United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration: An office in the Department of Labor responsible for developing and establishing occupational safety and health standards.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Veterans Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of VETERANS.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Veterans: Former members of the armed services.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.United StatesNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.): An institute of the CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION which is responsible for assuring safe and healthful working conditions and for developing standards of safety and health. Research activities are carried out pertinent to these goals.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Threshold Limit Values: Standards for limiting worker exposure to airborne contaminants. They are the maximum concentration in air at which it is believed that a particular substance will not produce adverse health effects with repeated daily exposure. It can be a time-weighted average (TLV-TWA), a short-term value (TLV-STEL), or an instantaneous value (TLV-Ceiling). They are expressed either as parts per million (ppm) or milligram per cubic meter (mg/m3).Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Maximum Allowable Concentration: The maximum exposure to a biologically active physical or chemical agent that is allowed during an 8-hour period (a workday) in a population of workers, or during a 24-hour period in the general population, which does not appear to cause appreciable harm, whether immediate or delayed for any period, in the target population. (From Lewis Dictionary of Toxicology, 1st ed)Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Accidents, Occupational: Unforeseen occurrences, especially injuries in the course of work-related activities.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Afghan Campaign 2001-: Multinational coalition military operation initiated in October 2001 to counter terrorism and bring security to AFGHANISTAN in collaboration with Afghan forces.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Total Quality Management: The application of industrial management practice to systematically maintain and improve organization-wide performance. Effectiveness and success are determined and assessed by quantitative quality measures.United States Indian Health Service: A division of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that is responsible for the public health and the provision of medical services to NATIVE AMERICANS in the United States, primarily those residing on reservation lands.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Veterans Disability Claims: Disorders claimed as a result of military service.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Risk Adjustment: The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Ambulatory Care: Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.MiningDatabases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Suicide: The act of killing oneself.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Great BritainHealth Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Reproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.BrazilLeadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Communicable DiseasesHealth Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.IndiaAdministration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.

*  Sommer Scholars - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Master of Public Health, Master of Business Administration Student. Mara James Master of Public Health, Master of Social Work ... Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Protecting Health, Saving Lives-Millions at a Time ... In the footsteps of earlier public health leaders, Alfred Sommer followed remarkable scientific insight with perseverance and ... Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 ...
https://jhsph.edu/admissions/scholarships/institutional-scholarships/sommer-scholars/scholars/index.html?scholars=325&type=new

*  Public health leaders cite lessons of 2001 anthrax attacks | CIDRAP

Public health leaders, recalling and reflecting on the anthrax letter attacks of 2001 in a lengthy report released today, say ... Immediately after the Sep 11 attacks, she boarded a small CDC jet that had Federal Aviation Administration clearance to fly the ... Public health lab stories. The CDC estimated that the nation's public health labs processed about 350,000 environmental samples ... Sara Beatrice, PhD, assistant commissioner of the New York City Public Health Laboratory, wrote that the public health ...
cidrap.umn.edu/news-perspective/2011/09/public-health-leaders-cite-lessons-2001-anthrax-attacks

*  Workforce

... public health leaders, and others to help maintain an adequate (and sufficiently funded) dental workforce-located where it is ... That is why the ADA is working with lawmakers, public health leaders, and others to protect a number of longstanding programs ... November 6, 2014-Letter (PDF) expressing interest in the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) plan to create a ... Learn More Action for Dental Health Act Bringing oral health education and preventive dental care to underserved communities. ...
ada.org/en/advocacy/advocacy-issues/workforce

*  Obama administration pushes new public health research agenda on gun control

... fox ^ , June 26, 2013 , George Russell Posted on ... which aims to sidestep Second Amendment political and constitutional issues of gun ownership through its public health focus, ... and strategies to minimize its health burden. This includes, for example, such things as the potential health risks and ... Those and many other gun-related questions are the thrust of a new social science research agenda that the Obama administration ...
freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/3036183/posts?page=33

*  Administration Of Public Health Programs Broadway

Administration Of Public Health Programs Union County Broadway ... Administration Of Public Health Programs Broadway, Union County ...
https://ohiobiz.com/central-ohio/category/administration-of-human-resource-programs/administration-of-public-health-programs/location/union-county/broadway/

