Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Puberty, Precocious: Development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in the population. This early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis results in sexual precocity, elevated serum levels of GONADOTROPINS and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES such as ESTRADIOL and TESTOSTERONE.Puberty, Delayed: The lack of development of SEXUAL MATURATION in boys and girls at a chronological age that is 2.5 standard deviations above the mean age at onset of PUBERTY in a population. Delayed puberty can be classified by defects in the hypothalamic LHRH pulse generator, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the GONADS. These patients will undergo spontaneous but delayed puberty whereas patients with SEXUAL INFANTILISM will not.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Kisspeptins: Intercellular signaling peptides that were originally characterized by their ability to suppress NEOPLASM METASTASIS. Kisspeptins have since been found to play an important role in the neuroendocrine regulation of REPRODUCTION.Age Determination by Skeleton: Establishment of the age of an individual by examination of their skeletal structure.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Body Height: The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Adolescent Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Sexual Development: The processes of anatomical and physiological changes related to sexual or reproductive functions during the life span of a human or an animal, from FERTILIZATION to DEATH. These include SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES; SEX DIFFERENTIATION; SEXUAL MATURATION; and changes during AGING.Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Fibrous Dysplasia, Polyostotic: FIBROUS DYSPLASIA OF BONE affecting several bones. When melanotic pigmentation (CAFE-AU-LAIT SPOTS) and multiple endocrine hyperfunction are additionally associated it is referred to as Albright syndrome.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Neurokinin B: A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Estrus Detection: Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.Scrotum: A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Oxandrolone: A synthetic hormone with anabolic and androgenic properties.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Adoption: Voluntary acceptance of a child of other parents to be as one's own child, usually with legal confirmation.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelySwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Virilism: Development of male secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS in the FEMALE. It is due to the effects of androgenic metabolites of precursors from endogenous or exogenous sources, such as ADRENAL GLANDS or therapeutic drugs.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.46, XY Disorders of Sex Development: Congenital conditions in individuals with a male karyotype, in which the development of the gonadal or anatomical sex is atypical.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Hamartoma: A focal malformation resembling a neoplasm, composed of an overgrowth of mature cells and tissues that normally occur in the affected area.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Kallmann Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.Receptors, Neurokinin-3: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Ovulation Detection: Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Luteolytic Agents: Chemical compounds causing LUTEOLYSIS or degeneration.Genitalia: The external and internal organs related to reproduction.Salivary alpha-Amylases: A subclass of alpha-amylase ISOENZYMES that are secreted into SALIVA.Testolactone: An antineoplastic agent that is a derivative of progesterone and used to treat advanced breast cancer.Arcuate Nucleus: A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Endocrine Disruptors: Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Danazol: A synthetic steroid with antigonadotropic and anti-estrogenic activities that acts as an anterior pituitary suppressant by inhibiting the pituitary output of gonadotropins. It possesses some androgenic properties. Danazol has been used in the treatment of endometriosis and some benign breast disorders.Cyproterone: An anti-androgen that, in the form of its acetate (CYPROTERONE ACETATE), also has progestational properties. It is used in the treatment of hypersexuality in males, as a palliative in prostatic carcinoma, and, in combination with estrogen, for the therapy of severe acne and hirsutism in females.Diagnostic Techniques, Endocrine: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the endocrine glands or demonstration of their physiological processes.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Flumethasone: An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid used in veterinary practice.Hybrid Vigor: The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Receptors, LH: Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Gonadal Disorders: Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Pinealoma: Neoplasms which originate from pineal parenchymal cells that tend to enlarge the gland and be locally invasive. The two major forms are pineocytoma and the more malignant pineoblastoma. Pineocytomas have moderate cellularity and tend to form rosette patterns. Pineoblastomas are highly cellular tumors containing small, poorly differentiated cells. These tumors occasionally seed the neuroaxis or cause obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS or Parinaud's syndrome. GERMINOMA; CARCINOMA, EMBRYONAL; GLIOMA; and other neoplasms may arise in the pineal region with germinoma being the most common pineal region tumor. