for musculoskeletal complaints in industry: a pilot study.

Chiropractic services are commonly used by workers with musculoskeletal problems, especially low back and neck complaints. Research into the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this approach is, however, difficult to design without prior pilot studies. This study followed 32 workers with these complaints attending one such service and used five measures of outcome over a 6-month period. These measured pain (VAS), disability (FLP), quality of life (SF-36), perceived benefit and satisfaction with care. Additionally, sickness costs to the companies were recorded over two years encompassing the study period. Treatment utilization was also monitored. Over half the population were chronic sufferers. The effect sizes were large for pain and for seven out of eight dimensions of the SF-36 questionnaire at 6-month follow-up, although not for disability (FLP). High levels of satisfaction and perceived improvement were reported and sickness costs to the companies fell. However, the sample size in this pilot study was small and did not include controls. We would, therefore, recommend a full cost-effectiveness study incorporating a randomized trial in this area.  (+info)

(3/17899) Diabetic peripheral neuropathy and quality of life.

The quality of life (QOL) of 79 people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and 37 non-diabetic controls was assessed using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). The NHP consists of six domains assessing energy, sleep, pain, physical mobility, emotional reactions and social isolation. Symptomatic diabetic neuropathy was present in 41 of the patients. The neuropathy patients had significantly higher scores (impaired QOL) in 5/6 NHP domains than either the other diabetic patients (p < 0.01) or the non-diabetic (p < 0.001) controls. These were: emotional reaction, energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep. The diabetic patients without neuropathy also had significantly impaired QOL for 4/6 NHP domains compared with the non-diabetic control group (p < 0.05) (energy, pain, physical mobility and sleep). This quantification of the detrimental effect on QOL of diabetes, and in particular of chronic symptomatic peripheral diabetic neuropathy, emphasizes the need for further research into effective management of these patients.  (+info)

(4/17899) Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases.

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

(5/17899) A prospective randomized study of megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in gastrointestinal cancer patients with weight loss.

The use of megestrol acetate in the treatment of weight loss in gastrointestinal cancer patients has been disappointing. The aim of the present study was to compare the combination of megestrol acetate and placebo with megestrol acetate and ibuprofen in the treatment of weight loss in such patients. At baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12 weeks, patients underwent measurements of anthropometry, concentrations of albumin and C-reactive protein and assessment of appetite, performance status and quality of life using EuroQol-EQ-5D and EORTC QLQ-C30. Thirty-eight and 35 patients (median weight loss 18%) were randomized to megestrol acetate/placebo or megestrol acetate/ibuprofen, respectively, for 12 weeks. Forty-six (63%) of patients failed to complete the 12-week assessment. Of those evaluable at 12 weeks, there was a decrease in weight (median 2.8 kg) in the megestrol acetate/placebo group compared with an increase (median 2.3 kg) in the megestrol acetate/ibuprofen group (P<0.001). There was also an improvement in the EuroQol-EQ-5D quality of life scores of the latter group (P<0.05). The combination of megestrol acetate/ibuprofen appeared to reverse weight loss and appeared to improve quality of life in patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer. Further trials of this novel regimen in weight-losing patients with hormone-insensitive cancers are warranted.  (+info)

(6/17899) Second-line treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

Failure after first-line treatment was reported in 35-60% of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). There are currently no reports focusing on salvage therapy. This review analyses prognostic factors and the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data from papers reporting results of first-line treatment in 355 cases. The study group consisted of 173 patients presenting treatment failure. The interval between failure and death (TTD) was compared for age at relapse (< or =60 vs. >60 years), type of failure (relapse vs. progression), time to relapse (< or =12 vs. >12 months) and salvage treatment (yes vs no). Median TTD was similar in younger and older patients (P = 0.09). Relapsed patients had a longer TTD than patients with progressive disease (P = 0.002). Early relapse led to a shorter TTD than late relapse (P = 0.005). Median TTD was 14 months for patients who underwent salvage therapy and 2 months for untreated cases (P<0.00001). A multivariate analysis showed an independent prognostic role for salvage therapy and time to relapse. Age and type of failure had no predictive value. Salvage therapy significantly improves outcome and, possibly, quality of life. As many different treatments were used conclusions cannot be made regarding an optimal treatment schedule.  (+info)

(7/17899) Defining and analysing symptom palliation in cancer clinical trials: a deceptively difficult exercise.