*  LA County Department of Public Health - Health Education Administration

Health Education Administration. About Us Announcements Calendar Contact Us Educational Materials External Resources Health ... Public Health has made reasonable efforts to provide accurate translation. However, no computerized translation is perfect and ... Education Practice Conference Health Literacy HEALTHED Listserv Jobs and Internships Public Health Education Collaborative ...
publichealth.lacounty.gov/hea/library/topics/mumps/

*  New Public Health Director joins administration | Everett Independent - Everett Massachusetts Newspaper

School of Public Health. She is a Registered Sanitarian and serves on the executive board of a state public health association ... Mayor Carlo DeMaria is pleased to announce that Heidi Porter, MPH, RS/REHS, is joining the City of Everett as Public Health ... Porter has a Bachelors of Science from Tufts University and a Masters Degree in Public Health from Boston University, ... Porter brings experience and a proven track record of success in development of public health policy, emergency preparedness ...
everettindependent.com/2009/11/25/new-public-health-director-joins-administration/

*  Media Outlets Examine Potential Implications Of Trump Administration's Budget Decisions, Unfilled Public Health Positions On...

"The Trump administration has failed to fill crucial public health positions across the government, leaving the nation ill- ... Media Outlets Examine Potential Implications Of Trump Administration's Budget Decisions, Unfilled Public Health Positions On ... the Trump administration has embarked on a historic retrenchment that many fear threatens the health of millions and ... according to experts in health and national security. No one knows where or when the next outbreak will occur, but health ...
kff.org/news-summary/media-outlets-examine-potential-implications-of-trump-administrations-budget-decisions-on-pandemic-preparedness-u-s-global-health-programs/

*  Why Choose Barry? : About the Program : Health Services Administration and Public Health (Dual MS) : Health Management Programs...

Health Management Programs*Health Services Administration, MS. *Health Services Administration / Master of Public Health Dual ... Health Services Administration and Public Health (Dual MS). Course Descriptions. Health Services Administration. Prefix: HSA. ... A study of health and health status, and health assessment in the community is an important goal of this course. ... knowledge of theories and concepts gained in HSA510 Principles of Health Services Administration and HSA525 Health Care Policy ...
https://barry.edu/health-management/dual-ms/about/course-descriptions.html

*  Office of Research Administration

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Protecting Health, Saving Lives-Millions at a Time ... Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 ... Research Administration. Our website has moved, if you are not redirected in a few seconds, please click the link below:. ...
https://jhsph.edu/offices-and-services/office-of-research-administration/

*  Master of Health Administration (MHA) | School of Population and Public Health (SPPH)

... integrates skills and ideas unique to healthcare administration with advanced business and management training. ... Discover the UBC Master of Health Administration The UBC Master of Health Administration (MHA) ... Master of Health Administration (MHA). Discover the UBC Master of Health Administration. The UBC Master of Health ... Master of Health Administration candidate Micheli Bevilacqua has been awarded the 2017 Robert Wood Johnson Award. ...
spph.ubc.ca/programs/mha/

*  Public Health Administration Salary | Salary Genius

Public Health Administration' by location. View graphs and statistics for Public Health Administration. ... Public Health Administration salary statistics. Detailed salary analysis for ' ... Professions Similar to Public Health Administration. Public Health Salary. Public Health Administration Salary. Public Health ... Public Health Lawyer Salary. Public Health Management Salary. Public Health Nurse Salary. Public Health Nursing Salary. Public ...
salarygenius.com/1/1/salary/public-health-administration-salary

*  Master of Public Health in Health System Administration | School of Public Health

home page > Faculty of Medicine > School of Public Hea... > Master of Public Health in Health System Administration ... The Master of Public Health in Health System Administration program at TAU seeks to provide its students with the qualitative ... The Master of Public Health in Health System Administration program is designed for healthcare professionals (physicians, ... and dedicated to the study of public health with a focus on health system administration. Students from a variety of ...
https://en-med.tau.ac.il/School-of-Public-Health/MPH-HA

