Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Public Health Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Schools, Public Health: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of public health.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Public Health Informatics: The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.Health: The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Education, Public Health Professional: Education and training in PUBLIC HEALTH for the practice of the profession.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)United States Public Health Service: A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Oral Health: The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Delivery of Health Care, Integrated: A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Regional Health Planning: Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Health Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Public Health Dentistry: A dental specialty concerned with the prevention of disease and the maintenance of oral health through promoting organized dental health programs at a community, state, or federal level.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Preventive Health Services: Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.United StatesPrevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Community Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Local Government: Smallest political subdivisions within a country at which general governmental functions are carried-out.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Public Health Surveillance: The ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. (From Am J Prev Med 2011;41(6):636)Health Planning Guidelines: Recommendations for directing health planning functions and policies. These may be mandated by PL93-641 and issued by the Department of Health and Human Services for use by state and local planning agencies.Health Occupations: Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Health Planning Support: Financial resources provided for activities related to health planning and development.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Great BritainReproductive Health: The physical condition of human reproductive systems.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.State Health Plans: State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Health Care Coalitions: Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.Occupational Health Services: Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.National Institutes of Health (U.S.): An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Civil Defense: Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Disease Notification: Notification or reporting by a physician or other health care provider of the occurrence of specified contagious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV infections to designated public health agencies. The United States system of reporting notifiable diseases evolved from the Quarantine Act of 1878, which authorized the US Public Health Service to collect morbidity data on cholera, smallpox, and yellow fever; each state in the US has its own list of notifiable diseases and depends largely on reporting by the individual health care provider. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Communicable DiseasesHealth Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.BrazilGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Urban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Quality Indicators, Health Care: Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.School Health Services: Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Students, Public Health: Individuals enrolled in a school of PUBLIC HEALTH or a formal educational program in public health.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.IndiaSocial Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Health Services, Indigenous: Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Allied Health Personnel: Health care workers specially trained and licensed to assist and support the work of health professionals. Often used synonymously with paramedical personnel, the term generally refers to all health care workers who perform tasks which must otherwise be performed by a physician or other health professional.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Capacity Building: Organizational development including enhancement of management structures, processes and procedures, within organizations and among different organizations and sectors to meet present and future needs.Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Adolescent Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Disasters: Calamities producing great damage, loss of life, and distress. They include results of natural phenomena and man-made phenomena. Normal conditions of existence are disrupted and the level of impact exceeds the capacity of the hazard-affected community.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Community Mental Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Comprehensive Health Care: Providing for the full range of personal health services for diagnosis, treatment, follow-up and rehabilitation of patients.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)EuropeDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.EnglandHealth Communication: The transfer of information from experts in the medical and public health fields to patients and the public. The study and use of communication strategies to inform and influence individual and community decisions that enhance health.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.WisconsinMortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Community Networks: Organizations and individuals cooperating together toward a common goal at the local or grassroots level.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Dental Health Services: Services designed to promote, maintain, or restore dental health.

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copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2009. [ Links ]. 12. Anderson P, Scafato E. alcohol and older people: a public health ... Further, an older population typically increases the overall health burden and poses many challenges for public health ... Institute of Public Health, Ljubljana, Slovenia; Salme Ahlström, Esa Osterberg - National Institute for Health and Welfare, ... 2. Anderson P, Baumberg B. alcohol in Europe: a public health perspective. Report to the European Commission. London: Institute ...

*  The Adolescent Boys Program: the Beginnings of a New Future CRHP- Comprehensive Rural Health Project

Navajo children were pressuring their parents to adopt the new public health measures they had learned, especially in regard to ... While working with young Navajo Indians on public health measures, Dr. Arole noticed the behaviors and changing attitudes of ... Arole realized that by targeting children, public health could be improved for entire families and communities. ... Additionally, village health workers were given application forms and asked to compile a list of those who would be interested ...

*  Franklin County/North Quabbin Community Health Improvement Plan - FRCOGFRCOG

... and public health professionals for the release of the region's first Community Health Improvement Plan, in conjunction with ... in Administration, Cooperative Public Health Services, Franklin Regional Planning Board, FRCOG Council And Subcommittees, News ... On April 7 the FRCOG was pleased to host a broad group of community based organizations, health care providers, local and state ... The FRCOG has been working for over a year with a dozen other organizations to assess health needs, identify evidence-based ...

