Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Cephalopelvic Disproportion: A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.FinlandDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Employee Grievances: Formal procedures whereby the employee expresses any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice regarding the work situation.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.IndiaHealth Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.CambodiaNational Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sick Leave: An absence from work permitted because of illness or the number of days per year for which an employer agrees to pay employees who are sick. (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.PakistanAfrica, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Guinea-Bissau: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and west of GUINEA. Its capital is Bissau.Absenteeism: Chronic absence from work or other duty.Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.United StatesOccupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.BrazilAnti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.AfricaKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Hong Kong: The former British crown colony located off the southeast coast of China, comprised of Hong Kong Island, Kowloon Peninsula, and New Territories. The three sites were ceded to the British by the Chinese respectively in 1841, 1860, and 1898. Hong Kong reverted to China in July 1997. The name represents the Cantonese pronunciation of the Chinese xianggang, fragrant port, from xiang, perfume and gang, port or harbor, with reference to its currents sweetened by fresh water from a river west of it.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).California

*  Employment in the public sector | Open Library

Employment in the public sector by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; 1 edition; Subjects: Civil service, ... public_sector. ,author = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ,edition = Employment in the public sector. , ... You could add Employment in the public sector to a list if you log in. ... Are you sure you want to remove Employment in the public sector from your list? ...
https://openlibrary.org/works/OL11118826W/Employment_in_the_public_sector

*  Public Sector Management: Theory, Critique and Practice - Google Books

... techniques and competences which have been proposed to improve management for public services. Public Sector Management is ... political and economic contexts in which management has emerged as a crucial issue in the public sector of modern democratic ... issues and concepts involved in defining and understanding public sector management; analyzes some of the key values ... this innovative Reader provides a broad-ranging overview of both the theory and practice of public service management. The book ...
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=WU9S2AMY9jQC&printsec=frontcover&hl=en

*  public sector | PV Tech

Private sector outcompeting public sector in Indian solar - Bridge to India *News ... public sector. Indian rooftop solar nearly doubles in a year *News. India reached 1,396MW of rooftop solar deployment at the ... Despite multi-Gigawatt solar plans, the ability of India's public sector to compete in the PV market has been called into ...
https://pv-tech.org/tags/public sector

*  Public Sector Modernizaton And Security

Public Servants are afraid to take risks; ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,The Public Service is not well managed; ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Public ... Public Sector Modernizaton And Security * 1. PS Renewal and Modernization- GTEC Armchair Discussion Moderator: Kris Stolarik ... 4. The Top Eight Misperceptions of the Public Service ,ul,,li,The Public Service is broken, merely a pale shadow of its former ... The Public Service cannot compete for the best talent anymore; ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Public Service policy capacity is not what it ...
https://slideshare.net/GTEC/public-sector-modernizaton-and-security-presentation

*  Buy Targus SafePort Rugged Healthcare Case for Dell Venue 10 Pro at Connection Public Sector Solutions

Targus SafePort Rugged Healthcare Case for Dell Venue 10 Pro 5056 (THD465USZ). Shop now and get specialized service for your organization.
https://govconnection.com/shop/targus-safeport-rugged-healthcare-case-for-dell-venue-10-pro-5056/32635289

*  America's Public Sector Union Dilemma

... public sector unionization has not fallen at all over time, but has remained steady at around 45 percent since the early 1980s ... Starting in 1980, public sector compensation began to diverge from private sector compensation significantly, as public sector ... Comparisons of private sector and public sector compensation also often fail to account for the increased job security that ... In doing so, the stark contrasts between the public sector and private sector in unionization become clear as many question ...
ncpa.org/sub/dpd/index.php?Article_ID=21397

*  Public sector banks need Rs.1 trillion capital infusion: Chidambaram

Chidambaram said Saturday that public sector banks would need capital infusion of around Rs.1 trillion... ... Public sector banks need Rs.1 trillion capital infusion: Chidambaram. Public sector banks need Rs.1 trillion capital infusion: ... Chennai, Dec 22 (IANS) Union Finance Minister P. Chidambaram said Saturday that public sector banks would need capital infusion ...
sify.com/finance/public-sector-banks-need-rs-1-trillion-capital-infusion-chidambaram-news-national-mmww4ejhfjf.html

