Psychodidae: Small, hairy, moth-like flies which are of considerable public health importance as vectors of certain pathogenic organisms. Important disease-related genera are PHLEBOTOMUS, Lutzomyia, and Sergentomyia.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Phlebotomus: A genus of PSYCHODIDAE which functions as the vector of a number of pathogenic organisms, including LEISHMANIA DONOVANI; LEISHMANIA TROPICA; Bartonella bacilliformis, and the Pappataci fever virus (SANDFLY FEVER NAPLES VIRUS).BrazilLeishmaniasis: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous: An endemic disease that is characterized by the development of single or multiple localized lesions on exposed areas of skin that typically ulcerate. The disease has been divided into Old and New World forms. Old World leishmaniasis is separated into three distinct types according to epidemiology and clinical manifestations and is caused by species of the L. tropica and L. aethiopica complexes as well as by species of the L. major genus. New World leishmaniasis, also called American leishmaniasis, occurs in South and Central America and is caused by species of the L. mexicana or L. braziliensis complexes.Amber: A yellowish fossil resin, the gum of several species of coniferous trees, found in the alluvial deposits of northeastern Germany. It is used in molecular biology in the analysis of organic matter fossilized in amber.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.VenezuelaLeishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Leishmania braziliensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals. It causes cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS) depending on the subspecies of this organism. The sandfly, Lutzomyia, is the vector. The Leishmania braziliensis complex includes the subspecies braziliensis and peruviana. Uta, a form of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, is caused by the subspecies peruviana.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Sesquiterpenes, Germacrane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized to one 10-carbon ring.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.ColombiaTagetes: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of marigold is also used for CALENDULA.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Dominican Republic: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.PanamaSex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Leishmania guyanensis: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania viannia that infects man and animals and causes mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS). Transmission is by Lutzomyia sandflies.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.ArgentinaEndemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Adolfo Lutz: Adolfo Lutz (6 October 1855 – 18 December 1940) was a Brazilian physician, father of tropical medicine and medical zoology in Brazil, and a pioneer epidemiologist and researcher in infectious diseases.Nemapogon granella: The European Grain Worm or European Grain Moth (Nemapogon granella) is a species of tineoid moth. It belongs to the fungus moth family (Tineidae), and therein to the subfamily Nemapogoninae.University of CampinasCutaneous leishmaniasisKimberliteThreshold host density: Threshold host density (NT), in the context of wildlife disease ecology, refers to the concentration of a population of a particular organism as it relates to disease. Specifically, the threshold host density (NT) of a species refers to the minimum concentration of individuals necessary to sustain a given disease within a population.Bungonia Caves: Bungonia Caves is the name given to a series of caves near the city of Goulburn, New South Wales Australia.Illegal drug trade in Venezuela: Illegal drug trade in Venezuela refers to the practice of illegal drug trade in Venezuela. Historically Venezuela has been a path to the United States for illegal drugs originating in Colombia, through Central America and Mexico and Caribbean countries such as Haiti, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico.Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (also known as "Post-kala-azar dermatosis") is a cutaneous condition that is characterized by a macular, depigmented eruption found mainly on the face, arms, and upper part of the trunk. It occurs years(in the Indian variation)or a few months(in the African strain) after the successful treatment of visceral leishmaniasisLeishmania braziliensis: Leishmania brasiliensis is a Leishmania species.Four Seasons Baltimore and Residences: Four Seasons Hotel Baltimore is currently a 22 story highrise hotel complex building which opened on November 14, 2011. The building's construction began back in 2007 and went through several changes.Leishmania aethiopica: Leishmania aethiopica is a Leishmania species.Cultural entomologyCostunolide synthase: Costunolide synthase () is an enzyme with system name germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate,NADPH:oxygen oxidoreductase (6alpha-hydroxylating). This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reactionTPCN2: Two pore segment channel 2 (TPC2) is a human protein encoded by the TPCN2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TPCN2 gene. TPC2 is an ion channel, however, in contrast to other calcium and sodium channels which have four homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments (S1 to S6), TPCN1 only contains two domain (each containing segments S1 to S6).El Queremal, Valle del CaucaTarchonanthus camphoratus: Tarchonanthus camphoratus (known as camphor bush for its scent, or leleshwa in Kenya), is a shrub or small tree, widespread in Africa south of the