Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.United StatesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Great BritainReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Communicable DiseasesHealth Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.BrazilGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Students, Public Health: Individuals enrolled in a school of PUBLIC HEALTH or a formal educational program in public health.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.IndiaSocial Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)EuropeDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.EnglandHealth Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.WisconsinMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.

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Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Halfdan T. MahlerUnited States Public Health ServiceSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Strategic National Stockpile: The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical equipment and supplies. In the event of a national emergency involving bioterrorism or a natural pandemic, the SNS has the capability to supplement and re-supply local health authorities that may be overwhelmed by the crisis, with response time as little as 12 hours.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}The Flash ChroniclesBrian C. Bialiy: Brian C. Bialiy worked on and appeared in the award-winning documentary The Staten Island Catapult.Minati SenList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,The Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Northeast Community Health CentreChronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Companies OfficeResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Standard evaluation frameworkPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Maternal Health Task ForceInternational Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Injustice SocietyDocument-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Quantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.

(1/107) Patient referral outcome in gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the outcome of patient referral at the STD clinic of the University Hospital Rotterdam. To study characteristics of heterosexual index patients and partnerships related to referral outcome. METHODS: In 1994, patients with gonorrhoea and chlamydia were referred to public health nurses for interview and patient referral. Referral outcome was classified as "verified" if partners attended the STD clinic and as "believed" if partners were said to have attended elsewhere. RESULTS: Of 454 patients, 250 (55%) participated in the study. The outcome of patient referral for the 502 eligible partners was 103 (20.5%) verified referrals, 102 (20%) believed referrals, and 297 (59%) with unknown follow up. Of the 103 partners examined, 43 had an STD of which 63% reported no symptoms. The contact finding ratio was higher for chlamydia patients and heterosexual men. Also, referral was more effective for index patients with recent sexual contact, with follow up visits to the public health nurse, for men who were not commercial sex worker (CSW) clients, and, to a lesser degree, for Dutch patients and patients who sometimes used condoms. For steady partners, referral was improved if the last sexual contact was more recent. Casual partners visited the clinic more often if sexual contact occurred more than once, if the last contact was more recent, if they were older, and if they were Dutch. CONCLUSIONS: Patient referral was more effective for certain groups, such as chlamydia patients and steady partners, but was inadequate for others, including CSW and their clients, other "one night stands", young partners, and ethnic minorities.  (+info)

(2/107) Preparing currently employed public health nurses for changes in the health system.

OBJECTIVES: This article describes a core public health nursing curriculum, part of a larger project designed to identify the skills needed by practicing public health workers if they are to successfully fill roles in the current and emerging public health system. METHODS: Two focus groups of key informants, representing state and local public health nursing practice, public health nursing education, organizations interested in public health and nursing education, federal agencies, and academia, synthesized material from multiple sources and outlined the key content for a continuing education curriculum appropriate to the current public health nursing workforce. RESULTS: The skills identified as most needed were those required for analyzing data, practicing epidemiology, measuring health status and organizational change, connecting people to organizations, bringing about change in organizations, building strength in diversity, conducting population-based intervention, building coalitions, strengthening environmental health, developing interdisciplinary teams, developing and advocating policy, evaluating programs, and devising approaches to quality improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Collaboration between public health nursing practice and education and partnerships with other public health agencies will be essential for public health nurses to achieve the required skills to enhance public health infrastructure.  (+info)

(3/107) Low-cost on-the-job peer training of nurses improved immunization coverage in Indonesia.

In Indonesia responsibility for immunizations is placed on local government health centres and on the nurses who provide the immunizations at each centre. An on-the-job peer training programme for these nurses, which was designed to improve the immunization performance of poorly performing health centres in terms of coverage and practice in Maluku province, was evaluated. Experienced immunization nurses were sent to health centres where nurses were inexperienced or performing poorly; the experienced nurses spent 1-2 weeks providing on-the-job training for the less experienced ones. An evaluation of the 13 centres that participated in the programme and the 95 that did not found that the programme increased both immunization coverage and the quality of practice. Coverage of diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT), polio, and measles vaccinations rose by about 39% in all 13 participating centres when compared with non-participating centres, and by about 54% in the 11 centres that had a functioning transportation system during the year after training. These results reflect increases in the actual number of doses given and improvements in the accuracy of reports. Potential threats to the study's validity were examined and found not to be significant. The out-of-pocket cost of the training programme was about US$ 53 per trainee or about US$ 0.05 per additional vaccine reported to have been given. The marginal cost per additional fully immunized child was estimated to be US$ 0.50.  (+info)