*  Public Sector Finances

... but excludes public sector banks. Description Changes in public sector finances can be used to determine the thrust of the ... The public sector net borrowing requirement (PSNB) is the difference between the sector's receipts and expenditure and so ... crisis in 2008/09 the UK government introduced a number of measures designed to show the underlying state of public sector ...
cmegroup.com/education/events/econoday/2017/05/feed478434.html

*  Male Engagement in PMTCT Services - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

... services are offered in eight public sector health facilities. The primary aim of this study is to test an intervention for ... The study employs a quasi-experimental design in 8 public health centers in southwest Uganda offering care and treatment (C&T) ...
https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01903889?order=721

*  Survey: open source shows progress in public sector • The Register

In a poll that drew 182 responses from all areas of the public sector, 35 per cent said open source was already in partial or ... is a free email newsletter covering the latest news and analysis of public sector technology. To register click here. ... Open source technology now has a firm foothold in the public sector, according to a new survey. ... and public sector focused applications (such as revenue collection) with 9 per cent. ...
theregister.co.uk/Print/2007/05/02/oss_public_sector/

*  Many Workers in Public Sector Retiring Sooner

... Monica Davey,The New York Times ... Certainly, the number of state and local public-sector workers has been shrinking since the second half of 2008, a necessary, ... and where bills are still pending over raising the age and years of service for eligibility for a public-sector pension, ... a growing number of public-sector workers are finding fewer reasons to stay. ...
https://cnbc.com/id/45567034/

*  SAP for Public Sector | Community

Join the conversation with other users today to improve your Public Sector skills and reputation! ... SAP Community homepage for Public Sector industry. Find the latest user blogs, questions and answers, and resources along with ... SAP for Public Sector Community Helping our ecosystem enable governments to provide, protect, and prosper by exchanging ... governments can transform everything from finance and analytics to public security and constituent service. What are your ideas ...
https://sap.com/community/topic/public-sector.html

*  Microsoft in public sector

Take advantage of online training and readiness resources to learn about the great features of Microsoft public sector ... Take advantage of online training and readiness resources to learn about the great features of Microsoft public sector ... Discover sales resources, campaigns, and discussion guides to help you start selling Microsoft public sector solutions. ... Discover sales resources, campaigns, and discussion guides to help you start selling Microsoft public sector solutions. ...
https://partner.microsoft.com/cs-cz/solutions/public-sector

*  Concern over mental health training in public sector | Community Care

Chancellor won't re-open wage deals and freeze public-sector pay Alistair Darling moved to allay fears of a freeze on the pay ... Concern over mental health training in public sector. Educating police and teachers on early signs of mental illness could be ... of public-sector workers as unions warned that they should not be punished for the failings of the private sector. ... Concern over mental health training in public sector. July 7, 2009 in Community Care ...
communitycare.co.uk/2009/07/07/concern-over-mental-health-training-in-public-sector/

*  Public Sector Architecture

Jeremy Forman is Director, Public Sector, at Oracle Corporation Hamza Jahangir is Director, Public Sector, at Oracle ... Costs and budgets are priorities in the public sector, but in five or ten years there may be other drivers that are just as ... At many public sector organizations, work streams, projects, and programs exist in silos. Typical strategies to improve this ... Pat Dues faced a challenge that is very common in the public sector. Her team supports the unique business needs of various ...
oracle.com/technetwork/articles/entarch/oeea-public-sector-architecure-1555925.html

*  Public Sector | Industries | Oracle

Oracle for Public Sector delivers a powerful combination of technology and preintegrated business applications. ... Oracle Public Sector Verticals. No matter what your agency size, Oracle offers government a complete cloud vision with a secure ... Featured Public Sector Resources. *Report: Oracle CX Leads the Pack: Read Forrester's Q3 2017 overview ... stack of cloud applications and platform services to meet the unique security and compliance requirements of the public sector. ...
https://oracle.com/industries/public-sector/index.html