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p2064; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p670)Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Ovarian Diseases: Pathological processes of the OVARY.Growth and Development: The series of changes to the shape, size, components, and functions of an individual organism that occur over time as the organism progresses from its initial form to full size and maturity.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Spermaturia: Spermaturia is a human disease characterized by the presence of sperm in the urine.Pedersen, J.Puberty blocker: Puberty blockers, also called puberty inhibitors, puberty suppressors, or hormone suppressors, are a group of medications used to inhibit puberty. They were originally used to treat children with precocious puberty or other such early onset of puberty.Nipple: In its most general form, a nipple is a structure from which a fluid emanates. More specifically, it is the projection on the breasts or udder of a mammal by which, in females, breast milk is delivered to a mother's young.Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue: A gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue (GnRH analogue or analog), also known as a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist (LHRH agonist) or LHRH analogue is a synthetic peptide drug modeled after the human hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). A GnRH analogue is designed to interact with the GnRH receptor and modify the release of pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH for therapeutic purposes.John A. PylePrenatal testosterone transfer: Prenatal Testosterone Transfer (also known as prenatal androgen transfer or prenatal hormone transfer) refers to the phenomenon in which testosterone synthesized by a developing male fetus transfers to one or more developing fetuses within the womb and influences development. This typically results in the partial masculinization of specific aspects of female behavior, cognition, and morphology, though some studies have found that testosterone transfer can cause an exaggerated masculinization in males.Waterladder pumpReproductive toxicity: Reproductive toxicity is a hazard associated with some chemical substances, that they will interfere in some way with normal reproduction; such substances are called reprotoxic. It includes adverse effects on sexual function and fertility in adult males and females, as well as developmental toxicity in the offspring.Blood–testis barrier: The blood–testis barrier is a physical barrier between the blood vessels and the seminiferous tubules of the animal testes. The name "blood-testis barrier" is misleading in that it is not a blood-organ barrier in a strict sense, but is formed between Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubule and as such isolates the further developed stages of germ cells from the blood.ClomifeneIdiopathic short statureEstradiol cypionate: Estradiol cypionate (INN, USAN) (brand names Depo-Estradiol, Depofemin, Estradep, and many others), or estradiol cipionate, is a synthetic ester, specifically the 3-cyclopentylpropanoyl ester, of the natural estrogen, estradiol. It was first introduced in 1952 by Upjohn in the United States, and has been in widespread use since.Age adjustment: In epidemiology and demography, age adjustment, also called age standardization, is a technique used to allow populations to be compared when the age profiles of the populations are quite different.Adrenarche: Adrenarche is an early sexual maturation stage in some higher primates that in humans typically occurs at around 10 to 11 years of age. During adrenarche the adrenal cortex secretes increased levels of androgens such as DHEA and DHEAS, but without increased cortisol levels.Low Fertility Cohorts Study: The Low Fertility Cohorts Study, 1978: A Survey of White, Ever-Married Women Belonging to the 1901-1910 United States Birth Cohorts,Data Sharing For Demographic Research consists of personal interviews of white, ever-married women born between July 1, 1900, and June 30, 1910. In 1978, a national survey of 1,049 married women between the ages of 68 and 78 were interviewed between the months of March and July in order to investigate low fertility during the 1920s and 1930s and the women of childbearing age during those decades.Lightwood–Albright syndromeNeurokinin BSomatotropic cellBeef cattle: Beef cattle are cattle raised for meat production (as distinguished from dairy cattle, used for milk production). The meat of adult cattle is known as beef.Prenatal nutrition: Nutrition and weight management before and during :pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life.William Lakin Turner: William Lakin Turner (25 February 1867 – 21 October 1936) was an English landscape artist.Scrotal ligament: The scrotal ligament is actually the remnant of gubernaculum in a fetus. This ligament secures the testis to the most inferior portion of the scrotum, tethering it in place and limiting the degree to which the testis can move within the scrotum.OxandroloneFour Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Uterus transplantation: The uterine transplant is the surgical procedure whereby a healthy uterus is transplanted into a female organism of which the uterus is absent or diseased. As part of normal mammalian sexual reproduction, a diseased or absent uterus does not allow normal embryonic implantation, effectively rendering the female infertile.Estrous cycle: The estrous