*  Program: Public Health - Health Administration (PHHA) - BS Major - Winona State University - Acalog ACMS™

... health care administration, epidemiology, public health research, public health program planning and management. ... The Health Administration emphasis (PHHA) is designed to prepare students for employment in public health administration and ... Public Health Core. The Public Health core is based on the recommendations of the Association of Schools and Programs of Public ... Students in the health administration emphasis take core courses in public health that are taught in a traditional classroom ...
catalog.winona.edu/preview_program.php?catoid=18&poid=3774&returnto=1667

*  Chrsitian Books on Medicine - Administration & Policy - Health Care, Hospitals, Public Health... - Christian Supply Centre

... provide indepth resources on Health Care Delivery, Health Risk Assessment, Hospital Administration and Public Health... ... Hospital Administration [11 matching items] *Practice Management & Reimbursement [1 matching items] *Public Health [22 matching ... Health Care Delivery [23 matching items] *Health Policy [8 matching items] *Health Risk Assessment [3 matching items] * ... Planning for Long-Term Care by United Seniors Health Council (Book) Softcover - May 9, 2002 Our Price: $18.00 Retail Value: $ ...
christiansupplycentre.com/books/subject/christian-books-on-medicine-administration-and-policy.html

*  MHA - Accreditation and Program Change - School of Public, Nonprofit and Health Administration - Grand Valley State University

... the College of Community and Public Service (CCPS) and the School of Public, Nonprofit and Health Administration (SPNHA). In ... https://www.facebook.com/pages/School-of-Public-Nonprofit-and-Health-Administration-GVSU/156215035083 https://twitter.com/ ... The accreditation of the Master in Health Administration (MHA) Program is in the Universitys strategic plan as a priority for ... www.linkedin.com/groups/GVSU-Masters-Public-Administration-Alumni-4639501?gid=4639501&trk=vsrp_groups_res_name&trkInfo= ...
gvsu.edu/spnha/mha-accreditation-and-program-change-133.htm

*  Master of Health Administration (MHA) - School of Public, Nonprofit and Health Administration - Grand Valley State University

I bring in real-life examples to the classes.' - Heather Carpenter, School of Public, Nonprofit, and Health Administration ... The Master of Health Administration (MHA) prepares graduates for managerial and leadership roles in the challenging and complex ... https://www.facebook.com/pages/School-of-Public-Nonprofit-and-Health-Administration-GVSU/156215035083 https://twitter.com/ ... www.linkedin.com/groups/GVSU-Masters-Public-Administration-Alumni-4639501?gid=4639501&trk=vsrp_groups_res_name&trkInfo= ...
gvsu.edu/spnha/master-of-health-administration-mha-109.htm

*  OSHA e-PRCS Software - Public Test Version | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. 800-321-6742 (OSHA). TTY. www. ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. 800-321-6742 (OSHA). TTY. www. ... OSHA e-PRCS Software - Public Test Version. OSHA e-PRCS Software - Public Test Version. September, 2000. DISCLAIMER: The expert ... OSHA invites the public to download, use, and comment on this e-PRCS. OSHA has incorporated many good suggestions from ...
https://osha.gov/dep/etools/eprcs/index.html

*  Administration Extends Health Insurance Deadline Again | Alabama Public Radio

But the Obama Administration quietly granted a 24-hour extension, saying people who purchase a plan on the federal exchange by ... And as president, he has the added protection of military health care but the White House says he wanted to show support for ... And that goes for health insurance, too. Yesterday was supposed to be the deadline to sign up on the government's new insurance ... And then yesterday, we learned the administration had quietly re-programmed its computers so that anyone signing up by midnight ...
apr.org/post/administration-extends-health-insurance-deadline-again

*  Administration Lays Down Rules For Future Health Insurance | Northeast Indiana Public Radio

The Obama administration has some answers. Finally. Now that the Supreme Court has found the Affordable ... Administration Lays Down Rules For Future Health Insurance By Julie Rovner • Nov 20, 2012 ... You've got questions about the health law? The Obama administration has some answers. Finally. ... Among them, how will health plans sell policies to people with pre-existing health conditions? And what kinds of benefits will ...
wboi.org/post/administration-lays-down-rules-future-health-insurance