*  Government & public sector: PwC

Our professionals help governments solve complex business issues, manage risk and add value in financial management, programme management, operations improvement, and security and data management.
pwc.com/bm/en/industries/government-public-sector.html

*  Public sector support

Public sector. Support. Get the most out of your membership of the PSMA or OSMA with our online support. This includes product ...
https://ordnancesurvey.co.uk/business-and-government/help-and-support/public-sector/index.html

*  Empowering the Public Sector

...
viewer.zmags.com/publication/0ff8996d

*  The public sector fat cats - Telegraph

As pay restraint takes hold in the private sector, Robert Watts and Matthew Moore analyse what has been happening at the ... "The leaders of the public sector should show solidarity with the private sector and enter into a voluntary pay freeze," Lewis ... "We strongly support the idea that the public sector should attract private sector talent, but this government has a track ... The Sunday Telegraph league table of Britain's most highly paid public officials is dominated by two public sector ...
telegraph.co.uk/finance/2927558/The-public-sector-fat-cats.html

*  Public sector News - Cincinnati Business Courier

Public sector news from the Cincinnati Business Courier, including the latest news, articles, quotes, blog posts, photos, video ...
https://bizjournals.com/cincinnati/topic/public-sector/?page=2

*  Moldova To Freeze Public-Sector Wages

Moldovan Economy Minister Valeriu Lazar says the government will have to freeze public-sector wages in hopes of securing a loan ... CHISINAU -- Moldovan Economy Minister Valeriu Lazar says the government will have to freeze public-sector wages in hopes of ... Moldovan public servants will see no salary increase - but no cuts either. ...
https://rferl.org/a/Moldova_To_Freeze_Public_Sector_Wages/1861611.html

*  Global 3D CAD Industry

II-11 Construction Sector - The Conventional End-User of CAD to Drive Opportunities..............II-11 Table 3: Growth in the ... Company profiles are primarily based on public domain information including company URLs. The report profiles 46 companies ... to Power Opportunities for CAD II-9 Demand Remains Buoyant for Integrated ERP/3D CAD Solutions II-9 Automotive Sector - A ... Global Construction Market by Sector: 2013-2020 (includes corresponding Graph/Chart) II-13. Table 4: Global Construction Market ...
prnewswire.com/news-releases/global-3d-cad-industry-300352227.html

*  Star Trek (2009) / Headscratchers - TV Tropes

And this is the core sector of the Federation, the one with Earth and Vulcan in it. Why would there be large chunkos of ... world he still maintained a cold facade like the other vulcans do and I don't think he'd be comfortable kissing her in public ... The starships nearby in the sector are the only starships you have available to respond to an emergency right away. ... the actions of a few can lead to drastic changes in what happens to a planet or in the culture of the sector. So, Chekov's ...
tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pmwiki.php/Headscratchers/StarTrek2009

*  Burnaby woman fined after illegally buying bear gallbladders | Vancouver Sun

Public Sector Salaries. *Conversations That Matter. *Sun Run. *Westcoast Homes & Design. *Medicine Matters ...
vancouversun.com/news/local-news/burnaby-woman-fined-5200-for-illegal-purchase-of-bear-gallbladders