cycle (also oestrous cycle; derived from Latin oestrus and originally from Greek οἶστρος meaning sexual desire) comprises the recurring physiologic changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females. Estrous cycles start after sexual maturity in females and are interrupted by anestrous phases or pregnancies.Sexual motivation and hormones: Sexual motivation is influenced by hormones such as testosterone, estrogen, progesterone, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In most mammalian species, sex hormones control the ability to engage in sexual behaviours.Amphiregulin: Amphiregulin, also known as AREG, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AREG gene.Insulin-like growth factor 2: Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The MeSH definition reads: "A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood.Excess ovarian androgen release syndrome: Excess ovarian androgen release syndrome (also known as "Ovarian SAHA syndrome")is a cutaneous condition usually seen in young women between the ages of 16 and 20.Plant breedingLeptinClosed adoptionSubtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine: Antibiotics are commonly used in commercial swine production in the United States and around the world. They are used for disease treatment, disease prevention and control, and growth promotion.Overnutrition: Overnutrition or hyperalimentation is a form of malnutrition in which the intake of nutrients is oversupplied. The amount of nutrients exceeds the amount required for normal growth, development, and metabolism.Deep litter: Deep litter is an animal housing system, based on the repeated spreading of straw or sawdust material in indoor booths. An initial layer of litter is spread for the animals to use for bedding material and to defecate in, and as the litter is soiled, new layers of litter are continuously added by the farmer.David Rees Griffiths: David Rees Griffiths (November 6, 1882 – December 17, 1953), also known by his bardic name of Amanwy, was a Welsh poet, and an older brother of politician Jim Griffiths.TAP Pharmaceuticals: TAP Pharmaceuticals was an American pharmaceutical company headquartered in Lake Forest, IL. It was a joint venture formed in 1977 between Abbott Laboratories and the Japanese pharmaceutical company Takeda.Hormone: A hormone (from Greek , "impetus") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour. Hormones have diverse chemical structures, mainly of 3 classes: eicosanoids, steroids, and amino acid derivatives (amines, peptides, and proteins).Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiencyCorriedale: Corriedale sheep are a dual purpose breed, meaning they are used both in the production of wool and meat. The Corriedale is the oldest of all the crossbred breeds, a Merino-Lincoln cross developed almost simultaneously in Australia and New ZealandStock Types, The Land, North Richmond, c.Bile duct hamartoma: 250px|thumb|right|[[Micrograph of a bile duct hamartoma. Trichrome stain.Kallmann syndromeTalnetantCongenital estrogen deficiency: Congenital estrogen deficiency is a genetic condition by which the body is unable to produce or use estrogens.Temporal analysis of products: Temporal Analysis of Products (TAP), (TAP-2), (TAP-3) is an experimental technique for studyingCervical cap: The cervical cap is a form of barrier contraception. A cervical cap fits over the cervix and blocks sperm from entering the uterus through the external orifice of the uterus, called the os.Prolactin cellSertoli cell nodule: A Sertoli cell nodule, also Pick's adenoma, testicular tubular adenoma and tubular adenoma of the testis, is a benign proliferation of Sertoli cells that arises in association with cryptorchidism (undescended testis). They are not composed of a clonal cell population, i.Alpha amylase inhibitor: In molecular biology, alpha-amylase inhibitor is a protein family which inhibits mammalian alpha-amylases specifically, by forming a tight stoichiometric 1:1 complex with alpha-amylase. This family of inhibitors has no action on plant and microbial alpha amylases.
(1/1150) Prolactin receptor expression in the developing human prostate and in hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions.
In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to localize and compare the expression of the long form of the human prolactin receptor in fetal, prepubertal, and adult prostate. Results were then compared with hyperplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic lesions. Both receptor message and protein were predominately localized in epithelial cells of the fetal, neonatal, prepubertal, and normal adult prostate. In hyperplastic lesions the expression of the receptor was unchanged with respect to normal epithelial cells. Irrespective of grade, markedly enhanced expression of the receptor was evident in dysplastic lesions. In lower Gleason grade carcinomas the intensity of receptor signal at the message and protein levels approximated that found in normal prostatic epithelium. However, in foci within higher grade cancers, receptor expression appeared diminished. Results from our study suggest that prolactin action plays a role in the development and maintenance of the human prostate and may also participate in early neoplastic transformation of the gland. Diminution of receptor expression in high grade neoplasms could reflect the emergence of a population of cells that are no longer responsive to the peptide hormone. (+info)
(2/1150) Microalbuminuria prevalence varies with age, sex, and puberty in children with type 1 diabetes followed from diagnosis in a longitudinal study. Oxford Regional Prospective Study Group.