(4/107) A national general practice census: characteristics of rural general practices.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to describe, using a national census, the characteristics of rural general practices and compare these with city and town general practices. METHODS: A previously piloted, anonymous but linked, questionnaire was issued to all GPs in Ireland. A liaison network covering the country was developed to increase the response rate. Respondents were asked to designate the location of their main surgery as being city (>20 000 population), town (>5000) or rural (<5000). Each responding practice was asked to nominate one partner to complete a specific section on practice information. RESULTS: Completed individual questionnaires were returned from 2093 GPs (86% response rate). Information on 1429 practice centres was provided; 488 (34%) of these were designated as city, 405 (28%) as town and 536 (38%) as rural. Rural practices reported fewer private patients (P < 0.001) and more socio-economically deprived patients (P < 0.001) than those in towns or cities. The mean number (SD) of total scheduled hours per average week per GP was 77.95 (37.0) for city practices, 80.6 (35.9) for town and 103.6 (39.0) for rural (P < 0.001). Rural practices are more likely, in comparison with those in cities and towns, to have attached staff working from purpose-built premises which are publicly owned. Rural practices also have more contacts with members of the primary care team such as Public Health Nurses, and the quality of these contacts is described more positively. The range of available services is broadly similar, with emergency medical equipment being available more frequently in rural practices. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that rural practitioners and their practices differ from their urban counterparts in many important aspects. Consideration should be given to the development of formal under- and postgraduate rural general practice programmes to prepare new, and continue to enthuse present, rural GPs.  (+info)

(5/107) Difference between consciousness of intervention for improving lifestyle by public health nurses and recipients of a company health check.

Improving an unhealthy lifestyle decreases risk of incidence and death of lifestyle-related diseases. Consultation about a healthy lifestyle to recipients of health checkups conducted by public health nurses is one method for such improvement. The objective in the present study was to investigate the difference between consciousness of intervention by (1) the public health nurses who conducted consultations with recipients of health checkups and (2) the recipients who were consulted by the public health nurses. Data on 1,370 male white collar workers who underwent health checks were analyzed. When public health nurses determined that recipients required health consultation regarding lifestyle from the health checkup, they consulted with the recipients regarding improvement of lifestyle. The consultation regarding lifestyle included abstinence from smoking, drinking in moderation, exercise, and eating. The results of the analysis regarding difference in consciousness of the intervention by the public health nurses and the recipients show that (1) most drinkers did not think they were being discouraged to drink despite intervention by the public health nurses and (2) the smokers and the subjects with no habitual physical exercise tend to think that they were being consulted even though the public health nurses did not intervene regarding smoking and exercise.  (+info)

(6/107) Emergency preparedness training for public health nurses: a pilot study.

The Columbia Center for Public Health Preparedness, in partnership with the New York City Department of Health, recently developed an emergency preparedness training program for public health workers. A pilot training program was conducted for a group of school health nurses and evaluated using a pre/posttest design. A surprising finding was that 90% of the nurses reported at least one barrier to their ability to report to duty in the event of a public health emergency. The most frequently cited barriers included child/elder care responsibilities, lack of transportation, and personal health issues. These findings suggest that it may be prudent to identify and address potential barriers to public health workforce responsiveness to ensure the availability of the workforce during emergencies.  (+info)

(7/107) Improving breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WIC clinic staff.

OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the impact of a breastfeeding promotion clinic environment project implemented by the state of Mississippi on breastfeeding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of WIC clinic staff. METHODS: Thirteen pairs of matched intervention and comparison WIC clinics participated in the study. Clinical and administrative staff completed pre-test and post-test self-administered questionnaires in 1998 and 1999. RESULTS: A total of 397 staff members provided pre-test data, and 277 staff members provided post-test data. Before project implementation, the intervention and comparison groups were similar overall. The majority of staff had positive attitudes/beliefs about breastfeeding, but gaps in knowledge and practices were noted. Post-test data showed that the project improved knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, and confidence/practice of intervention clinic staff. CONCLUSIONS: Clinic environment projects, which combine physical improvements and staff training, are effective in promoting support for breastfeeding among public health clinic staff. Similar interventions may contribute to the overall effectiveness of breastfeeding promotion programs.  (+info)

(8/107) Common ground in general-practitioner and health-visitor training--an experimental course.