Private healthcarePrivatization in criminal justice: Privatization in criminal justice refers to a shift to private ownership and control of criminal justice services.HIV/AIDS in South African townships: South Africa’s HIV/AIDS epidemic, which is among the most severe in the world, is concentrated in its townships, where many black South Africans live due to the lingering effects of the Group Areas Act. A 2010 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.Covenant Health System: Covenant Health System is an American health care provider which serves West Texas and Eastern New Mexico. It has about 1,300 beds in its five primary acute-care and specialty hospitals; it also manages about a dozen affiliated community hospitals.List of drugsPublic-Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets: On March 23, 2009, the United States Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), the Federal Reserve, and the United States Treasury Department announced the Public-Private Investment Program for Legacy Assets. The program is designed to provide liquidity for so-called "toxic assets" on the balance sheets of financial institutions.Lucas paradox: In economics, the Lucas paradox or the Lucas puzzle is the observation that capital does not flow from developed countries to developing countries despite the fact that developing countries have lower levels of capital per worker.}}Jessie McPherson Private HospitalHealth policy: Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific health care goals within a society."World Health Organization.Cephalopelvic disproportionAustralia–Finland relations: Australia–Finland relations are foreign relations between the Australia and Finland. Diplomatic relations were established on 31 May 1949.Global Health Delivery ProjectGreed versus grievance: The phrase "greed versus grievance" or "greed and grievance" refer to the two baseline arguments put forward by scholars of armed conflict on the causes of civil war, though the argument has been extended to other forms of war.Rock 'n' Roll (Status Quo song)Drug Resource Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition: DREAM (short for "Drug Resources Enhancement against Aids and Malnutrition", formerly "Drug Resource Enhancement against AIDS in Mozambique") is an AIDS therapy program promoted by the Christian Community of Sant'Egidio. It is designed to give access to free ARV treatment with generic HAART drugs to the poor in Africa on a large scale: So far, 5,000 people are receiving ARV treatment, especially in Mozambique, but the program is being built up also in other countries: Malawi, Guinea, Tanzania and others.Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Medical UniversityCoffee production in Angola: Coffee production in Angola refers to the production of coffee in Angola. Coffee is one of Angola's largest agricultural productsCross-training (business)Toyota NZ engine: The Toyota NZ engine family is a straight-4 piston engine series. The 1NZ series uses aluminum engine blocks and DOHC cylinder heads.Chronic care: Chronic care refers to medical care which addresses pre-existing or long term illness, as opposed to acute care which is concerned with short term or severe illness of brief duration. Chronic medical conditions include asthma, diabetes, emphysema, chronic bronchitis, congestive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, hypertension and depression.Australian referendum, 1913 (Trade and Commerce): The Constitution Alteration (Trade and Commerce) 1912 was an Australian referendum held in the 1913 referendums which sought to alter the Australian Constitution to extend Commonwealth legislative power in respect to trade and commerce.Minati SenWHO collaborating centres in occupational health: The WHO collaborating centres in occupational health constitute a network of institutions put in place by the World Health Organization to extend availability of occupational health coverage in both developed and undeveloped countries.Network of WHO Collaborating Centres in occupational health.Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre: Phnom Tamao Wildlife Rescue Centre (PTWRC) is a wildlife centre located roughly by road south of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The centre was established in 1995 and with an area of over 6,000 acres of protected regenerating forest, this is the largest zoo in Cambodia.Poverty trap: A poverty trap is "any self-reinforcing mechanism which causes poverty to persist."Costas Azariadis and John Stachurski, "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, 2005, 326.Sick leave: Sick leave (or paid sick days or sick pay) is time off from work that workers can use to stay home to address their health and safety needs without losing pay. Paid sick leave is a statutory requirement in many nations around the world.Society for Education Action and Research in Community Health: Searching}}Opinion polling in the Philippine presidential election, 2010: Opinion polling (popularly known as surveys in the Philippines) for the 2010 Philippine presidential election is managed by two major polling firms: Social Weather Stations and Pulse Asia, and several minor polling firms. The polling firms conducted surveys both prior and after the deadline for filing of certificates of candidacies on December 1, 2009.India–Rwanda relations: Indo-Rwandan relations are the foreign relations between the Republic of India and the Republic of Rwanda. India is represented in Rwanda through its Honorary Consulate in Kigali.Public Health Act: Public Health Act is a stock short title used in the United Kingdom for legislation relating to public health.Genovese Drug Stores: Genovese Drug Stores was a pharmacy chain located in the New York City-Long Island area of the United States, including northern New Jersey, along with Fairfield County, Connecticut and Hartford County, Connecticut. It was acquired by Eckerd in 1998.Maternal Health Task ForceAga Khan University Hospital, Karachi: The Aga Khan University Hospital (AKUH) in Karachi, established in 1985, is the primary teaching site of the Aga Khan University’s (AKU) Faculty of Health Sciences. Founded by His Highness the Aga Khan, the hospital provides a broad range of secondary and tertiary care, including diagnosis of disease and team management of patient care.Psychiatric interview: The psychiatric interview refers to the set of tools that a mental health worker (most times a psychiatrist or a psychologist but at times social workers or nurses) uses to complete a psychiatric assessment.Standard evaluation frameworkHinduism in Zambia: Zambia is home to 25,000 Hindus.as reported by Hinduism Today, 2003 Hinduism is the third largest religion in Zambia.Management of HIV/AIDS: The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection. There are several classes of antiretroviral agents that act on different stages of the HIV life-cycle.Comprehensive Rural Health Project: The Comprehensive Rural Health Project (CRHP) is a non profit, non-governmental organization located in Jamkhed, Ahmednagar District in the state of Maharashtra, India. The organization works with rural communities to provide community-based primary healthcare and improve the general standard of living through a variety of community-led development programs, including Women's Self-Help Groups, Farmers' Clubs, Adolescent Programs and Sanitation and Watershed Development Programs.List of birds of Guinea-Bissau: This is a list of the bird species recorded in Guinea-Bissau. The avifauna of Guinea-Bissau include a total of 470 species, of which one is rare or accidental.National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health: The National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (NCCMH) is one of several centres of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) tasked with developing guidance on the appropriate treatment and care of people with specific conditions within the National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales. It was established in 2001.Closed-ended question: A closed-ended question is a question format that limits respondents with a list of answer choices from which they must choose to answer the question.Dillman D.Roll Back Malaria Partnership: The Roll Back Malaria Partnership (RBM Partnership) is the global framework for coordinated action against malaria. It forges consensus among key actors in malaria control, harmonises action and mobilises resources to fight malaria in endemic countries.List of Parliamentary constituencies in Kent: The ceremonial county of Kent,Resource leak: In computer science, a resource leak is a particular type of resource consumption by a computer program where the program does not release resources it has acquired. This condition is normally the result of a bug in a program.Penalized present value: The Penalized Present Value (PPV) is a method of Capital Budgeting under risk developed by Fernando Gómez-Bezares in the 1980s.PfATP6: PfATP6, also known as PfSERCA or PfATPase6, is a calcium ATPase gene encoded by the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The protein is thought to be a P-type ATPase involved in calcium ion transport.Karonga District: right|115px|Location of Karonga District in MalawiPavement life-cycle cost analysis: In September 1998, the United States Department of Transportation (DoT) introduced risk analysis, a probabilistic approach to account for the uncertainty of the inputs of the cost/benefit evaluation of pavement projects, into its decision-making policies. The traditional (deterministic) approach did not consider the variability of inputs.Halfdan T. MahlerImplementation research: Implementation research is the scientific study of methods to promote the uptake of research findings. Often research projects focus on small scale pilot studies or laboratory based experiments, and assume that findings can be generalised to roll out into a practice based domain with few changes.European Immunization Week: European Immunization Week (EIW) is an annual regional initiative, coordinated by the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe), to promote immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases. EIW activities are carried out by participating WHO/Europe member states.Contraceptive mandate (United States): A contraceptive mandate is a state or federal regulation or law that requires health insurers, or employers that provide their employees with health insurance, to cover some contraceptive costs in their health insurance plans. In 1978, the U.Circular flow of income: The circular flow of income or circular flow is a model of the economy in which the major exchanges are represented as flows of money, goods and services, etc. between economic agents.Essex School of discourse analysis: The Essex School constitutes a variety of discourse analysis, one that combines theoretical sophistication – mainly due to its reliance on the post-structuralist and psychoanalytic traditions and, in particular, on the work of Lacan, Foucault, Barthes, Derrida, etc. – with analytical precision, since it focuses predominantly on an in-depth analysis of political discourses in late modernity.University of CampinasConference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections: The Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) is an annual scientific meeting devoted to the understanding, prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and the opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Thousands of leading researchers and clinicians from around the world convene in a different location in North America each year for the Conference.MIM Pan-African Malaria Conference 2009Kenya Pipeline CompanyIncremental cost-effectiveness ratio: The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is a statistic used in cost-effectiveness analysis to summarise the cost-effectiveness of a health care intervention. It is defined by the difference in cost between two possible interventions, divided by the difference in their effect.