*  Prevalence, consequences and prevention of childhood nutritional iron deficiency: a child public health perspective.

Institute of Child Health, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. ...

*  Environmental Health Perspectives - An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to...

14Department of Public Health and Policy, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK; 15School of Public Health, Fudan University, ... School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; 4School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, ... Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 17World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 18Institute of ... Ann Rev Public Health 35:27.1-27.23.. Smith KR, McCracken JP, Weber MW, Hubbard A, Jenny A, Thompso LM, et al. 2011. Effect of ...

*  Anti-vaccination website poses public health risk | New Scientist

... inaccurate and may be dangerous to public health ... Anti-vaccination website poses public health risk. By Wendy ... Australian public health watchdog says campaigners' claims about vaccines are misleading, ... The Health Care Complaints Commission (HCCC), the health watchdog for the state of New South Wales, based in Sydney, issued the ... Misleading and inaccurate claims published by an Australian anti-vaccination campaign group pose a risk to public health, a ...

*  Carolina public health :: State Publications

unc gil l ings school of globa l publ ic hea lth vangie a. foshee, phd, professor of health behavior and health education, has ... unc gil l ings school of globa l publ ic hea lth vangie a. foshee, phd, professor of health behavior and health education, has ... Carolina Public Health (ISSN 1938- 2790) is published twice yearly by the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, 135 ... Carolina Public Health (ISSN 1938- 2790) is published twice yearly by the UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health, 135 ...

*  Non-fatal burden of disease due to mental disorders in the Netherlands | SpringerLink

vol 1, Mass: Harvard School of Public Health, on behalf of the World Health Organization and the World Bank, CambridgeGoogle ... However, from a public health perspective, disorders such as simple phobia, social phobia and dysthymia-which are highly ... Lancet Global Mental Health Group (2007) Scale up services for mental health: a call for action. Lancet 370:1241-1252CrossRef ... World Health Organization (2006) Dollars, DALYs and Decisions. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar ...

*  Journal of Public Health Management and Practice

The November/December issue of the Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, focusing on the public health aspects of ... Health Care Provider Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Reporting Diseases and Events to Public Health Authorities in Tennessee ... "Community Engagement for Public Health Emergency Preparedness" (CEPHEP) survey. The CEPHEP survey provides local health ... Journal of Public Health Management & Practice has launched its first collection, Quality Improvement, which contains two great ...

*  The Initial Impact of AIDS on Public Health Law in the United State-1986

The Public Health Information Infrastructure: A National Review of the Law on Health Information Privacy  Gostin, Lawrence O ... Identifiable Health Information and the Public's Health: Practice, Research, and Policy  Hodge, James G.; Hoffman, Richard E ... Public Health; Public Policy; Quarantine; Regulation; Review; Reporting; Sexuality; Social Discrimination; State Government; ... Health; Health Care; Health Personnel; Homosexuals; Insurance; Law; Legal Aspects; Legislation; Liability; Mandatory Programs; ...

*  Wiley: Race, Ethnicity, and Health: A Public Health Reader, 2nd Edition - Thomas A. LaVeist, Lydia A. Isaac

Race, Ethnicity, and Health: A Public Health Reader, 2nd Edition. Thomas A. LaVeist (Editor), Lydia A. Isaac (Editor) ... occupational health; health disparities in integrated communities; Latino health; Asian populations; stress and health; ... Intended as a resource for faculty and students in public health as well as the social sciences, it will be also be valuable to ... PART 4 HEALTH SERVICES AND HEALTH SYSTEM EFFECTS PATIENTS 539. Chapter 25 Attitudes About Racism, Medical Mistrust, and ...

*  Journal of Public Health Management & Practice | September/October 2017 Vol.23 Issue 5 | NursingCenter

... and Practice provides practical information applicable to the design and implementation of public health p... ... High Turnover Among State Health Officials/Public Health Directors: Implications for the Public's Health Paul K. Halverson DrPH ... Journal of Public Health Management & Practice. Journal of Public Health Management & Practice. September/October 2017 Volume ... Service Learning in Public Health: Exploring the Benefit to Host Agencies in CDC's Public Health Associate Program Corinne J. ...