OBJECTIVE: The predictive value of microalbuminuria (MA) in children with type 1 diabetes has not been defined. We describe the natural history of MA in a large cohort of children recruited at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Between 1985 and 1996, 514 children (279 male) who developed type 1 diabetes before the age of 16 years (91% of those eligible from a region where ascertainment of new cases is 95%) were recruited for a longitudinal study with central annual assessment of HbAlc and albumin excretion (three urine samples). Dropout rates have been < 1% per year, and 287 children have been followed for > 4.5 years. RESULTS: MA (defined as albumin-to-creatinine ratio > or = 3.5 and > or = 4.0 mg/mmol in boys and girls, respectively) developed in 63 (12.8%) and was persistent in 22 (4.8%) of the subjects. The cumulative probability (based on the Kaplan-Meier method) for developing MA was 40% after 11 years. HbAlc was worse in those who developed MA than in others (mean difference +/- SEM: 1.1% +/- 0.2, P < 0.001). In subjects who had been 5-11 years of age when their diabetes was diagnosed, the appearance of MA was delayed until puberty, whereas of those whose age was < 5 years at diagnosis of diabetes, 5 of 11 (45%) developed MA before puberty. The adjusted proportional probability (Cox model) of MA was greater for female subjects (200%), after pubertal onset (310%), and with greater HbAlc (36% increase for every 1% increase in HbAlc). Despite earlier differences based on age at diagnosis of diabetes (< 5, 5-11, and > 11 years), the overall cumulative risks in these groups were similar (38 vs. 29 vs. 39%, respectively) after 10 years' duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Prepubertal duration of diabetes and prepubertal hyperglycemia contribute to the risk of postpubertal MA. The differences in rates of development of MA relating to HbAlc, sex, and age at diagnosis relative to puberty may have long-term consequences for the risk of subsequent nephropathy and for cardiovascular risk. (+info)
(3/1150) Pelvic ultrasonography in Turner syndrome: standards for uterine and ovarian volume.
The purpose of this study was to investigate uterine and ovarian size according to age and pubertal stage in patients with Turner syndrome. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the uterus and the ovaries was performed in 93 patients with Turner syndrome, aged 12 days to 17.85 years. The data were compared with those of 190 healthy controls. One or both ovaries were detected in 41 of 93 patients (44%). Within the prepubertal group, mean uterine volume and mean ovarian volume of the patients with Turner syndrome were significantly (P<0.001) lower than those of controls (0.5+/-0.2 ml versus 1.0+/-0.3 ml; 0.3+/-0.3 ml versus 0.6+/-0.4 ml, respectively). In prepubertal girls, no significant relationship was found between age and uterine size or ovarian size. Both uterine volume and ovarian volume of 19 women with spontaneous puberty increased during breast development, although mean uterine volume and mean ovarian volume were significantly (P<0.01) lower than those of pubertal control patients. (+info)
(4/1150) Randomised controlled trial of recombinant human growth hormone in prepubertal and pubertal renal transplant recipients. British Association for Pediatric Nephrology.
AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy (height velocity (HV), change in height standard deviation score (delta HSDS)), and safety (glomerular filtration rate (GFR), incidence of rejection, and calcium and glucose metabolism) of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment after renal transplantation. DESIGN: A two year randomised controlled trial. SUBJECTS: Fifteen prepubertal and seven pubertal children: mean (SD) age, 13.0 (2.6) and 15.2 (2.4) years, respectively; mean (SD) GFR, 51 (30) and 48 (17) ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. Six prepubertal and three pubertal children were controls during the first year; all received rhGH in the second year. RESULTS: In the first year, mean (SE) HV and delta HSDS in the prepubertal treated group increased compared with controls: 8.1 (0.9) v 3.7 (0.6) cm/year and 0.6 (0.1) v -0.3 (0.2), respectively. In the pubertal treated group, mean (SE) HV and delta HSDS were also greater: 10.1 (0.6) v 3.9 (1.3) cm/year and 0.6 (0.1) v -0.1 (0.2), respectively. Comparing all treated and control children, there was no significant change in GFR: treated group, mean (SE) 9.9 (5.4) ml/min/1.73 m2 v control group, -1.6 (7.6) ml/min/1.73 m2. There were also no differences in the incidence of rejection in the first year: eight episodes in 13 patients v five episodes in nine patients, respectively. Phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), and fasting insulin concentrations rose during the first year of treatment, but not thereafter. In the second year of treatment, HV remained above baseline. CONCLUSION: Treatment with rhGH improves growth in prepubertal and pubertal children with renal transplants, with no significant change in GFR or the incidence of rejection. Phosphate, ALP, PTH, and insulin increased during the first year of treatment. (+info)
(5/1150) Serum galactosyl hydroxylysine as a biochemical marker of bone resorption.
BACKGROUND: Serum-based biochemical markers of bone resorption may provide better clinical information than urinary markers because direct comparison with serum markers of bone formation is possible and because the within-subject variability of serum markers may be lower. We describe a method for the measurement of free beta-1-galactosyl-O-hydroxylysine (Gal-Hyl) in serum. METHODS: The assay used preliminary ultrafiltration of serum, dansylation, and separation by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Healthy subjects were recruited from population-based studies of bone turnover. RESULTS: The within-run (n = 15) and between-run (n = 15) CVs were 7% and 14%, respectively, at a mean value of 48 nmol/L. In women and pubertal girls, serum free Gal-Hyl correlated with urine free Gal-Hyl (r = 0.84; P <0.001). Serum Gal-Hyl was higher during puberty and increased after menopause. The fractional renal clearance of free Gal-Hyl relative to that of creatinine was 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.98). Serum free Gal-Hyl decreased by 36% (SE = 4%) in 14 patients with mild Paget disease treated with an oral bisphosphonate, and this decrease was significantly (P <0. 001) greater than that seen for either serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (9%; SE = 4%) or serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (19%; SE = 8%). CONCLUSION: Serum free Gal-Hyl may be useful as a serum marker of bone resorption. (+info)
(6/1150) Whole-body protein turnover and resting energy expenditure in obese, prepubertal children.