The assessment of symptom palliation is an essential component of many treatment comparisons in clinical trials, yet an extensive literature search revealed no consensus as to its precise definition, which could embrace relief of symptoms, time to their onset, duration, degree, as well as symptom control and prevention. In an attempt to assess the importance of these aspects and to compare different methods of analysis, we used one symptom (cough) from a patient self-assessment questionnaire (the Rotterdam Symptom Checklist) in a large (>300 patient) multicentre randomized clinical trial (conducted by the Medical Research Council Lung Cancer Working Party) of palliative chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer. The regimens compared were a two-drug regimen (2D) and a four-drug regimen (4D). No differences were seen between the regimens in time of onset of palliation or its duration. The degree of palliation was strongly related to the initial severity: 90% of the patients with moderate or severe cough at baseline reported improvement, compared with only 53% of those with mild cough. Analyses using different landmark time points gave conflicting results: the 4D regimen was superior at 1 month and at 3 months, whereas at 2 months the 2D regimen appeared superior. When improvement at any time up to 3 months was considered, the 4D regimen showed a significant benefit (4D 79%, 2D 60%, P = 0.02). These findings emphasize the need for caution in interpreting results, and the importance of working towards a standard definition of symptom palliation. The current lack of specified criteria makes analysis and interpretation of trial results difficult, and comparison across trials impossible. A standard definition of palliation for use in the analysis of clinical trials data is proposed, which takes into account aspects of onset, duration and degree of palliation, and symptom improvement, control and prevention.  (+info)

(8/17899) Is revision as good as primary hip replacement? A comparison of quality of life.

Primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective ways of improving quality of life (QoL). We have compared the improvement in QoL in 62 patients who had a cemented revision of a THA with that of 62 primary replacements. One year after operation the median QoL score had been significantly improved in both groups; from 0.870 to 0.990 in the primary group (p < 0.0001) and from 0.870 to 0.980 in the revised group (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the improvement in scores between the groups (p = 0.29). When reviewed after four years there was no difference in the pain score for either group (p = 0.89), but that for function had deteriorated significantly. This was associated with revision surgery (p = 0.018) and a low preoperative QoL score (p = 0.004). We conclude that both primary and revision operations give a significant improvement in the QoL but function after revision may be less durable than after a primary arthroplasty.  (+info)



questionnaire


  • OBJECTIVES: I. Test the psychometric, clinical, and cross cultural validity and reliability of the quality-of-life questionnaire EORTC-QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) in conjunction with the esophageal cancer-specific module EORTC QLQ-OES-24 in patients with esophageal cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients are administered two questionnaires: (1) The EORTC QLQ-C30 (version 3.0) is a 30-item questionnaire about patient ability to function, symptoms related to the cancer and its treatment, overall health and quality of life, and perceived financial impact of the cancer and its treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Approximately ten years after treatment for ruptured aneurysm and SAH, the patients completed a questionnaire evaluating key areas of health-related quality of life. (medindia.net)
  • Published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition , the results reveal that those who stick more to the Mediterranean diet score higher on the quality of life questionnaire in terms of physical and mental well-being. (medindia.net)

QALYs


  • Methods: Data from the 1997 to 2012 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for all workers and by NORA sector. (cdc.gov)

patients


  • Patients who attended the sessions - a combination of physical and talk therapy, along with relaxation techniques and spiritual discussions - reported a stable quality of life during treatment, while cancer patients who didn't get the extra help declined on those measures. (reuters.com)
  • Clark and his colleagues randomly assigned patients to undergo six 90-minute sessions aimed at improving their physical, mental and spiritual quality of life or to be treated with standard medical care. (reuters.com)
  • When researchers surveyed patients about their quality of life four weeks later, people who had gone through the program scored a 75 on a 0-to-100 scale, on average, compared to a 69 for the standard-care group. (reuters.com)
  • However, six months later - after a series of follow-up phone calls for the therapy group - cancer patients reported their quality of life at around 77 or 78, regardless of whether they'd gotten the extra support. (reuters.com)
  • RATIONALE: Questionnaires that measure quality of life may improve the ability to plan treatment for patients who have cancer of the esophagus. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • PURPOSE: This clinical trial studies quality-of-life assessments of patients with cancer of the esophagus who are receiving treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • ANN ARBOR, Mich. "" Head and neck cancer patients who reported lower physical quality of life were more likely to die from their disease, according to a new study from the University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center. (redorbit.com)
  • The findings could mean that identifying patients with poor quality of life could also identify patients with particularly aggressive tumors. (redorbit.com)
  • Low quality of life may have value in screening patients for recurrence. (redorbit.com)
  • By identifying patients with poor quality of life, we may also be able to identify early on those who have particularly aggressive tumors," says lead study author Carrie A. Karvonen-Gutierrez, M.P.H., research associate at the U-M School of Public Health and the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System. (redorbit.com)
  • Although it is not yet clear how the association works between survival and quality of life related to head and neck pain, it is clearly advantageous to minimize pain for patients. (redorbit.com)
  • Patients want improved quality of life after cancer treatment""whether it be to improve survival or simply to improve everyday living and feel better," Duffy says. (redorbit.com)
  • Based on their findings, the study authors recommend routine quality of life assessments of patients with head and neck cancer, before treatment and again after six months, one year and two years. (redorbit.com)
  • Accelerometry-based activity monitoring provides a method to objectively measure actual performance of physical activity in everyday life and over an extended period in patients' home settings, offering quantifiable outcomes that may provide novel insights into the effects of interventions on patients physical functioning. (mayo.edu)
  • The goal of the procedure is to improve quality of life for patients by decreasing pain and improving physical function. (mayo.edu)
  • A recent study reports affected quality of life in patients who have survived stroke caused due to ruptured aneurysm Neurosurgery , official journal of the Congress of Neurological Surgeons. (medindia.net)
  • Quality of Life Ten Years after Ruptured Aneurysm The researchers performed a long-term follow-up study in 217 patients who had survived SAH caused by a ruptured aneurysm. (medindia.net)
  • Patients who were more disabled after their SAH had lower quality of life scores at follow-up, as did those who rated themselves as less than fully recovered. (medindia.net)
  • Patients with other (comorbid) health problems also had more difficulties affecting quality of life. (medindia.net)