*  EWG's Healthy Home Tips | EWG

... together and created a list of the most important steps you can take at home to promote your family's environmental health. ... EWG's scientists and public health researchers put our heads ... Health Tips (PDF). *Tip 1 - Know the ingredients in your ... Sign up to receive email updates, action alerts, health tips, promotions to support our work and more from EWG. You can opt-out ...

*  Public health

Theme 5: Public health Theme 5: Public health The EU Sustainable Development Strategy (EU SDS) sets out the objective of ... on public health is available on Statistics Explained: Sustainable development - public health. ... Health and health inequalities. Death rate due to chronic diseases, by sex Suicide death rate, by age group Self-reported unmet ... The trends observed in public health generally show a mixed picture.. *Girls born in the EU in 2013 could expect to live 83.3 ...

*  Public Health


Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Self-rated health: Self-rated health (also called Self-reported health, Self-assessed health, or perceived health) refers to both a single question such as “in general, would you say that you health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?” and a survey questionnaire in which participants assess different dimensions of their own health.Global Health Delivery ProjectHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Lifestyle management programme: A lifestyle management programme (also referred to as a health promotion programme, health behaviour change programme, lifestyle improvement programme or wellness programme) is an intervention designed to promote positive lifestyle and behaviour change and is widely used in the field of health promotion.Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health: The Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health is one of the eight colleges of Georgia Southern University, located in Statesboro, Georgia, in the United States.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Essence (Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics): Essence is the United States Department of Defense's Electronic Surveillance System for the Early Notification of Community-based Epidemics. Essence's goal is to monitor health data as it becomes available and discover epidemics and similar health concerns before they move out of control.Behavior: Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) is the range of actions and [made by individuals, organism]s, [[systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether [or external], [[conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.Halfdan T. MahlerUnited States Public Health ServiceSchool health education: School Health Education see also: Health Promotion is the process of transferring health knowledge during a student's school years (K-12). Its uses are in general classified as Public Health Education and School Health Education.Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory: right|300px|thumb|Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory logo.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Behavior change (public health): Behavior change is a central objective in public health interventions,WHO 2002: World Health Report 2002 - Reducing Risks, Promoting Healthy Life Accessed Feb 2015 http://www.who.Aging (scheduling): In Operating systems, Aging is a scheduling technique used to avoid starvation. Fixed priority scheduling is a scheduling discipline, in which tasks queued for utilizing a system resource are assigned a priority each.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.WHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Healthy community design: Healthy community design is planning and designing communities that make it easier for people to live healthy lives. Healthy community design offers important benefits:Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.Proportional reporting ratio: The proportional reporting ratio (PRR) is a statistic that is used to summarize the extent to which a particular adverse event is reported for individuals taking a specific drug, compared to the frequency at which the same adverse event is reported for patients taking some other drug (or who are taking any drug in a specified class of drugs). The PRR will typically be calculated using a surveillance database in which reports of adverse events from a variety of drugs are recorded.Strategic National Stockpile: The Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the United States' national repository of antibiotics, vaccines, chemical antidotes, antitoxins, and other critical medical equipment and supplies. In the event of a national emergency involving bioterrorism or a natural pandemic, the SNS has the capability to supplement and re-supply local health authorities that may be overwhelmed by the crisis, with response time as little as 12 hours.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Women's Health Initiative: The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) was initiated by the U.S.Sharon Regional Health System: Sharon Regional Health System is a profit health care service provider based in Sharon, Pennsylvania. Its main hospital is located in Sharon; additionally, the health system operates schools of nursing and radiography; a comprehensive pain management center across the street from its main hospital; clinics in nearby Mercer, Greenville, Hermitage, and Brookfield, Ohio; and Sharon Regional Medical Park in Hermitage.Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}The Flash ChroniclesBrian C. Bialiy: Brian C. Bialiy worked on and appeared in the award-winning documentary The Staten Island Catapult.Minati SenList of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,The Complete Stevie Wonder: The Complete Stevie Wonder is a digital compilation featuring the work of Stevie Wonder. Released a week before the physical release of A Time to Love, the set comprises almost all of Wonder's officially released material, including single mixes, extended versions, remixes, and Workout Stevie Workout, a 1963 album which was shelved and replaced by With A Song In My Heart.National Outbreak Reporting System: ==The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS)==Northeast Community Health CentreChronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Companies OfficeResource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Local government areas of Scotland: Local government areas covering the whole of Scotland were first defined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1889. As currently defined, they are a result, for the most part, of the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.State health agency: A state health agency (SHA), or state department of health, is a department or agency of the state governments of the United States focused on public health. The state secretary of health is a constitutional or at times a statutory official in several states of the United States.Standard evaluation frameworkPsychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Maternal Health Task ForceInternational Network of Prison Ministries: The International Network of Prison Ministries (INPM) is a Dallas, Texas based crime prevention and rehabilitation trans-national organization. INPM functions through a website that serves as a clearinghouse for information about various Christian prison ministries.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Injustice SocietyDocument-centric collaboration: Document-centric collaboration is a new approach to working together on projects online which puts the document and its contents at the centre of the process.Implementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.Quantico (novel): Quantico is a 2005 science fiction/thriller novel by Greg Bear. The novel concerns a group of FBI agents trying to prevent a massive bioterrorist attack.National Cancer Research Institute: The National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) is a UK-wide partnership between cancer research funders, which promotes collaboration in cancer research. Its member organizations work together to maximize the value and benefit of cancer research for the benefit of patients and the public.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.

