Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Lung infections with the invasive forms of ASPERGILLUS, usually after surgery, transplantation, prolonged NEUTROPENIA or treatment with high-doses of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can progress to CHRONIC NECROTIZING PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS or hematogenous spread to other organs.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Pulmonary Aspergillosis: Infections of the respiratory tract with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS. Infections may result in allergic reaction (ALLERGIC BRONCHOPULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS), colonization in pulmonary cavities as fungus balls (MYCETOMA), or lead to invasion of the lung parenchyma (INVASIVE PULMONARY ASPERGILLOSIS).Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Aspergillosis, Allergic Bronchopulmonary: Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.TriazolesEchinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Lipopeptides: Compounds consisting of a short peptide chain conjugated with an acyl chain.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.beta-Glucans: Glucose polymers consisting of a backbone of beta(1->3)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl units with beta(1->6) linked side chains of various lengths. They are a major component of the CELL WALL of organisms and of soluble DIETARY FIBER.Neuroaspergillosis: Infections of the nervous system caused by fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS, most commonly ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS. Aspergillus infections may occur in immunocompetent hosts, but are more prevalent in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. The organism may spread to the nervous system from focal infections in the lung, mastoid region, sinuses, inner ear, bones, eyes, gastrointestinal tract, and heart. Sinus infections may be locally invasive and enter the intracranial compartment, producing MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; cranial neuropathies; and abscesses in the frontal lobes of the brain. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch 27, pp62-3)Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Opportunistic Infections: An infection caused by an organism which becomes pathogenic under certain conditions, e.g., during immunosuppression.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Iodoquinol: One of the halogenated 8-quinolinols widely used as an intestinal antiseptic, especially as an antiamebic agent. It is also used topically in other infections and may cause CNS and eye damage. It is known by very many similar trade names world-wide.Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Mycetoma: A chronic progressive subcutaneous infection caused by species of fungi (eumycetoma), or actinomycetes (actinomycetoma). It is characterized by tumefaction, abscesses, and tumor-like granules representing microcolonies of pathogens, such as MADURELLA fungi and bacteria ACTINOMYCETES, with different grain colors.TracheitisAntibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Pyrimidines: A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Agranulocytosis: A decrease in the number of GRANULOCYTES; (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS).Emericella: A genus in the family Trichocomaceae, order EUROTIALES. The anamorph is ASPERGILLUS.Deoxycholic Acid: A bile acid formed by bacterial action from cholate. It is usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. Deoxycholic acid acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, is reabsorbed itself, and is used as a choleretic and detergent.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Zygomycosis: Infection in humans and animals caused by fungi in the class Zygomycetes. It includes MUCORMYCOSIS and entomophthoramycosis. The latter is a tropical infection of subcutaneous tissue or paranasal sinuses caused by fungi in the order Entomophthorales. Phycomycosis, closely related to zygomycosis, describes infection with members of Phycomycetes, an obsolete classification.Multiple Pulmonary Nodules: A number of small lung lesions characterized by small round masses of 2- to 3-mm in diameter. They are usually detected by chest CT scans (COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY, X-RAY). Such nodules can be associated with metastases of malignancies inside or outside the lung, benign granulomas, or other lesions.Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Hemoptysis: Expectoration or spitting of blood originating from any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT, usually from hemorrhage in the lung parenchyma (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and the BRONCHIAL ARTERIES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)MycosesLiposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Adrenal Cortex HormonesMice, Inbred ICRMicrobial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Immunosuppressive Agents: Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Central Nervous System Fungal Infections: MYCOSES of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges which may result in ENCEPHALITIS; MENINGITIS, FUNGAL; MYELITIS; BRAIN ABSCESS; and EPIDURAL ABSCESS. Certain types of fungi may produce disease in immunologically normal hosts, while others are classified as opportunistic pathogens, causing illness primarily in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME).Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Mice, Inbred BALB CSurvival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Gliotoxin: A fungal toxin produced by various species of Trichoderma, Gladiocladium fimbriatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium. It is used as an immunosuppressive agent.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Fungal Polysaccharides: Cell wall components constituting a polysaccharide core found in fungi. They may act as antigens or structural substrates.Hospital Design and Construction: The architecture, functional design, and construction of hospitals.