researchers


  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A therapy program focused on improving quality of life can help people being treated for advanced cancer, researchers from the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, have found. (reuters.com)
  • The Mayo Clinic program didn't have any impact on how caregivers reported their own quality of life, the researchers wrote in the journal Cancer. (reuters.com)
  • The researchers found that general physical health and quality of life issues were highly associated with survival. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers suggest that pain and declines in other physical quality of life measures could be a marker for cancer recurrence. (redorbit.com)
  • The next question for the researchers is to understand whether treatments that improve quality of life can improve survival. (redorbit.com)

survivors


  • In the aftermath of death, the deceased often becomes the entire focus of the lives of the survivors closest to them. (theatermania.com)
  • But compared to the general population, the SAH survivors had increased problems in four out of five dimensions of quality of life: mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression. (medindia.net)
  • On a 100-point scale, overall quality of life score averaged 71 for the aneurysm survivors, compared to 78 for the general population group. (medindia.net)
  • Survivors of SAH Need Long-Term Follow-Up and Support Ruptured aneurysm leading to SAH is a potentially life-threatening condition. (medindia.net)
  • Previous studies have evaluated quality of life for survivors of ruptured aneurysm, but few have looked at outcomes more than five years after the event. (medindia.net)
  • The new findings show that survivors of ruptured aneurysm have decreased quality of life and an increased rate of health problems. (medindia.net)

survival


  • Vinorelbine and cisplatin in metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the oesophagus: response, toxicity, quality of life and survival. (clinicaltrials.gov)

Health


  • Attending to quality of life, the mental health, the spiritual components, is really important. (reuters.com)
  • The progressive aging of the population in developed countries makes it even more interesting to find out those factors that can increase quality of life and the health of the population," as explained to SINC by Patricia Henr quez S nchez, researcher at the centre in the Canary Islands and lead author of the study. (medindia.net)

physical quality of l


  • This link is even stronger in terms of physical quality of life. (medindia.net)

years


  • The economic burden of disease by industry: differences in quality-adjusted life years and associated costs. (cdc.gov)
  • Lifetime Costs and Quality-Adjusted Life Years Saved From HI. (lww.com)
  • A new study headed by the University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and the University of Navarra took the next step and analysed the influence of the Mediterranean diet on the quality of life of a sample of more than 11,000 university students over a period of four years. (medindia.net)

study


  • At the end of the study, caregivers said they would have preferred a caregivers-only therapy group, as well as specific strategies on how they could improve their own quality of life. (reuters.com)
  • Background: This study compares differences in quality-adjusted life expectancy across the eight original National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) industry sectors. (cdc.gov)
  • Dietary intake data was taken at the beginning of the study and self-perceived quality of life was measured after the four year monitoring period. (medindia.net)

impact


value


  • Conclusion: The value of life lost within some industries is very high relative to others. (cdc.gov)

higher


  • Individuals with self-determination overcome barriers and lead a higher quality of life than individuals that do not. (bellaonline.com)

issues


  • Playwright Jane Anderson explores a myriad of ethical, religious, and moral beliefs, as well as (some would say) personal rights issues concerning life and death in her remarkable and completely engrossing new play, The Quality of Life , which is now receiving its world premiere at the newly-opened Audrey Skirball Kenis Theatre at the Geffen Theatre. (theatermania.com)

better


  • In October 2009, the FDA, the National Eye Institute (NEI), and the Department of Defense (DoD) launched the LASIK Quality of Life Collaboration Project (LQOLCP) to help better understand the potential risk of severe problems that can result from LASIK. (fda.gov)
  • Henr quez states that "the Mediterranean diet is an important factor associated with better quality of life and can be considered as a healthy food model. (medindia.net)

important factor


  • Quality of life is increasingly regarded as an important factor affecting patient outcomes. (medindia.net)

group


  • Dr. Kaufman's lab is working to define the relationship among static balance, dynamic balance, physical activity and quality of life in a group of people with spinal deformities. (mayo.edu)

pain


  • Participants responded to questions about physical and emotional quality of life, including pain, eating and swallowing, speech and emotional well-being. (redorbit.com)

terms


  • Neil has little time left, and so has chosen to leave life on his own terms. (theatermania.com)

personal


  • The subjective view of the quality of life involves personal feelings about self and the amount of satisfaction felt. (bellaonline.com)

particularly


Perhaps


  • Perhaps one of the most profound questions we face in life is how to deal with death. (theatermania.com)

year