(1/5122) Myths, models and mitigation of resistance to pesticides.

Resistance to pesticides in arthropod pests is a significant economic, ecological and public health problem. Although extensive research has been conducted on diverse aspects of pesticide resistance and we have learned a great deal during the past 50 years, to some degree the discussion about 'resistance management' has been based on 'myths'. One myth involves the belief that we can manage resistance. I will maintain that we can only attempt to mitigate resistance because resistance is a natural evolutionary response to environmental stresses. As such, resistance will remain an ongoing dilemma in pest management and we can only delay the onset of resistance to pesticides. 'Resistance management' models and tactics have been much discussed but have been tested and deployed in practical pest management programmes with only limited success. Yet the myth persists that better models will provide a 'solution' to the problem. The reality is that success in using mitigation models is limited because these models are applied to inappropriate situations in which the critical genetic, ecological, biological or logistic assumptions cannot be met. It is difficult to predict in advance which model is appropriate to a particular situation; if the model assumptions cannot be met, applying the model sometimes can increase the rate of resistance development rather than slow it down. Are there any solutions? I believe we already have one. Unfortunately, it is not a simple or easy one to deploy. It involves employing effective agronomic practices to develop and maintain a healthy crop, monitoring pest densities, evaluating economic injury levels so that pesticides are applied only when necessary, deploying and conserving biological control agents, using host-plant resistance, cultural controls of the pest, biorational pest controls, and genetic control methods. As a part of a truly multi-tactic strategy, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of pesticides on natural enemies in order to preserve them in the cropping system. Sometimes, pesticide-resistant natural enemies are effective components of this resistance mitigation programme. Another name for this resistance mitigation model is integrated pest management (IPM). This complex model was outlined in some detail nearly 40 years ago by V. M. Stern and colleagues. To deploy the IPM resistance mitigation model, we must admit that pest management and resistance mitigation programmes are not sustainable if based on a single-tactic strategy. Delaying resistance, whether to traditional pesticides or to transgenic plants containing toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, will require that we develop multi-tactic pest management programmes that incorporate all appropriate pest management approaches. Because pesticides are limited resources, and their loss can result in significant social and economic costs, they should be reserved for situations where they are truly needed--as tools to subdue an unexpected pest population outbreak. Effective multi-tactic IPM programmes delay resistance (= mitigation) because the number and rates of pesticide applications will be reduced.  (+info)

(2/5122) The expiry date of man: a synthesis of evolutionary biology and public health.

In industrialised countries, mortality and morbidity are dominated by age related chronic degenerative diseases. The health and health care needs of future populations will be heavily determined by these conditions of old age. Two opposite scenarios of future morbidity exist: morbidity might decrease ("compress"), because life span is limited, and the incidence of disease is postponed. Or morbidity might increase ("expand"), because death is delayed more than disease incidence. Optimality theory in evolutionary biology explains senescence as a by product of an optimised life history. The theory clarifies how senescence is timed by the competing needs for reproduction and survival, and why this leads to a generalised deterioration of many functions at many levels. As death and disease are not independent, future morbidity will depend on duration and severity of the process of senescence, partly determined by health care, palliating the disease severity but increasing the disease duration by postponing death. Even if morbidity might be compressed, health care needs will surely expand.  (+info)

(3/5122) Dietary intake and practices in the Hong Kong Chinese population.