*  Public Administration (MPA) | College of Health and Public Service

Prepare for leadership roles in public or nonprofit organizations with a Master of Public Administration degree. The programs ... With a strong network of more than 1,400 alumni, this is the state's best public administration master's program (city ...
hps.unt.edu/future-students/degree-prog/public-administration-mpa

*  Public attendance at Commission meetings. - 2203.3 | Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. 800-321-6742 (OSHA). TTY. www. ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 200 Constitution Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20210. 800-321-6742 (OSHA). TTY. www. ... all or part of a meeting may be closed to the public, and information about a meeting may be withheld from the public, where ... All other meetings of the Commission will be open to public observation unless the Commission determines that all or part of a ...
https://osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=11518

*  Public-Sector Health-Care Reforms That Work? A Case Study of the US Veterans Health Administration

Public-Sector Health-Care Reforms That Work? A Case Study of the US Veterans Health Administration. Author. Oliver, Adam ... California's Cutbacks in Public-Sector Medicine: Two-Class Health Care Returns to the United States?  Waitzkin, Howard (1984) ... Equity in Public-Sector Primary Health Care: The Role of Service Organizations in Indonesia  Berman, Peter; Sister, Daniel G ... Public-Sector Managed Behavioral Health Care: V. Redefining "Medical Necessity"-the Iowa Experience  Sabin, James E.; Daniels ...
https://repository.library.georgetown.edu/handle/10822/957689

*  Emergency Administration and Planning forms new academic department | College of Health and Public Service

Public Administration department. The program prepares students for emergency management and related careers in the public, ... Emergency Administration and Planning forms new academic department. UNT's Emergency Administration and Planning Program (EADP ...
hps.unt.edu/emergency-administration-and-planning-forms-new-academic-department

*  Sindecuse Museum | University of Michigan School of Dentistry

Marilyn Woolfolk-Public Health and Administration. *Read more about Marilyn Woolfolk-Public Health and Administration ...
dent.umich.edu/about-school/sindecuse-museum/

Canandaigua Veterans Hospital Historic DistrictVeterans benefits for post-traumatic stress disorder in the United States: The United States provides a wide range of benefits for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which was incurred in, or aggravated by, their military service. The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) will provide benefits to veterans that the VA has determined suffer from PTSD, which developed during, or as a result of, their military service.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Radiation dose reconstruction: Radiation dose reconstruction refers to the process of estimating radiation doses that were received by individuals or populations in the past as a result of particular exposure situations of concern.A Review of the Dose Reconstruction Program of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency.Global Health Delivery ProjectSelf-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Mopani Copper MineWHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Health policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Occupational hygiene: Occupational (or "industrial" in the U.S.Bresle methodBreathing tube (breathing apparatus): A breathing tube is a flexible tube for breathing through, as part of a scuba set or other breathing apparatus or a medical oxygen apparatus or anaesthetic apparatus (Here they are distinguished from the medium-pressure hoses which are often found as parts of modern breathing apparatus.)Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Occupational fatality: An occupational fatality is a death that occurs while a person is at work or performing work related tasks. Occupational fatalities are also commonly called “occupational deaths” or “work-related deaths/fatalities” and can occur in any industry or occupation.Halfdan T. MahlerJiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)HydrosilaNorthwest Portland Area Indian Health Board: The Northwest Portland Area Indian Health Board (NPAIHB) is a non-profit tribal advisory organization in Portland, Oregon, run and organized by participating tribes. It was established in 1972 to focus on four areas as they pertain to the health of Native people: health promotion and disease prevention, legislative and policy analysis, training and technical assistance, and surveillance and research.Osmotic controlled-release oral delivery system: OROS (Osmotic [Controlled] Release Oral [Delivery] System) is a controlled release oral drug delivery system in the form of a tablet. The tablet has a rigid water-permeable jacket with one or more laser drilled small holes.Creation of legal relations in English lawNational Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Pocket petBehavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.United States Public Health ServiceSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingThemis MedicareContraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.Therapy cap: In 1997 the Balanced Budget Act established annual per-beneficiary Medicare spending limits, or therapy cap, for outpatient therapy services covered under Medicare Part B. Medicare Provisions in Balanced Budget Act of 1997.Standard evaluation frameworkStillwater Mining Company: Stillwater Mining Company () is a palladium and platinum mining company with headquarters located at Billings, Montana, United States. It is the only palladium and platinum producer in the USA.Mental disorderEuropean Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Teenage suicide in the United States: Teenage suicide in the United States remains comparatively high in the 15 to 24 age group with 10,000 suicides in this age range in 2004, making it the third leading cause of death for those aged 15 to 24. By comparison, suicide is the 11th leading cause of death for all those age 10 and over, with 33,289 suicides for all US citizens in 2006.Bestbets: BestBETS (Best Evidence Topic Reports) is a system designed by emergency physicians at Manchester Royal Infirmary, UK. It was conceived as a way of allowing busy clinicians to solve real clinical problems using published evidence.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is a weekly epidemiological digest for the United States published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It is the main vehicle for publishing public health information and recommendations that have been received by the CDC from state health departments.Strategic National Stockpile: The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical equipment and supplies. In the event of a national emergency involving bioterrorism or a natural pandemic, the SNS has the capability to supplement and re-supply local health authorities that may be overwhelmed by the crisis, with response time as little as 12 hours.QRISK: QRISK2 (the most recent version of QRISK) is a prediction algorithm for cardiovascular disease (CVD) that uses traditional risk factors (age, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and ratio of total serum cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) together with body mass index, ethnicity, measures of deprivation, family history, chronic kidney disease, rheumatoid arthritis, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, and antihypertensive treatment.