A residential course for 21 general-practitioner vocational trainees and student health visitors is described. The aim was to introduce the two groups of trainee professionals to each other in an attempt to modify attitudes, increase knowledge of each other's work, and induce a more positive approach towards teamwork in their ultimate careers. Both groups achieved an improvement by the end, and over half said they understood the others' role better  (+info)


  • Health departments and public health nurses (PHNs) bear a major burden conducting EPSDT screenings because many private physicians choose not to provide these services. (
  • Thus PHNs concerned about children's access to health care may have to encourage provision of EPSDT through the private sector. (
  • Public health nurses (PHNs) often work for the public health department or in other public or governmental organizations. (


  • The study by Falk-Rafael provides a global view of the concept of empowerment in health care, specifically related to the collaboration between clients and healthcare providers. (


  • You'll need to have knowledge of being a clinical nurse as well as of public health and social sciences like sociology and psychology. (
  • Experience: Minimum of one year of clinical nursing experience including at least six months of Hospice, or ICU or Emergency Dept experience, required. (
  • The QNI offers an educational grant programme for community nurses to enhance their clinical knowledge. (


  • The nurses have been without a contract since June 30, 2016. (


  • Online resources to improve nursing care for young people moving from children's to adults' community services. (


  • Nurses identified clients' active participation, increased awareness, and increased knowledge and skills as essential. (
  • Easing the burden on health departments: a cost-effective method for public health nurses to increase private sector participation in the early and perioidc screening, diagnosis, and treatment program. (


  • Most, if not all, of the contributors to the TFAH report say the public health world is better prepared to respond to a biological weapons attack today than it was in 2001. (


  • Sep 1, 2011 (CIDRAP News) - Public health leaders, recalling and reflecting on the anthrax letter attacks of 2001 in a lengthy report released today, say the nation is better prepared to respond to such an emergency than it was 10 years ago, but their confidence is tinged with fear of slipping backward in the current era of budget cutting. (
  • In a press release, TFAH says the stories in the report reflect how the 2001 events marked the first time that public health came to be considered central to emergency response and national security on a wide-scale basis, and also show how public health officials were working without adequate resources or training to respond to these types of attacks. (
  • In particular, they say public health laboratories are better equipped to test potentially dangerous samples, communication systems have improved, there are plans in place to distribute countermeasures, and public health has a much closer relationship with law enforcement and emergency response agencies. (


  • Nurses identified clients whom they thought were empowered through their practice, and consenting clients were interviewed for about 1 hour using an interview guide. (
  • You will need to obtain a registered nursing degree in a "general program," possibly a graduate degree, as well as at least 1200 hours of supervised practice and successful passing of a national exam. (
  • Responsible for coordinating and providing high quality multidisciplinary health services for patients in the Region/Program consistent with Agency philosophy, policy, goals and objectives, and Standards of Nursing Practice. (
  • Licensure: License and current registration to practice as a registered professional nurse in New York State required. (


  • PCT Interview and Skills Advice for Pre-Nursing BSN Student with CNA, BLS, & MedAide. (
  • Don't forget you may have to repay substantial student loans, as becoming a nurse requires many years of school. (
  • Resources for student nurses, nurses new to the community, or those who are considering a career move. (


  • You may also require additional training in public health, public health policy, or health administration. (


  • The program provides comprehensive health services to children from low-income families on Medicaid and has been shown to improve health and reduce health care costs. (
  • Given scarce resources, health departments alone may be unable to meet the mandate for increased EPSDT services. (
  • The QNI Community Nursing Senior Leaders network is a digital network for nurses with executive responsibility for the delivery of community nursing services within provider organisations in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. (


  • VNSNY provides a comprehensive array of home- and community-based programs, including health plans, tailored to the needs of high-risk, vulnerable New Yorkers, improving their quality of life. (
  • The national network to improve the health of vulnerable or marginalised groups in the community. (

variety of settings

  • Public health nurses work with individuals, families, and communities in a variety of settings. (
  • Public health nurses are employed in a variety of settings including Public Health England, local authorities and the NHS. (


  • Did not enjoy acute care during nursing school so I'm absolutely thrilled to have the opportunity to interview for a PHN I position. (
  • I have also participated in the interview process on a panel, & it is shocking how many nurses believe public health is primary care for the poor. (
  • The Queen's Nursing Institute is a registered charity dedicated to improving the nursing care of people in their own homes and communities. (
  • Nurse led projects are one of the most direct ways in which we help nurses deliver improvements in patient care. (
  • supporting community nurses to achieve outstanding care for their patients. (
  • Online resources for community nurses supporting those who care for friends and family at home. (