Sahel.ArambiletPeat swamp forest: Peat swamp forests are tropical moist forests where waterlogged soil prevents dead leaves and wood from fully decomposing. Over time, this creates a thick layer of acidic peat.Roberto Arias: Roberto Emilio Arias (1918 – 1989), known as "Tito", was a Panamanian international lawyer, diplomat and journalist who was the husband of Dame Margot Fonteyn. Arias was from a prominent Panamanian political family, whose members had reached the Presidency four times; amongst them, his own father, Harmodio Arias.Nannostomus anduzei: Nannostomus anduzei (common name: Anduzi's pencilfish) is a freshwater species of fish belonging to the genus Nannostomus in the Lebiasinidae family of characins. It is native to Venezuela and northern Brazil, particularly the upper Orinoco and Rio Ererê, a tributary of the Rio Negro.Leishmania infantum: Leishmania infantum is the causative agent of infantile visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region of the Old World and in Latin America, where it has been called Leishmania chagasi. It is also an unusual cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is normally caused by specific lineages (or zymodemes).Ditch: A ditch is a small to moderate depression created to channel water. A ditch can be used for drainage, to drain water from low-lying areas, alongside roadways or fields, or to channel water from a more distant source for plant irrigation.Marcos Paz, Buenos AiresTheodor Bilharz Research Institute: The Theodor Bilharz Research Institute is located in Giza, Egypt.Matrix population models: Population models are used in population ecology to model the dynamics of wildlife or human populations. Matrix population models are a specific type of population model that uses matrix algebra.Spatial ecology: Spatial ecology is a specialization in ecology and geography that is concerned with the identification of spatial patterns and their relationships to ecological phenomena. Ecological events can be explained through the detection of patterns at a given spatial scale: local, regional, or global.Ecosystem
(1/559) Phlebotomine sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) seasonal distribution and infection rates in a defined focus of Leishmania tropica.
A two-year study was conducted of phlebotomine sand fly fauna in a defined focus of Leishmania tropica. A total of 17,947 sand flies representing 10 species were collected from the location. Phlebotomus guggisbergi, a vector of L. tropica in Kenya, was the most prevalent species through the entire period, representing about 80% of the total catch. There was marked seasonal fluctuation in the populations of the three most common species, with highest population levels reached in December and lowest levels reached in July and August. Leishmania-like infections were encountered in 489 P. guggisbergi. No flagellate infections were observed in any other species of sand fly. Although infected P. guggisbergi were collected during each month of the year, the percent parous infected flies was highest (27.5%) during the November through January time period. These data show that the greatest risk of transmission to humans at this focus occurs during December, when the vector is prevalent and infections are common. (+info)
(2/559) Breeding structure of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) in Brazil.
Eleven populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva), the sand fly vector of Leishmania chagasi, from different areas of Brazil were analyzed for genetic variation at 16 enzyme loci. In this region, the prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by L. chagasi is spotty and reproductive isolation among populations of Lu. longipalpis has been reported. It is thought that morphologically similar cryptic species with varying vectorial capacity may be responsible for the discontinuous distribution of VL. The aim was to study the genetic structure of populations within this region and to identify demes that may represent sibling species. Genotypic frequencies within populations were in close compliance to Hardy-Weinberg expectations, suggesting there are no sympatric species among these 11 populations. Levels of genetic distance between pairs of populations were very low (< 0.03), consistent with local populations within a single sand fly species. When genotypic frequency data for all populations were pooled, 9 of the 13 polymorphic loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, indicating some degree of genetic substructuring. Estimates of effective migration rates (N(e)m) among all populations were low, 2.73, suggesting that gene flow is restricted among populations, which is probably the reason for the observed genetic substructuring. (+info)
(3/559) Density of sand flies (Diptera: psychodidae) in domestic and wild animal shelters in an area of visceral Leishmaniasis in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.
The objective of the present study was to determine the association of sand flies with the presence of domestic and wild animals in the peridomiciliary area. The sand flies were collected using direct aspiration and CDC light traps placed in animal shelters. The results suggest that different sand flies species have different behavioral characteristics in an apparent preference for animal baits and that Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lu. evandroi were the most eclectic species regarding their biotope choice. Lu. longipalpis showed a distinct preference for horses and Lu. evandroi for armadillos. (+info)
(4/559) Contribution to the sand fly fauna (Diptera: Phlebotominae) of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Leishmania (Viannia) infections.