(1/1095) Tobacco control advocates must demand high-quality media campaigns: the California experience.

OBJECTIVE: To document efforts on the part of public officials in California to soften the media campaign's attack on the tobacco industry and to analyse strategies to counter those efforts on the part of tobacco control advocates. METHODS: Data were gathered from interviews with programme participants, direct observation, written materials, and media stories. In addition, internal documents were released by the state's Department of Health Services in response to requests made under the California Public Records Act by Americans for Nonsmokers' Rights. Finally, a draft of the paper was circulated to 11 key players for their comments. RESULTS: In 1988 california voters enacted Proposition 99, an initiative that raised the tobacco tax by $0.25 and allocated 20% of the revenues to anti-tobacco education. A media campaign, which was part of the education programme, directly attacked the tobacco industry, exposing the media campaign to politically based efforts to shut it down or soften it. Through use of outsider strategies such as advertising, press conferences, and public meetings, programme advocates were able to counter the efforts to soften the campaign. CONCLUSION: Anti-tobacco media campaigns that expose industry manipulation are a key component of an effective tobacco control programme. The effectiveness of these campaigns, however, makes them a target for elimination by the tobacco industry. The experience from California demonstrates the need for continuing, aggressive intervention by nongovernmental organisations in order to maintain the quality of anti-tobacco media campaigns.  (+info)

(2/1095) Regional organisational audit of district departments of public health.

Organisational audit of public health in the United Kingdom is rare. To provide a framework for a structured organisational audit in district public health departments in one region organisational factors contributing to efficient, high quality work were identified and compared between districts, enabling each department to identify its organisational strengths and weaknesses. A draft list of organisational factors, based on the King's Fund organisational audit programme, were rated by 52 public health physicians and trainees in 12 district public health departments in South East Thames region for their importance on a scale of 0 (not relevant) to 5 (vital). Factors with average ratings of > 4, judged to be "vital" and proxies for standards, were then used to compare each district's actual performance, as reported by its director of public health in a self reported questionnaire. In all, 37 responses were received to the rating questionnaire (response rate 71%) and 12 responses to the directors' questionnaire. Of the 54 factors identified as vital factors, 20(37%) were achieved in all 12 districts and 16(30%) in all but one district; 18 were not being achieved by two (33%) districts or more. Overall, vital factors were not being achieved in 9% of cases. The authors concluded that most departments are achieving most vital organisational factors most of the time, but improvement is still possible. The results have been used as a basis for planning the organisation of public health departments in several of the newly formed commissioning agencies. This was the first regional audit of public health of its kind performed in the region and it provided valuable experience for planning future regional audit activity.  (+info)

(3/1095) Stroke: the global burden.