Aspergillus: Aspergillus () is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.Aspergillus fumigatus: Aspergillus fumigatus is a fungus of the genus Aspergillus, and is one of the most common Aspergillus species to cause disease in individuals with an immunodeficiency.Aspergillus sojae: Aspergillus sojae is a mold species in the genus Aspergillus.Mannan: Mannan may refer to a plant polysaccharide that is a linear polymer of the sugar mannose. Plant mannans have β(1-4) linkages.VoriconazoleBenzotriazoleEchinocandinItraconazolePepducin: Pepducins are novel cell-penetrating peptides that act as intracellular modulators of signal transference from receptors to G proteins. Pepducins were first developed at the Tufts Medical Center laboratories of Dr.Aspergillus flavus: Aspergillus flavus is a saprotrophic and pathogenic fungus with a cosmopolitan distribution. It is best known for its colonisation of cereal grains, legumes, and tree nuts.Cyclic neutropeniaCortisoneLung receptor: Lung receptors sense irritation or inflammation in the bronchi and alveoli.Gross examinationMucocele: A mucocele is any dilatation (typically pathologic) with accumulation of mucus. Examples include:Mycology: Mycology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of fungi, including their genetic and biochemical properties, their taxonomy and their use to humans as a source for tinder, medicine, wine, cheese, (edible mushrooms), and entheogens, as well as their dangers, such as poisoning or infection. A biologist specializing in mycology is called a mycologist.Mycetoma Research CenterTracheitisPyrazolopyrimidineSaprobiontic: Saprobionts are organisms that digest their food externally and then absorb the products. Fungi are examples of saprobiontic organisms also known as decomposers.AgranulocytosisHydrophobin: B:17-82Hemoptysis (band): Hemoptysis is an American extreme metal band, named after the medical term for the coughing up of blood.Hemoptysis Founded in 2007, the band's music is built around a solid core of old-school thrash/death metal.Gross pathology: Gross pathology refers to macroscopic manifestations of disease in organs, tissues, and body cavities. The term is commonly used by anatomical pathologists to refer to diagnostically useful findings made during the gross examination portion of surgical specimen processing or an autopsy.Dense artery sign: In medicine, the dense artery sign or hyperdense artery sign is a radiologic sign seen on computer tomography (CT) scans suggestive of early ischemic stroke. In earlier studies of medical imaging in patients with strokes, it was the earliest sign of ischemic stroke in a significant minority of cases.Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act: The Hematological Cancer Research Investment and Education Act of 2001 (P.L.Ascospore: An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus. This kind of spore is specific to fungi classified as ascomycetes (Ascomycota).Immunosuppression: Immunosuppression is a reduction of the activation or efficacy of the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immunosuppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions.Aluminium gallium arsenide: Aluminium gallium arsenide (also aluminum gallium arsenide) (AlxGa1-xAs) is a semiconductor material with very nearly the same lattice constant as GaAs, but a larger bandgap. The x in the formula above is a number between 0 and 1 - this indicates an arbitrary alloy between GaAs and AlAs.Assay sensitivity: Assay sensitivity is a property of a clinical trial defined as the ability of a trial to distinguish an effective treatment from a less effective or ineffective intervention. Without assay sensitivity, a trial is not internally valid and is not capable of comparing the efficacy of two interventions.MycosisLiposomeSystemic candidiasis: Systemic candidiasis is an infection of Candida albicans causing disseminated disease and sepsis, invariably when host defenses are compromised.HyphaImmunocompetence: Immunocompetence is the ability of the body to produce a normal immune response following exposure to an antigen. Immunocompetence is the opposite of immunodeficiency or immuno-incompetent or immuno-compromised.Endobronchial valve: An endobronchial valve is an implantable medical device—a small, one-way valve, which is implanted in an airway in the pulmonary system to treat one of several lung conditions. The one-way endobronchial valve is typically implanted such that when a patient exhales, air is able to flow through the valve and out of the lung compartment that is fed by that airway, but when the patient inhales, the valve closes and blocks air from entering that lung compartment.Combination therapy: Combination therapy or polytherapy is therapy that uses more than one medication or modality (versus monotherapy, which is any therapy taken alone). Typically, these terms refer to using multiple therapies to treat a single disease, and often all the therapies are pharmaceutical (although it can also involve non-medical therapy, such as the combination of medications and talk therapy to treat depression).FungemiaSputumAerosolization: Aerosolization is the process or act of converting some physical substance into the form of particles small and light enough to be carried on the air i.e.New Zealand rabbitImmunosuppressive drug: Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:Thermal cyclerPrimary cutaneous aspergillosis: Primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare skin condition most often occurring at the site of intravenous cannulas in immunosuppressed patients.Charged Aerosol Release Experiment: The Charged Aerosol Release Experiment also known as CARE, is a project run by NASA which will use a rocket to release dust in the upper atmosphere to form a dusty plasma in space. NASA plans to trigger cloud formation around the rocket's exhaust particles.GliotoxinEva Engvall: Eva Engvall, born 1940, is one of the scientists who invented ELISA in 1971.Eva Engvall, The Scientist 1995, 9(18):8Isolation ward: In hospitals and other medical facilities, an isolation ward is a separate ward used to isolate patients suffering from infectious diseases. Several wards for individual patients are usually placed together in an isolation unit.