OBJECTIVES: To examine dietary intake and practices of the adult Hong Kong Chinese population to provide a basis for future public health recommendations with regard to prevention of certain chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and osteoporosis. PARTICIPANTS: Age and sex stratified random sample of the Hong Kong Chinese population aged 25 to 74 years (500 men, 510 women). METHOD: A food frequency method over a one week period was used for nutrient quantification, and a separate questionnaire was used for assessment of dietary habits. Information was obtained by interview. RESULTS: Men had higher intakes of energy and higher nutrient density of vitamin D, monounsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol, but lower nutrient density of protein, many vitamins, calcium, iron, copper, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There was an age related decrease in energy intake and other nutrients except for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, and percentage of total calorie from carbohydrate, which all increased with age. Approximately 50% of the population had a cholesterol intake of < or = 300 mg; 60% had a fat intake < or = 30% of total energy; and 85% had a percentage of energy from saturated fats < or = 10%; criteria considered desirable for cardiovascular health. Seventy eight per cent of the population had sodium intake values in the range shown to be associated with the age related rise in blood pressure with age. Mean calcium intake was lower than the FAO/WHO recommendations. The awareness of the value of wholemeal bread and polyunsaturated fat spreads was lower in this population compared with that in Australia. There was a marked difference in types of cooking oil compared with Singaporeans, the latter using more coconut/palm/mixed vegetable oils. CONCLUSION: Although the current intake pattern for cardiovascular health for fat, saturated fatty acid, and cholesterol fall within the recommended range for over 50% of the population, follow up surveys to monitor the pattern would be needed. Decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial in the context of chronic disease prevention.  (+info)

(4/5122) Bioterrorism alleging use of anthrax and interim guidelines for management--United States, 1998.

From October 30 through December 23, 1998, CDC received reports of a series of bioterroristic threats of anthrax exposure. Letters alleged to contain anthrax were sent to health clinics on October 30, 1998, in Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee. During December 17-23 in California, a letter alleged to contain anthrax was sent to a private business, and three telephone threats of anthrax contamination of ventilation systems were made to private and public buildings. All threats were hoaxes and are under investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and local law enforcement officials. The public health implications of these threats were investigated to assist in developing national public health guidelines for responding to bioterrorism. This report summarizes the findings of these investigations and provides interim guidance for public health authorities on bioterrorism related to anthrax.  (+info)

(5/5122) Cancer mortality by educational level in the city of Barcelona.

The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between educational level and mortality from cancer in the city of Barcelona. The data were derived from a record linkage between the Barcelona Mortality Registry and the Municipal Census. The relative risks (RR) of death and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) according to level of education were derived from Poisson regression models. For all malignancies, men in the lowest educational level had a RR of death of 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1.29) compared with men with a university degree, whereas for women a significant decreasing in risk was observed (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.74-0.90). Among men, significant negative trends of increasing risk according to level of education were present for cancer of the mouth and pharynx (RR 1.70 for lowest vs. highest level of education), oesophagus (RR 2.14), stomach (RR 1.99), larynx (RR 2.56) and lung (RR 1.35). Among women, cervical cancer was negatively related to education (RR 2.62), whereas a positive trend was present for cancers of the colon (RR 0.76), pancreas (RR 0.59), lung (RR 0.55) and breast (RR 0.65). The present study confirms for the first time, at an individual level, the existence of socioeconomic differences in mortality for several cancer sites in Barcelona, Spain. There is a need to implement health programmes and public health policies to reduce these inequities.  (+info)

(6/5122) Respiratory tract infections as a public health challenge.

Acute respiratory infections have everywhere become the province of clinicians and the pharmaceutical industry. A public health approach is needed with systematic efforts to minimize transmission, maximize prevention, and harness the research and surveillance effort to decrease their incidence and severity. These infections have a huge incidence, morbidity burden, and economic impact in all societies. Several factors now demand renewed attention to prevention. They include the growing costs and potentially limited benefits of an expanded pharmacotherapeutic approach; the serious change in antibiotic susceptibility of the common respiratory pathogens; the advances made in vaccinology in recent years; and the need to promote equity and share limited health resources across the world's population. Care should not be restricted to those in affluent countries who can afford increasingly expensive treatment.  (+info)

(7/5122) The US Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemptions (IDE) and clinical investigation of cardiovascular devices: information for the investigator.