Stroke is a major global health problem. It is a major cause of mortality, morbidity and disability in developed and increasingly in less developed countries. Worldwide, it is the leading cause of healthy years lost in late adulthood, and evidence indicates that the burden of stroke, particularly in terms of morbidity and disability, will almost certainly increase in the foreseeable future. This review aims to generate a better understanding of the present and projected future global burden of stroke, with particular emphasis on the non-established market economy countries (NEMEC). The first part summarizes and interprets the currently available evidence on stroke mortality, incidence, case-fatality and related disability rates from both established and non-established market economy countries. The second part reviews the main risk factors for stroke. For the modifiable factors, it examines current prevalence rates in NEMEC with a view towards identifying patterns that are relevant for predicting future rates of the disease. Reversing the consequences of stroke is difficult, thus primary prevention is of utmost importance. The potential for prevention is illustrated by the experience of Japan, which in the last two decades has seen substantial declines in stroke mortality--mostly due to reductions in dietary salt intake. The last section discusses potential strategies and approaches to effective stroke prevention and highlights other areas that need to be addressed if stroke management in the coming decades is to be effective.  (+info)

(4/1095) Quality of primary outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam: a comparison of government and voluntary providers.

This study aimed to test whether voluntary agencies provide care of better quality than that provided by government with respect to primary curative outpatient services in Dar-es-Salaam. All non-government primary services were included, and government primary facilities were randomly sampled within the three districts of the city. Details of consultations were recorded and assessed by a panel who classed consultations as adequate, inadequate but serious consequences unlikely, and consultations where deficiencies in the care could have serious consequences. Interpersonal conduct was assessed and exit interviews were conducted. The study found that government registers of non-government 'voluntary' providers actually contained a high proportion of for-profit private providers. Comparisons between facilities showed that care was better overall at voluntary providers, but that there was a high level of inadequate care at both government and non-government providers.  (+info)

(5/1095) Protecting the poor under cost recovery: the role of means testing.

In African health sectors, the importance of protecting the very poor has been underscored by increased reliance on user fees to help finance services. This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the role means testing can play in promoting equity under health care cost recovery. Means testing is placed in the broader context of targeting and contrasted with other mechanisms. Criteria for evaluating outcomes are established and used to analyze previous means testing experience in Africa. A survey of experience finds a general pattern of informal, low-accuracy, low-cost means testing in Africa. Detailed household data from a recent cost recovery experiment in Niger, West Africa, provides an unusual opportunity to observe outcomes of a characteristically informal means testing system. Findings from Niger suggest that achieving both the revenue raising and equity potential of cost recovery in sub-Saharan Africa will require finding ways to improve informal means testing processes.  (+info)

(6/1095) Improving quality through cost recovery in Niger.

New evidence on the quality of health care from public services in Niger is discussed in terms of the relationships between quality, costs, cost-effectiveness and financing. Although structural attributes of quality appeared to improve with the pilot project in Niger, significant gaps in the implementation of diagnostic and treatment protocols were observed, particularly in monitoring vital signs, diagnostic examination and provider-patient communications. Quality improvements required significant investments in both fixed and variable costs; however, many of these costs were basic input requirements for operation. It is likely that optimal cost-effectiveness of services was not achieved because of the noted deficiencies in quality. In the test district of Boboye, the revenues from the copayments alone covered about 34% of the costs of medicines or about 20% of costs of drugs and administration. In Say, user fees covered about 50-55% of the costs of medicines or 35-40% of the amount spent on medicines and cost-recovery administration. In Boboye, taxes plus the additional copayments covered 120-180% of the cost of medicines, or 75-105% of the cost of medicines plus administration of cost recovery. Decentralized management and legal conditions in the pilot districts appeared to provide the necessary structure to ensure that the revenues and taxes collected would be channelled to pay for quality improvements.  (+info)

(7/1095) Efficiency and quality in the public and private sectors in Senegal.