(1/116) Pathology of pulmonary aspergillomas.
Aspergilloma refers to a fungal ball formed by saprophytic overgrowth of Aspergillus species and is seen secondary to cavitatory/cystic respiratory diseases. Paucity of clinical and pathological data of aspergilloma in India prompted us to analyze cases of aspergilloma over 15 years. The clinical features were recorded in all and correlated with detailed pathological examination. Aspergillomas were identified in 41 surgical excisions or at autopsy. There was male predominance; half the patients were in their fourth decade. Episodic hemoptysis was the commonest mode of presentation (85.4%). Forty aspergillomas were complex, occurring in cavitatory lesions (82.9%) or in bronchiectasis (14.6%). Simple aspergilloma was seen as an incidental finding in only one. Tuberculosis was the etiological factor in 31 patients, producing cavitatory or bronchiectatic lesions; other causes were chronic lung abscess and bronchiectasis (unrelated to tuberculosis). Surgical resections are endorsed in view of high risk of unpredictable, life-threatening hemoptysis. (+info)
(2/116) Rhinocerebral zygomycosis with pulmonary aspergillosis in a non-HIV-infected patient: an unusual case report from India.
(3/116) Bronchoalveolar lavage as a diagnostic tool in patients with hematological malignancies and pneumonia.
We report our experience concerning bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in adult patients affected by haematological malignancies. BAL was performed in patients with documented pulmonary diseases not responding to empirical antibiotic and antifungal therapies. Overall, 25 bronchoscopies were performed in 24 patients. This technique led to pathogen identification in 11 out of 24 patients (45 percent). In particular, we identified four cases of tuberculosis, four of aspergillosis, two of pneumocystosis, two bacterial pneumonia and one pneumonia sustained by CMV (in two cases, pneumonia was polymicrobial). In three cases, where microbiological diagnosis had been obtained by means of other exams (blood culture, urinary antigens), BAL negativity allowed us to exclude alternative diagnoses. Pulmonary location of haematological disease was diagnosed in seven patients. BAL drove a switch therapy in 54 percent of patients. When performed by expert operators, BAL is useful and safe also in frail patients, such as those affected by onco-haematological malignancies. (+info)
(4/116) Aspergillus fumigatus metabolism: clues to mechanisms of in vivo fungal growth and virulence.
(5/116) A prospective, multicenter study of caspofungin for the treatment of documented Candida or Aspergillus infections in pediatric patients.
(6/116) Combination therapy in treatment of experimental pulmonary aspergillosis: in vitro and in vivo correlations of the concentration- and dose- dependent interactions between anidulafungin and voriconazole by Bliss independence drug interaction analysis.
(7/116) Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess.
We present the first reported case of Aspergillus vertebral osteomyelitis and epidural abscess in Singapore in a 50-year-old man with post-tuberculous bronchiectasis. The patient presented with acute urinary retention and flaccid paraplegia. Despite surgical debridement and treatment with voriconazole, the patient developed multiorgan failure and died two weeks after presentation. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of treatment are emphasised in the hope of improving the outcome of this aggressive condition. (+info)
(8/116) Mycotic pododermatitis and mycotic pneumonia in commercial turkey poults in northern California.
Seven 5-week-old broad-breasted white commercial meat turkeys were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety laboratory in Turlock with a history of respiratory illness. The primary diagnostic findings were mycotic pododermatitis and mycotic pneumonia. The unique feature of this case was the colonization of footpad epidermis and subcutis by fungal hyphae in commercial turkey species. No fungal cultures were undertaken at the time of the necropsy; therefore, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of lung and footpads were used to extract, amplify, and sequence mycotic DNA. A mixed population of fungi was identified in both lung and footpads by polymerase chain reaction amplification of part of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene using broad-range fungal primers and DNA sequencing. In footpads, sequences matching Cryptococcus saitoi and Cladosporium and Cudoniella species were identified. It is believed that these fungi were opportunistic pathogens originating from the litter. The fungi identified from lungs were Aspergillus species, most closely matching Aspergillus flavus and Arxiozyma telluris (most likely a contaminant). Mycotic pododermatitis in avian species is considered a rare pathologic finding, and few documented reports are available. The on-farm prevalence of footpad lesions was estimated at 3%, and there was no associated increase in the incidence of lameness or weight depression in affected birds. Microscopically, a granulomatous inflammatory reaction associated with fungal hyphae was observed in lung parenchyma. Disruption of keratinized epidermis, encrustations, and acute inflammation were also noted in footpads invaded with fungal hyphae. (+info)