The conduct of a clinical investigation of a medical device to determine the safety and effectiveness of the device is covered by the investigational device exemptions (IDE) regulation. The purpose of IDE regulation is "to encourage, to the extent consistent with the protection of public health and safety and with ethical standards, the discovery and development of useful devices intended for human use, and to that end to maintain optimum freedom for scientific investigators in their pursuit of this purpose" (Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act). Conducting a clinical investigation may require an approved IDE application. The US Food and Drug Administration encourages early interaction with the agency through the pre-IDE process during the development of a device or technology and during the preparation of an IDE application. This facilitates approval of the IDE application and progression into the clinical investigation. This paper reviews the terminology and applicability of the IDE regulation and the type of study that requires an IDE application to the Food and Drug Administration. The pre-IDE process and the development of an IDE application for a significant risk study of a cardiovascular device are discussed.  (+info)

(8/5122) Skirting the issue: women and international health in historical perspective.

Over the last decades women have become central to international health efforts, but most international health agencies continue to focus narrowly on the maternal and reproductive aspects of women's health. This article explores the origins of this paradigm as demonstrated in the emergence of women's health in the Rockefeller Foundation's public health programs in Mexico in the 1920s and 1930s. These efforts bore a significant reproductive imprint; women dispensed and received services oriented to maternal and childbearing roles. Women's health and social advocacy movements in Mexico and the United States partially shaped this interest. Even more important, the emphasis on women in the Rockefeller programs proved an expedient approach to the Foundation's underlying goals: promoting bacteriologically based public health to the government, medical personnel, business interests, and peasants; helping legitimize the Mexican state; and transforming Mexico into a good political and commercial neighbor. The article concludes by showing the limits to the maternal and reproductive health model currently advocated by most donor agencies, which continue to skirt--or sidestep--major concerns that are integral to the health of women.  (+info)


  • The Region of Waterloo and the Ontario Nurses Association have reached a tentative agreement for public health nurses, who were prepared to strike Wednesday morning. (
  • The Region of Waterloo and its public health nurses have reached a tentative contract agreement. (
  • I have also participated in the interview process on a panel, & it is shocking how many nurses believe public health is primary care for the poor. (
  • QUESTION: What is the practical meaning of empowerment to public health nurses and their clients? (
  • 24 public health nurses (100% women, mean 14.2 y in public health nursing) and 6 clients (83% women). (
  • This relationship was characterised by mutuality, whereby nurses helped clients to identify health goals and negotiated their roles in attaining them. (
  • Nurses linked clients to community resources and acted on their behalf to help them attain their health goals. (
  • 1, 2 This study clearly presents a model of conceptualised empowerment through the narratives of public health nurses and their clients. (
  • The public health nurses identified empowerment in clients, which the clients verified. (
  • Easing the burden on health departments: a cost-effective method for public health nurses to increase private sector participation in the early and perioidc screening, diagnosis, and treatment program. (
  • Health departments and public health nurses (PHNs) bear a major burden conducting EPSDT screenings because many private physicians choose not to provide these services. (
  • Public health nurses (PHNs) often work for the public health department or in other public or governmental organizations. (
  • Public health nurses work with individuals, families, and communities in a variety of settings. (
  • Public health nurses earn on average about $53,000 per year. (
  • Public health nurses are qualified and registered nurses who have chosen to undertake further training in order to specialise in areas such as health protection or sexual health. (
  • Public Health Nurses have additional training which means they play a vital role in promoting and protecting the public's health. (
  • Public health nurses are employed in a variety of settings including Public Health England, local authorities and the NHS. (


  • All Public Health Informatics Certificate requirements must be taken before or concurrently with the practicum. (
  • Provides students in the Public Health Informatics Certificate Program with an integrated experience on the use of information technology in a health sciences environment. (
  • He is the Director of the JHU/APL Center of Excellence in Public Health Informatics. (
  • His research interests include public health informatics and surveillance systems, outbreak simulation, and the influence of surveillance information on decision-making in public health. (
  • Dr. Mostafa and Julia Kampov-Polevoi recently received funding from the NC Institute for Public Health and they also funding support from the NC TraCS Institute to develop several courses concentrating on two informatics tracks: public healthinformatics (PHI) and clinical informatics (CI). (