(1/709) The public/private mix and human resources for health.

This paper examines the general question of the public/private mix in health care, with special emphasis on its implications for human resources. After a brief conceptual exercise to clarify these terms, we place the problem of human resources in the context of the growing complexity of health systems. We next move to an analysis of potential policy alternatives. Unfortunately, a lot of the public/private debate has looked only at the pragmatic aspects of such alternatives. Each of them, however, reflects a specific set of values--an ideology--that must be made explicit. For this reason, we outline the value assumptions of the four major principles to allocate resources for health care: purchasing power, poverty, socially perceived priority, and citizenship. Finally, the last section discusses some of the policy options that health care systems face today, with respect to the combinations of public and private financing and delivery of services. The conclusion is that we need to move away from false dichotomies and dilemmas as we search for creative ways of combining the best of the state and the market in order to replace polarized with pluralistic systems. The paper is based on a fundamental premise: The way we deal with the question of the public/private mix will largely determine the shape of health care in the next century.  (+info)

(2/709) The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options.

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government.  (+info)

(3/709) Managing the health care market in developing countries: prospects and problems.

There is increasing interest in the prospects for managed market reforms in developing countries, stimulated by current reforms and policy debates in developed countries, and by perceptions of widespread public sector inefficiency in many countries. This review examines the prospects for such reforms in a developing country context, primarily by drawing on the arguments and evidence emerging from developed countries, with a specific focus on the provision of hospital services. The paper begins with a discussion of the current policy context of these reforms, and their main features. It argues that while current and proposed reforms vary in detail, most have in common the introduction of competition in the provision of health care, with the retention of a public monopoly of financing, and that this structure emerges from the dual goals of addressing current public sector inefficiencies while retaining the known equity and efficiency advantages of public health systems. The paper then explores the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence for and against these reforms, and examines their relevance for developing countries. Managed markets are argued to enhance both efficiency and equity. These arguments are analysed in terms of three distinct claims made by their proponents: that managed markets will promote increased provider competition, and hence, provider efficiency; that contractual relationships are more efficient than direct management; and that the benefits of managed markets will outweigh their costs. The analysis suggests that on all three issues, the theoretical arguments and empirical evidence remain ambiguous, and that this ambiguity is attributable in part to poor understanding of the behaviour of health sector agents within the market, and to the limited experience with these reforms. In the context of developing countries, the paper argues that most of the conditions required for successful implementation of these reforms are absent in all but a few, richer developing countries, and that the costs of these reforms, particularly in equity terms, are likely to pose substantial problems. Extensive managed market reforms are therefore unlikely to succeed, although limited introduction of particular elements of these reforms may be more successful. Developed country experience is useful in defining the conditions under which such limited reforms may succeed. There is an urgent need to evaluate the existing experience of different forms of contracting in developing countries, as well as to interpret emerging evidence from developed country reforms in the light of conditions in developing countries.  (+info)

(4/709) The state of health planning in the '90s.

The art of health planning is relatively new in many developing countries and its record is not brilliant. However, for policy makers committed to sustainable health improvements and the principle of equity, it is an essential process, and in need of improvement rather than minimalization. The article argues that the possibility of planning playing a proper role in health care allocative decisions is increasingly being endangered by a number of developments. These include the increasing use of projects, inappropriate decentralization policies, and the increasing attention being given to NGOs. More serious is the rise of New Right thinking which is undermining the role of the State altogether in health care provision. The article discusses these developments and makes suggestions as to possible action needed to counteract them.  (+info)

(5/709) Efficiency and quality in the public and private sectors in Senegal.