It is often argued that the private sector is more efficient than the public sector in the production of health services, and that government reliance on private provision would help improve the efficiency and equity of public spending in health. A review of the literature, however, shows that there is little evidence to support these statements. A study of government and non-governmental facilities was undertaken in Senegal, taking into account case mix, input prices, and quality of care, to examine relative efficiency in the delivery of health services. The study revealed that private providers are highly heterogeneous, although they tend to offer better quality services. A specific and important group of providers--Catholic health posts--were shown to be significantly more efficient than public and other private facilities in the provision of curative and preventive ambulatory services at high levels of output. Policies to expand the role of the private sector need to take into account variations in types of providers, as well as evidence of both high and low quality among them. In terms of public sector efficiency, findings from the study affirm others that indicate drug policy reform to be one of the most important policy interventions that can simultaneously improve efficiency, quality and effectiveness of care. Relationships that this study identified between quality and efficiency suggest that strategies to improve quality can increase efficiency, raise demand for services, and thereby expand access.  (+info)

(8/1095) Increasing the utilization of cost-effective health services through changes in demand.

Attaining efficiency in a health care system with a budget constraint involves increasing the utilization of the most cost-effective services. This can be achieved by adjustments to prices, cost curves, or demand curves. In this paper, the potential for demand curve adjustments is examined by selecting two apparently cost-effective services (prenatal care and childhood immunization against tuberculosis), and analyzing the factors explaining their utilization. Data from recent household surveys in Burkina Faso and Niger are used. A multivariate analysis of utilization employs income, price, and taste variables. Utilization is highly sensitive to the distance which must be travelled to the health facility, a price, and taste variables. Utilization is highly sensitive to the distance which must be travelled to the health facility, a price variable. Members of certain ethnic groups tend to use the services less, other things being equal. The importance of demand-side factors like ethnicity points to certain kinds of policy interventions like information, education and communication activities which could increase the utilization of cost-effective services.  (+info)



Occupational Safety and Hea


  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. (osha.gov)
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is delaying the effective date of three provisions of the Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements rule published January 19, 2001 (66 FR 5916-6135). (osha.gov)
  • Cherie K. Berry Commissioner of Labor v Introduction Many standards promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration explicitly require the employer to train employees in the safety and health aspects of their jobs. (ncdcr.gov)

OSHA


  • All comments, including any personal information you provide, are placed in the public docket without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov Therefore, OSHA cautions you about submitting personal information such as social security numbers and birthdates. (osha.gov)

North Carolina


  • In North Carolina, DOL inspectors enforce the federal Occupational Safety and Health Act through a state plan approved by the U. S. Department of Labor. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Some modifications were made to reflect North Carolina occupational safety and health standards and administrative conditions. (ncdcr.gov)

safety and health


  • D., staff industrial hygienist, Division of Occupational Safety and Health, N. C. Department of Labor. (ncdcr.gov)
  • The N. C. Department of Labor's Division of Occupational Safety and Health offers many educational programs to the public and produces publica-tions, including this guide, to help inform people about their rights and responsibilities regarding occupa-tional safety and health. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Reading and understanding A Guide to Bloodborne Pathogens in the Workplace will help you form a sound occupational safety and health policy where you work. (ncdcr.gov)
  • How can anyone ever determine which occupational safety and health risks require more attention and which are being controlled successfully thanks to training without the associated recordkeeping? (ncdcr.gov)
  • These requirements reflect OSHA's belief that training is an essential part of every employer's safety and health program for protecting workers from injuries and illnesses. (ncdcr.gov)

Department


  • The United States Department of Veterans Affairs employs the staff of John Cochran Veterans Administration Medical Center (VA Medical Center) in St. Louis Missouri. (justia.com)
  • 2003). Thus, the court confines itself to the complaint, considering all 1 Copies of plaintiff's administrative claim and the response of the United States Department of Health and Human Services are attached to the complaint and may be considered as part of the complaint for all purposes. (justia.com)

main


  • 2. Hit enter to expand a main menu option (Health, Benefits, etc). 3. (va.gov)