  • Welcome to Public Health Nursing! (
  • Their job is to focus on the population as a whole by promoting and protecting health through knowledge from nursing, social and public health sciences. (
  • Learn about the benefits and demands of public health nursing. (
  • If you like working with people and helping them, then public health nursing could be a great choice for you. (
  • If you like learning and sticking to a goal, public health nursing could be an excellent career decision for you. (
  • If you plan to pursue a graduate degree in public health nursing, you may require additional coursework and practical training before you can begin. (
  • Does public health nursing fit your personality? (
  • The current outlook on job prospects in public health nursing is excellent and the average salary may afford you a comfortable lifestyle. (
  • Responsible for coordinating and providing high quality multidisciplinary health services for patients in the Region/Program consistent with Agency philosophy, policy, goals and objectives, and Standards of Nursing Practice. (


  • Thus PHNs concerned about children's access to health care may have to encourage provision of EPSDT through the private sector. (


  • You'll need to have knowledge of being a clinical nurse as well as of public health and social sciences like sociology and psychology. (


  • You may also require additional training in public health, public health policy, or health administration. (


  • VNSNY provides a comprehensive array of home- and community-based programs, including health plans, tailored to the needs of high-risk, vulnerable New Yorkers, improving their quality of life. (
  • The national network to improve the health of vulnerable or marginalised groups in the community. (


  • The surveillance systems and techniques presented in the text are designed to best utilize modern technology, manage emerging public health threats, and adapt to environmental changes. (
  • Part Two provides case studies of modern disease surveillance systems, including cases that highlight implementation and operational difficulties as well as the successes experienced by health departments in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Asia. (
  • This book's multidisciplinary approach is ideal for public health professionals who need to understand all the facets within a disease surveillance program and implement the technology needed to support surveillance activities. (
  • This book is essential reading for those learning about public health disease surveillance and for statisticians working with public health professional to improve the sensitivity, specificity, timeliness and cost-effectiveness of current surveillance systems. (


  • The program provides comprehensive health services to children from low-income families on Medicaid and has been shown to improve health and reduce health care costs. (


  • Given scarce resources, health departments alone may be unable to meet the mandate for increased EPSDT services. (


  • David L. Buckeridge , MD, PhD, is Assistant Professor and a Canadian Research Chair in the Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health at McGill University. (


  • The study by Falk-Rafael provides a global view of the concept of empowerment in health care, specifically related to the collaboration between clients and healthcare providers. (


  • Visiting Nurse Service of New York (VNSNY) is the nation s largest not-for-profit community-based health system. (


  • Although being a public health nurse requires a lot of work, it can be an incredibly rewarding profession if you like working with and helping people. (
  • Some communities allow persons with an associate's degree to work as a public health nurse. (


  • Before you take the plunge to become a public health nurse, you first need to consider your abilities and education. (
  • This can help ensure you not only understand the various aspects of being a nurse, but may also expedite furthering your education and career as a public health nurse. (


  • Every PHN interview I ever had included a question to assess my basic understanding of public health. (
  • need interview with public health nurse! (


  • Thinking about what you have to offer can help you decide the best path to pursue being a public health nurse. (
  • One way to help you decide is to think about an experience you've had with a public health nurse. (


  • This might be by promoting healthy lifestyles and reducing the likelihood of ill-health, supporting people who have long-term illness, or preventing illness through immunisations or screening interventions. (


  • 1 urban/rural and 2 rural health units in southwestern Ontario, Canada. (


  • The scope of what a PHN may encounter is huge: from chronic disease, smoking cessation, giving vaccination, treating prescription drug overdoses, plus global health issues, down to water fluoridation. (


  • Providing information and developing skills , from oral and written information to role modelling, allowed clients to make more informed choices and take more effective actions for their health goals, and to assert themselves with others. (
  • All clients reported increased assertiveness and a willingness to take control of their own health as a result of empowerment. (


  • Remember that you will have to pay taxes and other fees for your salary, but that you will also get health benefits and vacation and sick time. (