BACKGROUND: Obesity is becoming more frequent in children; understanding the extent to which this condition affects not only carbohydrate and lipid metabolism but also protein metabolism is of paramount importance. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the kinetics of protein metabolism in obese, prepubertal children in the static phase of obesity. DESIGN: In this cross-sectional study, 9 obese children (x +/- SE: 44+/-4 kg, 30.9+/-1.5% body fat) were compared with 8 lean (28+/-2 kg ,16.8+/-1.2% body fat), age-matched (8.5+/-0.2 y) control children. Whole-body nitrogen flux, protein synthesis, and protein breakdown were calculated postprandially over 9 h from 15N abundance in urinary ammonia by using a single oral dose of [15N]glycine; resting energy expenditure (REE) was assessed by indirect calorimetry (canopy) and body composition by multiple skinfold-thickness measurements. RESULTS: Absolute rates of protein synthesis and breakdown were significantly greater in obese children than in control children (x +/- SE: 208+/-24 compared with 137+/-14 g/d, P < 0.05, and 149+/-20 compared with 89+/-13 g/d, P < 0.05, respectively). When these variables were adjusted for fat-free mass by analysis of covariance, however, the differences between groups disappeared. There was a significant relation between protein synthesis and fat-free mass (r = 0.83, P < 0.001) as well as between protein synthesis and REE (r = 0.79, P < 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity in prepubertal children is associated with an absolute increase in whole-body protein turnover that is consistent with an absolute increase in fat-free mass, both of which contribute to explaining the greater absolute REE in obese children than in control children. (+info)
(7/1150) Plasma homocysteine concentration in a Belgian school-age population.
BACKGROUND: Total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults. Data for children and adolescents are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to provide a reference range for tHcy and to explore the relation between tHcy and nutritional indexes in a Belgian pediatric population. DESIGN: tHcy, folate, and vitamin B-12 were measured in 647 healthy children (353 girls and 294 boys) aged 5-19 y. RESULTS: The tHcy distribution was, as in adults, skewed to the right [geometric mean (-1 SD, +1 SD): 7.41 micromol/L (5.51, 9.96)]. Concentrations were lowest in younger children and increased with age. After the tHcy distribution was examined according to age, 3 age ranges were distinguished: 5-9 y [6.21 micromol/L (5.14, 7.50)], 10-14 y [7.09 micromol/L (5.69, 8.84)], and 15-19 y [8.84 micromol/L (6.36, 12.29)]. We observed no significant differences in tHcy values between girls and boys in children aged < 15 y; in postpubertal children, however, concentrations were higher in boys than in girls. In the 3 age groups, folate was inversely correlated with tHcy; the negative relation between tHcy and vitamin B-12 was less strong. Familial cardiovascular disease was more frequent in children who had hyperhomocysteinemia. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that in children, as in adults, genetic, nutritional, and endocrine factors are determinants of the metabolism of homocysteine. The significance of tHcy values in childhood and young adulthood in terms of predicting cardiovascular risk in adulthood should be investigated. (+info)
(8/1150) Effect of low-dose testosterone treatment on craniofacial growth in boys with delayed puberty.
Craniofacial growth was investigated in boys treated with low-dose testosterone for delayed puberty (> 14 years old; testicular volume < 4 ml; n = 7) and compared with controls (12-14 years; n = 37). Cephalometric radiographs, statural height and pubertal stage were recorded at the start of the study and after 1 year. Craniofacial growth was assessed by nine linear measurements. At the beginning of the study, statural height, mandibular ramus length, upper anterior face height, and total cranial base length were significantly shorter in the delayed puberty boys than in the controls. After 1 year, the growth rate of the statural height, total mandibular length, ramus length, and upper and total anterior face height was significantly higher in the treated boys than in the untreated height-matched controls (n = 7). The craniofacial measurements were similar in the treated boys as compared with the controls. These results show that statural height and craniofacial dimensions are low in boys with delayed puberty. Low doses of testosterone accelerate statural and craniofacial growth, particularly in the delayed components, thus leading towards a normalization of facial dimensions. (+info)