It is often argued that the private sector is more efficient than the public sector in the production of health services, and that government reliance on private provision would help improve the efficiency and equity of public spending in health. A review of the literature, however, shows that there is little evidence to support these statements. A study of government and non-governmental facilities was undertaken in Senegal, taking into account case mix, input prices, and quality of care, to examine relative efficiency in the delivery of health services. The study revealed that private providers are highly heterogeneous, although they tend to offer better quality services. A specific and important group of providers--Catholic health posts--were shown to be significantly more efficient than public and other private facilities in the provision of curative and preventive ambulatory services at high levels of output. Policies to expand the role of the private sector need to take into account variations in types of providers, as well as evidence of both high and low quality among them. In terms of public sector efficiency, findings from the study affirm others that indicate drug policy reform to be one of the most important policy interventions that can simultaneously improve efficiency, quality and effectiveness of care. Relationships that this study identified between quality and efficiency suggest that strategies to improve quality can increase efficiency, raise demand for services, and thereby expand access.  (+info)

(6/709) Costs and financing of improvements in the quality of maternal health services through the Bamako Initiative in Nigeria.

This paper reports on a study to assess the quality of maternal health care in public health facilities in Nigeria and to identify the resource implications of making the necessary quality improvements. Drawing upon unifying themes from quality assurance, basic microeconomics and the Bamako Initiative, locally defined norms were used to estimate resource requirements for improving the quality of maternal health care. Wide gaps existed between what is required (the norm) and what was available in terms of fixed and variable resources required for the delivery of maternal health services in public facilities implementing the Bamako Initiative in the Local Government Areas studied. Given such constraints, it was highly unlikely that technically acceptable standards of care could be met without additional resource inputs to meet the norm. This is part of the cost of doing business and merits serious policy dialogue. Revenue generation from health services was poor and appeared to be more related to inadequate supply of essential drugs and consumables than to the use of uneconomic fee scales. It is likely that user fees will be necessary to supplement scarce government budgets, especially to fund the most critical variable inputs associated with quality improvements. However, any user fee system, especially one that raises fees to patients, will have to be accompanied by immediate and visible quality improvements. Without such quality improvements, cost recovery will result in even lower utilization and attempts to generate new revenues are unlikely to succeed.  (+info)

(7/709) Reform follows failure: I. Unregulated private care in Lebanon.

This first of two papers on the health sector in Lebanon describes how unregulated development of private care quickly led to a crisis situation. Following the civil war the health care sector in Lebanon is characterized by (i) ambulatory care provided by private practitioners working as individual entrepreneurs, and, to a small extent, by NGO health centres; and (ii) by a fast increase in hi-tech private hospitals. The latter is fuelled by unregulated purchase of hospital care by the Ministry of Health and public insurance schemes. Health expenditure and financing patterns are described. The position of the public sector in this context is analyzed. In Lebanon unregulated private care has resulted in major inefficiencies, distortion of the health care system, the creation of a culture that is oriented to secondary care and technology, and a non-sustainable cost explosion. Between 1991 and 1995 this led to a financing and organizational crisis that is the background for growing pressure for reform.  (+info)

(8/709) Commentary: Emerging and other communicable diseases.

There is an increasing need for integrated, sustainable; and cost-effective approaches to the management of infectious diseases. For example, an emerging disease in one country may already be endemic in another country but nearing elimination in a third. A coordinated approach by WHO towards infectious diseases is therefore needed that will facilitate more effective support of on-going efforts for the prevention and control of endemic diseases, intensify efforts against those diseases targeted for eradication and elimination, and result in better preparedness and response to new and re-emerging diseases. In order to meet these challenges, WHO has created a new Programme on Communicable Diseases (CDS), which will replace the former Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases (EMC). The new Programme will better integrate surveillance, prevention, control, and research over the whole spectrum of communicable diseases. CDS will function as focal point for global data and information exchange on infectious diseases, and inter alia, will reinforce laboratory-based surveillance of bacterial, viral, and zoonotic diseases to ensure early detection of threats to international public health. Changes in susceptibility to infectious disease, increased opportunities for infection, and the ability of microbes to adapt rapidly will continue to challenge WHO to improve prevention and control of infectious diseases in the future by establishing strong partnerships with both the private and public sectors.  (+info)



level


  • It goes on that 'the Commission's experimental cost estimates suggest that, at a national level, public and private hospitals had broadly similar costs per casemix-adjusted separation in 2007/08. (cpd.org.au)