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. As reports of nearby hospitals suggest, the Parque Estadual do Turvo seems to serve as a source for the disease. During three months from November 1996 to February 1997 we collected, in this park, 2,228 sandflies (10 Lutzomyia species and 2 6species). We applied the polymerase chain reaction to 920 females which belong to the following species: Lutzomyia migonei, Lu. pessoai, Lu. fischeri, Lu. misionensis, Lu. lanei, Lu. neivai, Lu. shannoni, and Lu. monticola, in an attempt to verify natural infection by Leishmania (Viannia), the causative agent of ACL. Le. (Viannia) infections were demonstrated by DNA amplification from two Lu. pessoai and one Lu. misionensis female. Lu. pessoai have been found with leptomonas in the gut believed to be Le. (V.) braziliensis in other endemic areas of northeastern and southeastern Brazil. However, Lu. misionensis has never been found carrying a natural infection of Le. (Viannia). (+info)
(5/559) Lutzomyia derelicta (Diptera: Psychodidae) a singular new phlebotomine sand fly from an Inselberg in Northeastern Amazonia.
Lutzomyia derelicta n. sp. is described from specimens collected in an isolated xeric habitat in the rainforest in the north of the State of Para, Brazil. The new species lacks the posterior bulge in the dorsal wall of the cibarium characteristic of the New World genus Lutzomyia, and the armature of the male genitalia is of the pattern found elsewhere only in the Old World species of Sergentomyia. L. derelicta is phenetically intermediate between the known species of Lutzomyia and Sergentomyia, and cannot readily be placed in any existing subgenus or species group of either genus. (+info)
(6/559) Influence of altitude, latitude and season of collection (Bergmann's rule) on the dimensions of Lutzomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae).
The influence of altitude and latitude on some structure sizes of Lutzomyia intermedia was noted; several structures of insects collected in higher localities were greater, according to Bergmann's rule. This influence was more remarkable in two localities of the State of Espirito Santo, probably due to greater differences in altitude. Comparing insects from different latitudes, more differences were noted in comparisons of insects from low altitude localities than in those of material from higher altitudes. The small number of differences between insects collected in July and in December does not indicate a defined influence of season and temperature on the size of adults. The possible epidemiological implications of these variations are discussed. (+info)
(7/559) Widespread atypical cutaneous Leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (L.) Chagasi in Nicaragua.
Leishmania chagasi, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Americas, has recently been associated with atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in Central America; however, little comprehensive information about this disease is available. Clinical, epidemiologic, and parasitologic characteristics of 252 ACL cases and 44 VL cases in Nicaragua were analyzed. Visceral leishmaniasis is primarily associated with malnourished children less than five years of age, whereas ACL is found predominantly in children greater than five years of age and young adults. Genetically similar parasites are associated with both disease manifestations. The sand fly Lutzomyia evansi, in addition to Lu. longipalpis, may be involved in transmission of L. chagasi to humans. Our results indicate that ACL is more prevalent than previously thought, affecting up to 10% of a local population. The fact that the same parasite appears to cause both ACL and the potentially fatal visceral disease suggests that the host immune response is critical in determining the outcome of L. chagasi infection. The public health implications of the wide-spread presence of L. chagasi are discussed. (+info)
(8/559) Is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? A critical review of the current evidence.
Originally associated with forested areas, the transmission cycle of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) has now adapted to the domestic environment in at least 9 Latin American countries. Several studies have suggested that the domestic dog (Canis familiaris), which is already incriminated as the primary reservoir host of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL), may have a reservoir role in the domestic transmission of human ACL caused by Leishmania braziliensis, L. panamensis, and L. peruviana. This article reviews more than 90 studies reporting ACL infections in dogs, and concludes that as yet there is only circumstantial evidence to support that claim. Almost no data are available on the infectiousness of dogs to sandfly vectors of ACL, and there are few indications that either dog ownership or dog abundance are risk factors for ACL. Nevertheless, it has been proposed that incidence of ACL in humans could be reduced by targeting infected dogs. While this control strategy has been used for many decades against ZVL in Latin America, Europe, and Asia, there is little evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness either in theory or in practice. Particular concerns over the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tools, low compliance rates among dog owners, and cost-effectiveness are likely to apply equally to ACL control. (+info)
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