  • Nurses linked clients to community resources and acted on their behalf to help them attain their health goals. (
  • We have many kinds of resources available online for nurses working in the community. (


  • Thinking about what you have to offer can help you decide the best path to pursue being a public health nurse. (
  • One way to help you decide is to think about an experience you've had with a public health nurse. (
  • This can help ensure you not only understand the various aspects of being a nurse, but may also expedite furthering your education and career as a public health nurse. (


  • Learn about the benefits and demands of public health nursing. (
  • Learn about the huge range of work nurses carry out with patients in the community every day. (


  • Although being a public health nurse requires a lot of work, it can be an incredibly rewarding profession if you like working with and helping people. (
  • Some communities allow persons with an associate's degree to work as a public health nurse. (
  • Get a degree to work as a registered nurse (RN). (


  • If you plan to pursue a graduate degree in public health nursing, you may require additional coursework and practical training before you can begin. (
  • Public Health Nurses have additional training which means they play a vital role in promoting and protecting the public's health. (


  • Is Chronic Illness Threatening Your Nursing Career? (
  • If you like learning and sticking to a goal, public health nursing could be an excellent career decision for you. (



  • Their job is to focus on the population as a whole by promoting and protecting health through knowledge from nursing, social and public health sciences. (


  • Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) is the nation s largest not-for-profit community-based health system. (
  • The QNI offers various awards to community nurses for past service and are distinct from grants and other forms of financial assistance. (


  • QUESTION: What is the practical meaning of empowerment to public health nurses and their clients? (
  • Keep in Touch is a new practical way to speak to retired community nurses regularly on the phone, to talk about life experiences, nursing or other memories and future plans. (


  • The report, titled "Remember 9/11 and Anthrax: Public Health's Vital Role in National Defense," includes essays from about 35 federal, state, and local public health officials who were involved in responding to the 2001 attacks, plus a chronology of key events and a summary of the anthrax investigation. (




  • 9 Enterprise, NV Public Health Nurse jobs found on Monster. (


  • As well as grants for nurses in financial difficulty, we also offer educational grants for specialist courses. (
  • In 2015 The QNI awarded over £136,000 in grants to community nurses who were experiencing financial difficulties for a variety of reasons. (
  • The QNI offers financial assistance to working and retired community nurses who are in need. (


  • Every PHN interview I ever had included a question to assess my basic understanding of public health. (
  • need interview with public health nurse! (


  • A summary of how public health preparedness has evolved in the past 10 years is also included in the report. (


  • Nurses conceptualised empowerment as an active, internal process of growth that was rooted in personal or cultural beliefs, reached toward actualising one's full potential, and occurred within a nurturing nurse-client relationship. (


  • If you have a bachelor's or associate's degree in nursing, you will need to pass an exam to become a registered nurse in the state in which you reside. (


  • The report recalls the fear, confusion, and overwhelming workloads that public health agencies faced in the wake of the Sep 11 terrorist attacks and especially the anthrax attacks that surfaced in early October of that year. (
  • Public health nurses earn on average about $53,000 per year. (


  • This relationship was characterised by mutuality, whereby nurses helped clients to identify health goals and negotiated their roles in attaining them. (
  • Providing information and developing skills , from oral and written information to role modelling, allowed clients to make more informed choices and take more effective actions for their health goals, and to assert themselves with others. (


  • Before you take the plunge to become a public health nurse, you first need to consider your abilities and education. (


  • The current outlook on job prospects in public health nursing is excellent and the average salary may afford you a comfortable lifestyle. (


  • If you like working with people and helping them, then public health nursing could be a great choice for you. (
  • This might be by promoting healthy lifestyles and reducing the likelihood of ill-health, supporting people who have long-term illness, or preventing illness through immunisations or screening interventions. (


  • Remember that you will have to pay taxes and other fees for your salary, but that you will also get health benefits and vacation and sick time. (


  • If you don't enjoy working with the public, then this is probably not the right job for you. (


  • All clients reported increased assertiveness and a willingness to take control of their own health as a result of empowerment. (


  • The scope of what a PHN may encounter is huge: from chronic disease, smoking cessation, giving vaccination, treating prescription drug overdoses, plus global health issues, down to water fluoridation. (


  • The Region of Waterloo and the Ontario Nurses Association have reached a tentative agreement for public health nurses, who were prepared to strike Wednesday morning. (
  • The Region of Waterloo and its public health nurses have reached a tentative contract agreement. (
  • The region announced Tuesday morning that an agreement had been reached with the Ontario Nurses Association. (